10th Foot

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Origin and History

The regiment was created on June 20 1685 by John Granville, Earl of Bath and raised in Derbyshire and Nottinghamshire and assembled at Derby. It incorporated a company of “Guards and garrisons” stationed in Plymouth. The regiment initially consisted of 11 companies of 100 privates each. It was one of the nine new regiments of foot, raised to meet the Monmouth rebellion. Until 1751, it would be known by the names of its successive colonels.

After the suppression of Monmouth rebellion, the regiment was reduced to 10 companies of 50 privates each. In August 1685, the regiment marched from Derby to Hounslow, and encamped upon the heath, where it was reviewed by the King, and afterwards marched to Plymouth, to relieve the Queen Dowager's Foot. In March 1686, the regiment left Plymouth and occupied quarters at Guildford and Godalming. On May 24, it pitched its tents on Hounslow Heath, where a numerous body of troops was assembled for exercise and review. At this camp the regiment had an independent company of grenadiers attached to it, and after the reviews it marched into garrison at Portsmouth. In April 1687, the regiment left Portsmouth for Winchester and Taunton. In June, it once more participated in the training camp on Hounslow Heath. In August, it marched into quarters in London. It was finally placed in garrison at Plymouth.

In 1688, the Earl of Bath, proprietor of the regiment, was one of the noblemen who communicated privately with the Prince of Orange, looking for aid to oppose the arbitrary proceedings of the King. In November, when the Prince of Orange arrived with a Dutch armament, the regiment was in garrison at the Citadel of Plymouth. The town proper was garrisoned by the Earl of Huntingdon's Foot. The Earl of Bath was in the interest of the Prince of Orange while the Earl of Huntingdon had remained faithful to King James. Furthermore, superior officers of these two regiments were of divided allegiances. Eventually, the Earl of Bath, being the senior officer and governor of the fortress, ordered the Earl of Huntingdon along with four officers of his regiment to be arrested. The Earl of Bath then declared for the Prince of Orange and induced the two regiments to engage in the same interest. On December 8, the King deprived the Earl of Bath of his commissions and appointed Lieutenant-Colonel Sir Charles Carney as colonel of the regiment. However, when King James realized that he could not rely on his army, he fled to France. On December 31, the Prince of Orange restored the Earl of Bath to the colonelcy.

In 1689, the regiment was entrusted with the charge of the citadel of Plymouth and was not employed in the field in 1689 and 1690. However, six of its companies were detached to the islands of Jersey and Guernsey.

In 1691, the regiment was finally involved in the Nine Years' War (1688–97) raging on the continent. It embarked from Jersey, Guernsey, and Plymouth under the command of Lieutenant-Colonel Sir Beville Granville, nephew of the Earl of Bath, sailed to Ostend, and landing at that port marched up the country, and joined the army commanded by King William III at the camp near Anderlecht. It was formed in brigade with the Royal Fusiliers, the Robert Hodges' Foot (16th) and Fitzpatrick's Foot (afterwards disbanded), under Brigadier-General Churchill. In May 1692, the regiment quitted its cantonments and took the field. On 3 August, it took part in the Battle of Steenkerque. Towards the end of August, it was detached from the main army, and having joined a number of troops which had arrived from England under Lieutenant-General the Duke of Leinster, they were employed in seizing and fortifying the towns of Furnes and Dixmude. In mid-October, the regiment marched to Damme, a little strong town, situated between Bruges and Sluys, where it passed the winter. In 1693, it was part of the troops under King William III encamped near Louvain. On July 1, the regiment was detached from the main army, with other forces under the Duke of Württemberg, to attack the French fortified lines between the rivers Scheldt and Lys. After a march of eight days, the troops arrived in front of the lines near Otignies. On the following day, the regiment took part in the attack against the lines which were carried with little loss. In October, it marched into winter-quarters at Bruges. On October 29, the Earl of Bath was succeeded in the colonelcy by his nephew, Lieutenant-Colonel Sir Beville Granville. In May 1694, the regiment left Bruges and encamped near Ghent. During this campaign, it served in Brigadier-General Stewart's Brigade, in the division commanded by Major-General Sir Henry Bellasis. At the end of the year, it proceeded into quarters at Malines. Early in the spring of 1695, 500 men of the regiment were withdrawn from Malines to take part in the attack against the works between the Lys and the Scheldt but the enterprise was cancelled and the entire regiment encamped at Marykirk. The regiment was subsequently detached to Dixmude, in West Flanders and encamped before the Kenoque, a fortress at the junction of the Loo and Dixmude canals, where the French had a garrison. On June 9, the grenadiers of the regiment were engaged in driving the French from the entrenchments and houses near the Loo canal. A redoubt was afterwards taken, and a lodgement effected on the works at the bridge; in which service the regiment had several men killed and wounded. The regiment then joined the force, under the Prince de Vaudémont, covering the Siege of Namur. When Maréchal Villeroy advanced, with a force of very superior numbers, to attack the covering army, the Prince de Vaudémont retreated to Ghent, and during this retrograde movement, the commanding officer of the regiment, Lieutenant-Colonel Sydney Godolphin, a sergeant and 12 men, resting at a house on the road too long, were made prisoners. The regiment was subsequently employed in several movements to protect the maritime and other towns of Flanders, and to cover the army carrying on the siege of Namur. In August it was encamped between Genappe and Waterloo, and after the surrender of the Castle of Namur, it marched into quarters in the villages between Nieuport and Ostend. In the spring of 1696, the regiment was recalled to England which was threatened by a civil war and by a French invasion. In March, it embarked at Ostend and arrived at Gravesend. In the meantime, the conspirators had been discovered and the French navy blockaded in its ports. The regiment occupied quarters a short period in London, and afterwards marched into extensive cantonments in the counties of Suffolk and Essex. In May 1697, the regiment was ordered to re-embark for the Netherlands. In July, it joined the Allied army at the camp in front of Bruxelles. A few weeks afterwards, the Treaty of Ryswick gave peace to Europe. During the winter, the regiment returned to England. In December, it landed at Gravesend and Tilbury, and marched into quarters in Essex.

In July 1698, the regiment embarked at Highlake for Ireland where it was stationed until 1700.

During the War of the Spanish Succession, the regiment served under the command of Marlborough and took part in most battles and sieges where the British Army was involved: the Siege of Liege (1702); the Battle of Schellenberg (July 2 1704); the Battle of Blenheim (August 13 1704); the Battle of Ramillies (May 23 1706); the Battle of Oudenarde (July 11 1708); the siege of Lille (1708); the Battle of Malplaquet (September 11 1709); the sieges of Douai, Aire and Saint-Venant (1710); and the siege of Bouchain (1711).

In April 1714, the regiment was in garrison at the strong maritime town of Nieuport.

In mid-August 1715, the regiment returned to England.

In 1715, the regiment returned to England.

In 1730, the regiment was sent to Gibraltar to assume garrison duty. It stayed there till 1749.

In 1749, the regiment was transferred to Ireland.

On July 1 1751, when a Royal warrant reorganised the British infantry, the regiment was designated as the "10th Regiment of Foot".

During the Seven Years' War, the regiment was under the command of:

  • since August 10 1749 till January 14 1763: Lieutenant-general Edward Pole

Service during the War

Throughout the Seven Years' War, the regiment was stationed in Ireland and did not take part in any campaign. As of May 30 1759, it counted 1 battalion for a total of 700 men.

In February 1760, the regiment was sent towards Carrickfergus to repel the French raid on the Irish Coasts. However, Thurot had re-embarked his troops before the regiment could reach the place.

Uniform

Privates

Uniform in 1756 (regimental lace not illustrated - Source: Richard Couture from a template by Frédéric Aubert
Uniform Details
Headgear
Musketeer black tricorne laced white with a black cockade (left side)
Grenadier British mitre with: a bright yellow front edged white embroidered with white scroll work and with a white King's cipher surmounted by a crown (gold with crimson cushions, white pearls and ermine headband); a small red front flap edged white with the white horse of Hanover surmounted by the white motto "Nec aspera terrent" and with a dark green bottom strip with 3 yellow stripes; red back; a bright yellow headband edged white probably wearing the number 10 in the middle part behind; a bright yellow within white pompom
Neck-stock white
Coat brick red lined bright yellow and laced white (white braid bordered on one side with a red stripe and decorated with two blue zigzags)
Collar none
Shoulder Straps red fastened with a white button (left shoulder)
Lapels bright yellow laced white (same lace as above) with 7 pewter buttons and 6 white buttonholes (same lace as above)
Pockets horizontal pockets with white laces (same lace as above), each with pewter buttons
Cuffs bright yellow (slashed in the British pattern) laced white (same lace as above) with 4 pewter buttons and 4 white buttonholes (same lace as above) on the sleeve above each cuff
Turnbacks bright yellow
Waistcoat brick red laced white (same lace as above)
Breeches brick red
Gaiters white with black buttons
brown, grey or black during campaigns (black after 1759)
Leather Equipment
Cross-belt white
Waist-belt white
Cartridge Box black
Bayonet Scabbard black
Scabbard black
Foot gear black shoes


Troopers were armed with with a "Brown Bess" muskets, a bayonet and a sword. They also carried a dark brown haversack with a metal canteen on the left hip.

Officers

Officers of the regiment wore the same uniforms as the private soldiers but with the following differences

  • silver gorget around the neck
  • an aiguilette on the right shoulder
  • silver lace instead of normal lace
  • a crimson sash

Officers wore the same headgear as the private soldiers under their command; however, officers of the grenadier company wore a more decorated mitre cap.

Officers generally carried a spontoon, however, in battle some carried muskets instead.

Musicians

According to the Royal Clothing Warrant of 1751:

The drummers of the regiment were clothed in bright yellow, lined, faced, and lapelled on the breast with red, and laced in such manner as the colonel shall think fit for distinction sake, the lace, however, was of the colours of that on the soldiers' coats.
The front or forepart of the drums were painted bright yellow, with the king's cypher and crown, and the number “X” under it. The rims were red.

Colours

According to the Royal Clothing Warrant of 1751:

King's Colour: Union with its centre decorated with a rose and thistle wreath surrounding the rank of the regiment "X" in gold Roman numerals.
Regimental Colour: bright yellow field with its centre decorated with a rose and thistle on the same stalk surrounding the rank of the regiment "X" in gold Roman numerals. The Union in the upper left corner.
King's Colour - Source: Richard Couture from a template by PMPdeL
Regimental Colour - Source: Richard Couture from a template by PMPdeL

References

This article incorporates texts of the following sources:

  • Cannon, Richard: Historical record of the Tenth, or The North Lincolnshire Regiment of Foot, London: Parker, Furnivall and Parker, 1847
  • Wikipedia 10th Foot

Other sources

Aylor, Ron: British Regimental Drums and Colours

Funcken, Liliane and Fred: Les uniformes de la guerre en dentelle

George II: The Royal Clothing Warrant, 1751

Lawson, Cecil C. P.: A History of the Uniforms of the British Army - from the Beginnings to 1760, vol. II, p. 90-103

Middleton, Alan: The Royal Lincolnshire Regiment (10th Foot) in Lincolnshire Life

Mills, T. F., Land Forces of Britain the Empire and Commonwealth (an excellent website which unfortunately does not seem to be online any more)

Schirmer, Friedrich: Die Heere der kriegführenden Staaten 1756 - 1763. Edited and published by KLIO-Landesgruppe Baden-Württemberg e.V., Magstadt, 1989