1756 - Prussian operations in Eastern Bohemia
The campaign lasted from August to October 1756
In the summer of 1756, when Frederick II of Prussia realised what a formidable coalition was taking shape against his kingdom, he decided to launch a "pre-emptive" invasion of Saxony. By a sudden raid into Saxony, he aimed to rapidly overwhelm the small Saxon Army and to seize the line of the Elbe, in order to use the stretch of the river from Magdeburg to the Bohemian border to ease the resupply of his army there. He then planned to advance into Bohemia. However, he had to take some precautions on the other potential theatres of operations.
Therefore, on June 19, Frederick organised his armed forces in three armies: the Army of the Mark, the Army of Silesia and the Army of Prussia. Granted leaves were cancelled; horses were bought from neighbouring countries; and artillery distributed among the various armies. Still the same day, the Austrian War Council sent instructions to the generals who would take command in Bohemia and Moravia.
On June 21, Frederick wrote to Field-Marshal Schwerin, instructing him to be in Potsdam by August 1.
On June 23, Frederick sent new instructions to Schwerin, asking him to be in Potsdam by July 10.
On July 4, the Prussian commanders of the fortresses of Cosel (present-day Kędzierzyn-Koźle) and Schweidnitz (present-day Swidnica) received instructions in case of an Austrian offensive in Silesia.
Description of Events
Prelude to the Campaign
On July 16, Frederick was informed that Vienna was assembling some 60,000 men in Bohemia and that a camp for 30,000 men was under construction near Königgrätz (present-day Hradec Králové). However, the Prussian representative in Vienna was not sure if the Austrians were taking these measures for their own defences now that they knew that the Prussians were establishing four camps in Silesia.
On July 28, several Prussian Garrison regiments received orders to prepare themselves to relieve regular field infantry regiments in the Silesian places they were currently garrisoning:
- Nr. VII von Lange sent 1 bn to Glogau (present-day Głogów) and 1 bn to Breslau (present-day Wrocław)
- Nr. VI von Lattorf sent 2 bns to Cosel and 1 bn to Brieg (present-day Brzeg) while 1 bn remained in Breslau
- Nr. X von Blanckensee 4 bns garrisoned Neisse (present-day Nysa)
- Nr. V von Mützschefahl 4 bns garrisoned Schweidnitz
- Nr. VIII von Nettelhorst 4 bns garrisoned Glatz (present-day Kłodzko)
On August 2, Schwerin was instructed to assemble all Silesian regiments.
On August 6, the Prussian regiments destined to the Army of Silesia were mobilized.
On August 12, the rest of the Silesian regiments were mobilized.
On August 15, Schwerin started his deployment. This initial deployment of the Prussian Army of Silesia gave the impression that it was forming a defensive cordon along the eastern Bohemian border.
On August 26, Frederick sent a letter to Schwerin informing him that the Austrian army encamped at Kolin would probably advance towards Jaromirz (present-day Jaromer), thus threatening Schwerin's troops posted near Frankenstein (present-day Ząbkowice Śląskie). Frederick also recommended him to assemble his army in the area of Neisse.
On August 28, before launching his invasion of Saxony, Frederick had conferred the chief command in Silesia to Field-Marshal Schwerin. Then early in the morning, Frederick set off from Potsdam towards Saxony. He expected a rapid victory over the Saxon Army which would allow him to redirect his march towards Silesia and then to launch an offensive into Bohemia.
By August 29, Schwerin's Army was deployed in two groups:
- Lieutenant-General de la Motte-Fouqué was in the area of Frankenstein with the regiments of Lower Silesia
- Lieutenant-General von Hautcharmoy was deployed between Neustadt/Silesia (present-day Prudnik) and Oberglogau (present-day Głogówek) with the regiments of Upper Silesia
In these positions, any one of these corps could react to a threat against Lower Silesia while the other would remain behind to cover Upper Silesia.
By the end of August, there were 4 Austrian bns, 4 grenadier coys, 2 cuirassier rgts, 2 dragoon rgts at Deutschbrod (present-day Havlíčkův Brod); 14 bns, 14 grenadier coys at Olschan (present-day Olšany) under FML Baron von Andlau; 6 bns, 6 grenadier coys at Brünn (present-day Brno) under FML Count Thürheim; and 3 cuirassier rgts and 1 dragoon rgt at Ungarisch-Hradisch (present-day Uherské Hradiště). Part of Baranyay Hussars and Festetics Hussars occupied advanced positions in front of Chrudim and Königgrätz to reconnoitre the frontier; while Simbschen Infantry and Morocz Hussars occupied outposts in Austria and Silesia. The third battalion of infantry regiments were sent to garrison various places: Erfurt (1 bn), Eger (2 bns), Prague (1 bn), Brünn (2 bns), and Olmütz (6 bns). Furthermore, Invalid battalions were stationed in Eger (2 bns) and Prague (1 bn).
On September 1, according to Frederick's instructions, Schwerin assembled the troops encamped at Frankenstein and Oberglogau and sent them off to take new positions to the south of Neisse.
On September 6 in Vienna, a conference resolved to transfer 2 infantry rgts, 4 cuirassier rgts and 2 hussar regts from Hungary to Bohemia; and 1 infantry rgt and 3 cavalry rgts from Transylvania to Hungary. It also decided to accelerate the preparation of Grenzer units. In Italy, the Austrian infantry rgts made ready to march by Innsbrück and then along the Inn and Danube. The Erzherzog Leopold Cuirassiers along with 2 grenadier coy of the Tyrol militia should also march towards Bohemia. A Jägerkorps was raised in Bohemia. Simbschen Battalion was augmented to a regiment. The garrison battalions stationed in Inner Austria were sent to the northern border. Finally, the Austrian rgts stationed in the Netherlands were ordered to mobilize and 3 free companies were created to serve as garrison.
On September 7, Piccolomini marched forward towards Königgrätz to cover Schwerin's Corps even though his army was not yet fully supplied in artillery pieces, muskets and ammunition. The same day, Fouqué's detachment arrived at Glumpenau (present-day Głębinów) and Hautcharmoy's at Oppersdorf (present-day Wierzbięcice). Schwerin was now convinced that war with Austria was unavoidable and that an attack into Moravia would be the best approach to cover Silesia and to facilitate Frederick's operations in Saxony and Bohemia.
Schwerin threatens Bohemia
|Order of Battle|
|Detailed order of battle of Schwerin's Army in September 1756
Detailed order of battle of Piccolomini's Corps at the beginning of September 1756
Schwerin, stationed in Silesia, was then at the head of 27,000 men (27 bns, 20 sqns of cuirassiers, 10 sqns of dragoons and 20 sqns of hussars). On the Austrian side, Piccolomini led a smaller army (some 18,000 foot and 5,000 horse) based between Prerau (present-day Přerov) and Olmütz (present-day Olomouc) in Moravia. Finally, Draskovic was at the head of the Reserve Corps (which included one battalion of each of the following regiments: Karlstädter-Lykaner Grenzer, Karlstädter-Oguliner Grenzer, Karlstädter-Ottochaner Grenzer, Karlstädter-Szluiner Grenzer, Banal-Grenzinfanterieregiment nr. 1 and Banal-Grenzinfanterieregiment nr. 2) in Bohemia.
On September 10, Schwerin learned that all Austrian forces stationed in Bohemia and Moravia would advance against Frederick. He changed his plan and decided to follow Piccolomini's Army and to invade Bohemia through the Glatz (present-day Kłodzko) Mountains to prevent the junction of Piccolomini's Army with Browne's. Schwerin also expected to live of the enemy territory. His plan received Frederick's approval who considered that he should direct his offensive more to the south in the direction of Hohenmaut (present-day Vysoké Mýto). However, it was too late to change Schwerin's plans. Indeed, his army had already left its camps and were advancing on Glatz.
On September 11, Frederick authorised Schwerin to proceed. On their way to Glatz, Fouqué's Corps always preceded Hautcharmoy's. The latter corps occupying the previous camp of the former at the end of each march.
On September 13, a detachment of light troops (one battalion of each of the following regiments: Slavonisch-Brooder, Slavonisch-Gradiskaner, Slavonisch-Peterwardeiner, Warasdiner-Creutzer and Warasdiner-Sankt Georger), led by General Beck, arrived in Leutomischl (present-day Litomyšl) to reinforce Piccolomini's Corps. Furthermore, Thürheim's detachment (6 bns, 6 grenadier coys) previously posted at Brünn arrived at Leutomischl, soon followed by the 3 cuirassier rgts and 1 dragoon rgt previously encamped at Ungarisch-Hradisch. Finally, Andlau's Corps (12 bns, 12 grenadier coys) arrived from Olschan. Andlau had left behind 1 bn of Haller Infantry and 1 bn of Sincère Infantry in the Fortress of Olmütz (present-day Olomouc) under the command of Major-General Baron von Sincere.
Piccolomini then sent Major-General Count von Porporati (Sachsen-Gotha Dragoons, Porporati Dragoons, Morocz Hussars, Simbschen Infantry (1 bn), Slavonisch-Brooder Grenzer (1 bn), Slavonisch-Gradiskaner Grenzer (1 bn) and Slavonisch-Peterwardeiner Grenzer (1 bn)) from Leutomischl to Hof (present-day Dvorce in Bruntal) to observe the movements of the Prussians in Upper Silesia. If he would encounter superior forces, Porporati was instructed to retire on Olmütz and, if necessary, to Brünn. With Piccolomini advancing towards Bohemia, FML Baron von Hindered received overall command in Moravia.
However, a Prussian flank attack forced Beck's reinforcements to retire towards the Eger.
|Order of Battle|
|Detailed order of battle of Schwerin's Army at Glatz on September 14 1756
Gradual concentration of Piccolomini's Corps at Königgrätz from September 15 to October 24 1756
On September 14, the two corps of Schwerin's Army made their junction to the west of Glatz. His army then amounted to 10 infantry rgts, 6 grenadier bns and 50 sqns. He then sent Grenadier Battalion Kreytzen to Cosel to reinforce the 2 bns of Garrison Regiment Nr. VI von Lattorf who were already garrisoning the place and to secure it against a potential attack of Hungarian troops. The same day, Piccolomini's infantry reached Hohenmaut. Piccolomini received intelligence that Schwerin had entered into Bohemia from Glatz.
In the night of September 14 to 15, Piccolomini marched to Königgrätz.
On September 15, Schwerin's Army rested in its camp near Glatz and prepared for its march into Bohemia. Provisions of bread for six days were distributed. Soldiers carried half of these provisions with them while horses had two days forage. Schwerin sent Major-General von Wartenberg forward to Wallisfurth (present-day Wolany near Szczytna) at the head of his Wartenberg Hussars to secure his next encampment. The same day, FML Baron Buccow, sent by Browne from Kolin, arrived in Königgrätz with Batthyányi Dragoons, Kolowrat-Krakowski Dragoons (both without their grenadier coy) and 2 sqns of Festetics Hussars to reinforce Piccolomini's Army.
On September 16 in the morning, the Wartenberg Hussars were reinforced at Wallisfurth by the Grenadier Battalion Manteuffel, the Grenadier Battalion Östenreich and 200 men from Stechow Dragoons and Blanckensee Dragoons. Schwerin's Main Army soon followed and encamped there. The same day, Marschall Infantry (with only 1 grenadier coy) arrived from Kolin in Königgrätz with 20 battalion guns and 4 howitzers. These pieces were the first that Piccolomini received. The Austrian camp near Königgrätz was located behind the Adler River (present-day Orlice): its left wing lay against the Elbe; its right wing extended up to Swinar (present-day Svinary) across a terrain of groves delimited with barriers. The town of Königgrätz lay in front of the left wing. Furthermore, entrenchments were gradually erected on the Kroatenberg, a hillock in front of Königgrätz. Two bridges across the Adler assured communications between Königgrätz and the Kroatenberg. Three other bridges were thrown on the Elbe.
On September 17, Wartenberg passed the Austrian border and made himself master of the town of Nachod, its Austrian garrison (Major-General Pálffy with some 55 invalids, 250 men of Festetics Hussars and 200 men from the Batthyányi Dragoons and Kolowrat-Krakowski Dragoons) retiring without opposing any resistance. Pálffy retired behind the Mettau (present-day Metuje River) where he was reinforced by the rest of the Batthyányi Dragoons and Kolowrat-Krakowski Dragoons along with Marschall Infantry. The same day, Schwerin's main body, after a difficult march on steep roads under heavy rain, reached Reinerz (present-day Duszniki-Zdrój).
On September 18, Schwerin decided to rest his army at Reinerz for a day. However, he himself marched up to Nachod at the head of some 3,000 men (Grenadier Battalion Burgsdorff and 5 bns composed of 150 men picked in each musketeer rgt) and 400 cuirassiers under Major-General von Tresckow to secure the defile in the neighbouring mountains.
On September 19, Schwerin's Army encamped near Sackisch (present-day Zakrze near Kudowa-Zdrój). The same day, Browne wrote to the emperor to let him know that he disagreed with the present deployment of Piccolomin's Corps, judging that it conceded to the Prussians the entire area between Gitschin (present-day Jičín) and Königgrätz and allowed them free communication with Lusatia. Browne considered the area between Jaromirz and Königgrätz, with the Elbe to its front, much more suitable for a camp.
On September 20, Schwerin's Army entered into Bohemia and reached the heights near Nahorzan (present-day Nahořany). Meanwhile, Wartenberg's and Tresckow's advanced parties marched from Nachod towards Slawetin (present-day Slavětín nad Metují). On their way, at Königslhota (present-day Králova Lhota u Českého Meziříčí), they bumped into Austrian patrols sent forward by Buccow who was posted at Plez (present-day Starý Ples) with his own corps. These patrols were driven back beyond Librzitz (present-day Librice). In this skirmish, the Prussians captured 3 men of Batthyányi Dragoons as well as 19 oxen. Buccow repassed the Elbe at Smirzitz (present-day Smiřice) with his corps, leaving a small force to occupy the town. By this date, Piccolomini's Army encamped at Königgrätz consisted of:
- 20 infantry bns
- 19 grenadier coys
- Warasdiner-Creutzer Grenzer (1 bn and 1 grenadier coy)
- Warasdiner-Sankt Georger Grenzer (1 bn and 1 grenadier coy)
- 18 cuirassier sqns
- 18 dragoon sqns
- 3 carabinier coys
- 1 horse grenadier coy
- 2 hussar sqns
- 54 battalion guns
- 16 field pieces
On September 21, Schwerin remained at Nahorzan to supply his army with new bread rations.
Early on September 22, Buccow sent Colonel Baron Luszinsky (150 men of Festetics Hussars and 400 men from the Batthyányi Dragoons and Kolowrat-Krakowski Dragoons) forward through the forest of Plez to observe the Prussian positions. At about the same time, Schwerin set off from his camp towards Aujest (present-day Újezd near Černilov), with Wartenberg Hussars, Wechmar Hussars and Tresckow's 400 cuirassiers acting as vanguard and advancing from Dolsko towards Jasena (present-day Jasenná). Some 200 Prussian hussars attacked Jasena from the west side. Austrian horse drove these hussars out of the town. However, they some came to contact with Wartenberg Hussars to their front and Wechmar Hussars overlapping their left flank. After some hand-to-hand fighting, the Austrian horse retired and most of them took refuge in Smirzitz which was occupied by Austrian infantry. However, other detachments were pursued through the forest and tried to ford the Elbe at Czernowitz (present-day Cernovice near Jaromer). In the engagement of Jasena, the Austrian lost 64 men of the Batthyányi Dragoons, 24 men of the Kolowrat-Krakowski Dragoons and 32 men of the Festetics Hussars and 2 officers, most of them wounded and taken prisoners; the Prussians lost 23 men dead and 40 wounded. When Prussian troops gradually arrived in front of Aujest, Buccow decided to abandon the town and to retire behind the Elbe, destroying his bridges after his passage. Buccow then retired towards Königgrätz. For his part Schwerin advanced his army in 4 columns towards the camp of Aujest. His right wing extended up to the Elbe while his left wing reached Aujest and Czernilow (present-day Černilov).
When Piccolomini was informed of the passage of the Elbe by Schwerin's Army, he reinforced his outposts on the Kroatenberg. Piccolomini had a magazine in Königgrätz but his main magazines and his field-hospital were in Pardubitz (present-day Pardubice) defended by only 160 infantrymen and 200 Grenzers. With Frederick's force immobilized by the small Saxon army (18,000 men) entrenched at Pirna, it was hazardous for Schwerin to advance too deep into Bohemia.
On September 25, Schwerin moved his bakery closer at Smirzitz.
On September 27, Browne sent another letter to the emperor, once more he emphasized his disagreement with Piccolomini's choice for his camp and blamed him for his immobility in front of Schwerin's smaller force which allowed the Prussians to operate freely in the district of Königgrätz.
By the end of September, Piccolomini had received additional reinforcements and was at the head of 25,000 men including 54 bns and 16 field pieces.
Piccolomini's operations in Bohemia
During Browne's advance and combat against Frederick's Army, Piccolomini remained idle at Königgrätz while Schwerin's column foraged and plundered in Bohemia.
On September 30, Piccolomini finally decided to detach Major-General Count von Trautmannsdorf (400 horse and 300 hussars) to Plotischt (present-day Plotiště nad Labem) on the right bank of the Elbe to prevent the Prussians from foraging in the area. The same day, Schwerin reorganised his camp, transferring the cavalry of his right wing to his left wing.
Near Hohenmaut (present-day Vysoké Mýto), Prussian hussars defeated 400 Austrian dragoons and captured many of them. Meanwhile, in Moravia, Porporati retired, leaving only Simbschen Infantry and Morocz Hussars at Troppau (present-day Opava) to observe the movements of the Prussians.
Schwerin detached two coys of the II./Sers Fusiliers to Neustadt/Bohemia (present-day Nové Město nad Metují) and occupied Jaromirz with a force of infantry and cavalry.
On October 7, Piccolomini sent Major-General Count Pálffy (1 bn of 1000 men of Slavonisch-Brooder Grenzer and 250 hussars) to the area between Nachod and Reinerz to intercept a Prussian supply convoy expected from Glatz.
On October 8, Piccolomini detached FML Count Spada (1 bn of 1,000 men of Warasdiner-Creutzer Grenzer and 1 bn of 1,000 of Warasdiner-Sankt Georger Grenzer and several hundreds horse) to Sadowa (present-day Sadová) on the right bank of the Elbe to put a stop to the depredations of the Prussians on the right bank of the Elbe.
In the night of October 8 to 9, Schwerin was informed of the advance of Pálffy's Corps. Schwerin immediately sent Major-General von Brandes at the head of V. "Standing" Grenadier Battalion (Rath) and VI. "Standing" Grenadier Battalion (Plötz), 400 men of Stechow Dragoons and 200 men of Wechmar Hussars towards Nachod to cover the incoming convoy. However, Pálffy arrived too late to accomplish his mission .
On October 10, Lieutenant-Colonel Werner at the head of 250 men of Wechmar Hussars was sent by Senftenberg (present-day Žamberk) towards Hohenmaut and Leutomischl in the rear of Piccolomini's camp at Königgrätz.
On October 12, after having successfully escorted the Prussian convoy up to the Mettau, Brandes marched to Giesshübel (present-day Olešnice v Orlických horách), hoping to intercept Pálffy's Corps. Brandes also detached 200 men of Wechmar Hussars towards Glatz to make sure that Pálffy had not advanced in this direction. In fact, the same day, Pálffy had returned to the Austrian camp at Königgrätz. Meanwhile, Werner with his detachment of Wechmar Hussars pillaged Hohenmaut. However in the afternoon, 1 bn of Haller Infantry, 1 bn of Sincère Infantry and the Infant von Portugal Cuirassiers, arriving from Moravia, reached Hohenmaut.
On October 13, Brandes returned to Aujest. The same day, Piccolomini sent Lieutenant-Colonel Gersdorf at the head of 100 Slavonier Grenz-Hussars and 200 men of Zweibrücken-Birkenfeld Dragoons to advance along the Adler (present-day Orlice River) to cut Werner's retreat.
In the night of October 14 to 15, a detachment of Wechmar Hussars (Lieutenant von Rosenkranz, Captain von Bieberstein and 55 troopers) was sent towards Reichenstein where a party of Austrian hussars had been reported.
On October 15 at 10h00 a.m., the detachment of Wechmar Hussars engaged the Austrian hussars near Weisswasser. The Austrians lost 12 men killed or wounded and 10 men captured.; the Prussians 2 men and 4 horses wounded. The same day, Schwerin began his retreat towards Silesia, sending Major-General von Wartenberg (1,000 foot, 400 cuirassiers, 200 dragoons, 500 hussars, 4 artillery pieces) back to Smirzitz.
In the night of October 15 to 16, after his raid on Hohenmaut, Werner had encamped in a wood near Reichenau (present-day Rychnov nad Kněžnou).
On October 16, Gersdorf intercepted Werner at Reichenau, killing 2 lieutenants and 50 men and taking 15 men prisoners. Werner himself escaped with difficulty. In this engagement, the Austrians lost 7 men wounded and 4 taken prisoners.
On Monday October 18, as instructed by Schwerin, the commander of Schweidnitz sent 400 musketeers to Frankenstein to put a stop to Austrian raids. The same day, Frederick met Schwerin at Lobositz (present-day Lovosice) for a conference. Schwerin's forces had lived on the Königgrätz Country throughout the season without any reaction from Piccolomini but Schwerin now planned to retire to Silesia to take his winter-quarters with his headquarters at Schweidnitz. The same day, Piccolomini learned from spies Schwerin's intent to retire to Silesia.
On October 20, Schwerin instructed his army to prepare to retire towards Silesia.
On October 21, Scherin's Army started its retreat. To cover his right flank, Schwerin destroyed the bridges on the Elbe and made the fords impassable. At 5:00 a.m., VI. "Standing" Grenadier Battalion (Plötz) marched to Neustadt/Bohemia to replace the two coys of the II./Sers Fusiliers stationed there who retired to Nachod. At 9:00 a.m., these two coys set off for Jaromirz. Piccolomini sent only light troops under Major-General Count Pálffy to follow them up.
Schwerin remained in his camp at Jaromirz till October 24. During this period, Piccolomini contented himself with sending reinforcements (1 bn of Warasdiner Grenzers without its grenadier coy) to Pálffy at Aujezd and remained idle in his camp. Similarly, Spada, who had taken position at Sadowa received a reinforcement of 2 bns of Slavonier Grenzers (without their grenadier coys) and 2 pieces. He then advanced along the Trotina towards Sendraschitz (present-day Sendražice).
On October 25, Schwerin set off from Jaromirz towards Glatz. His rearguard was soon harassed by Spada's Corps and forced to make front. Schwerin reinforced his rearguard with 4 bns, allowing it to resume its retreat. By 4:00 p.m., Schwerin's Army had reached its camp at Skalitz (present-day Česká Skalice). Meanwhile, Spada encamped some 800 m. from the Prussian camp.
On October 26 in the morning, Spada advanced on Skalitz. Schwerin came out of his camp with strong forces and advanced on Zajezd. A cannonade ensued where each corps suffered a few losses. During this engagement, Lieutenant-Colonel Giannini was taken prisoner. The same day, Pálffy's Corps made a junction with Spada's; and Piccolomini moved to a new camp near Swiet (present-day Světí), just 6 km north of Königgrätz.
On October 27, Piccolomini marched to Holohlau (present-day Holohlavy) while Schwerin remained at Skalitz, sending Major-General Brandes (2 grenadier bns, and 200 men of Wechmar Hussars) forward towards Neustadt/Bohemia.
On October 28, Brandes arrived in Neustadt/Bohemia where he joined VI. "Standing" Grenadier Battalion (Plötz). He then sent the latter battalion to Giesshübel to hinder any manoeuvres of the Austrians through the surrounding mountains. Brandes also deployed a chain of small detachments along the road. Meanwhile, Schwerin set off from Skalitz and resumed his retreat towards Glatz. In the evening, he sent forward the wagons of the army by Nachod, Lewin (present-day Lewin Kłodzki) and Reinerz towards Wallisfurth.
On October 29, Schwerin marched by Nachod and Lewin and encamped at Reinerz. During the march, Spada and Pálffy repeatedly attacked the Prussian rearguard at Nachod and Lewin. In these engagements, the Prussians lost 1 men killed and 7 wounded; the Austrians 3 men wounded and 2 taken prisoners.
On October 30, Schwerin marched unmolested to Wallisfurth.
On October 31, Schwerin rested his army at Wallisfurth.
In October, Hungarian units received instructions to raise 5,400 recruits to bring themselves to full strength. Meanwhile Austrian cavalry regiments were ordered to bring their effective strength to 1,000 men; the hussar regiments, to 800 men.
On November 1, Schwerin's army reached Glatz.
From November 2, Schwerin's Army was billeted in the County of Glatz. The cavalry in a camp near Glatz, the infantry in a chain of posts along the Neisse River at Reichenbach (present-day Dzierzoniow), Wartha (present-day Bardo Śląskie), Patschkau (present-day Paczków) and Ottmachau (present-day Otmuchów). Schwerin established his headquarters in Frankenstein. Fouqué Fusiliers and 5 sqns of Wechmar Hussars formed the garrison of Glatz while Tresckow Infantry reinforced the garrison of Neisse.
On November 3, Major-General von Beck received overall command of the Austrian forces posted on the Silesian frontier. During this time, Piccolomini, who had received orders not to penetrate into Silesia, remained in his camp of Holohlau, sending only light troops forward.
Around 2:00 a.m. in the night of November 8 to 9, Fouqué, who wanted to drive all Austrian detachments out of Silesia, sent out from Glatz Lieutenant-Colonel Werner at the head of 200 men of Wechmar Hussars and Major von Rosen at the head of 300 foot from Fouqué Fusiliers and Garrison Regiment VIII to attack the Austrian outpost at Reinerz defended by 60 men of Festetics Hussars under Captain von Luszinsky.
On November 9 in the morning, Werner and Rosen launched a surprise attack on Reinerz under cover of a thick fog. In this attack, the Prussians captured 1 lieutenant, 12 troopers and 31 horses; and lost only 2 men wounded. Around 7:00 p.m., the Prussians retired and started their march back to Glatz.
On November 10, Piccolomini retired from the camp of Holohlau and his troops took their winter-quarters.
By November 12, Piccolomini established his headquarters in Königgrätz. Austrian light troops still occupied outposts in Silesia east of Nachod near Sackisch, Lewin, Reinerz and Giesshübel. Furthermore, hussars and Grenzers belonging to Pálffy's and Reichlin's Corps established a chain of posts between Braunau (present-day Broumov), Nachod and Geiersberg (present-day Letohrad). FML von Morocz (Morocz Hussars and the single battalion of Simbschen Infantry) secured the border of Austrian Silesia between Jauernig (present-day Javorník ve Slezsku) and Troppau.
On December 1, Schwerin's Army took its winter-quarters in Silesia: 27 bns (including 2 bns of Sers Fusiliers) and 49 sqns were posted along an arc extending from Reichenbach, Frankenstein and Neisse to Cosel while 10 sqns were on the right bank of the Oder. Field-Marshal Schwerin established his headquarters in Neisse.
On the left bank of the Elbe, a Prussian corps of 26 bns, 200 foot jägers and 35 sqns was posted on the northern slope of the Erzgebirge with outposts along the frontier with Bohemia and blockades across every paths leading through these mountains. Lieutenant-General von Lestwitz was charged to cover Lusatia with 7 bns and 12 sqns posted in the neighbourhood of Zittau. Behind these advanced positions, 34 bns and 48 sqns were posted along both banks of the Elbe from Weissenfels to Naumburg am Queiss (present-day Nowogrodziec).
A small Prussian force of 7 bns and 8 sqns under Lieutenant-General von Winterfeldt was posted at Landeshut (present-day Kamienna Góra), midway in the wide gap between Schwerin's Army of Silesia and the left wing of Frederick's Army. Winterfeldt was subordinated to Schwerin and charged to cover Lower Silesia.
During the winter of 1756-57, the Austrians deployed a cordon of outposts between Hohenelbe (present-day Vrchlabí) and Troppau under Piccolomini and Marschall.
This article incorporates texts from the following books which are now in the public domain:
- Anonymous, A Complete History of the Present War, from its Commencement in 1756, to the End of the Campaign, 1760, London, 1761
- Archenholz, J. W., The History of the Seven Years War in Germany, translated by F. A. Catty, Francfort, 1843, pp. 10-30
- Carlyle T., History of Friedrich II of Prussia vol. 17 chapters IV, V
- Donnersmarck, Victor Amadaeus Henckel von, Militaerischer Nachlass, Karl Zabeler, 1858
- Tagesbuch des Feldzuges von 1756, pp. 18-130
- Grosser Generalstab Kriegsgeschichtliche Abteilung II, Die Kriege Friedrichs des Grossen, Part 3 Der siebenjährige Krieg 1756-1763
- Vol. 1 Pirna und LobositzBerlin, 1901, pp. 241-250, 316-324
- Vol. 2 Prag, Berlin, 1901, p. 1
- Tempelhoff, Fr., History of the Seven Years' War Vol. I Section 4, as translated by Colin Lindsay, Cadell, London, 1793
- Vanicek, Fr.: Specialgeschichte der Militärgrenze aus Originalquellen und Quellenwerken geschöpft, Vol. II, Vienna: Kaiserlich-Königlichen Hof- und Staatsdruckerei, 1875, pp. 403-408