1758 - Austrian invasion of Silesia
The campaign lasted from August to December 1758
Austrians enter into Silesia
On August 4, de Ville appeared in front of the Fortress of Neisse (present-day Nysa) with an Austrian corps consisting of the 3 Saxon Chevauxlegers regiments, 1 uhlan regiment and a large number of light troops. He then established a blockade around the place.
|Order of Battle|
|Detailed OoB of the Prussian army of Margrave Karl on August 11.|
On August 10
- Keith being sick, Frederick II confided command of his army in Silesia to Margrave Karl before leaving for Brandenburg with a small corps. Margrave Karl was left at the head of 33,000 men in 44½ bns and 80 sqns.
- Margrave Karl was informed of Daun's movements towards Saxony. He first taught that it was a diversion and that Daun's real intention was to enter into Silesia from the west. He immediately detached Puttkamer with his own hussars and Freibataillon Salenmon to Greiffenberg (present-day Gryfow Slaski) to observe Daun's manoeuvres. Puttkamer soon realised that the Austrians were advancing from the area of Jaromirz (present-day Jaromer) and Eipel (present-day Úpice) towards Reichenberg (present-day Liberec) in the general direction of Lusatia. Their light troops were already roaming the country up to Friedland (present-day Frýdlant).
- Margrave Karl also sent Zieten with 6 bns and 5 sqns to Löwenberg (present-day Lwowek Slaski) where he encamped behind the Bober (present-day Bóbr River).
On August 14, Zieten reached Lähn (present-day Wleń) with the Münchow Fusiliers and the Württemberg Dragoons. Puttkamer retired to Löwenberg as ordered by Zieten who had learned that a camp for 40,000 men was being prepared near Zittau.
On August 15, Zieten let Puttkamer advanced once more on Greiffenberg where Austrian hussars had been reported. Zieten then marched with his own detachment to Löwenberg. Puttkamer found that Greiffenberg was already occupied by 1,200 Austrian horse and Grenzers (part of Loudon’s light corps). He decided to wait for reinforcements.
Early on August 16, Zieten arrived near Greiffenberg with his detachment. However, the Austrians had already evacuated the town. Later the same day, he was informed that the main Austrian army was marching on Zittau and that its vanguard had already reached Seidenberg (present-day Zawidów). In the evening, Zieten retired to Löwenberg. Zieten was reinforced by Wedell's and Krockow's (1 grenadier bn and 10 cuirassier sqns) detachments.
When Margrave Karl was informed of Daun's arrival at Zittau on August 17, he changed his dispositions. He sent forward his baggage and artillery train to Löwenberg under escort. Fouqué quit his camp at Halbstadt (present-day Jetřichov u Meziměstí) and moved to Grüssau (present-day Krzeszów). Jung-Krockow advanced to Freiburg (present-day Swiebodzice) with 15 sqns to escort the artillery train.
On August 20
- The main body of the Prussian Army of Silesia (about 25,000 men) left Landeshut (present-day Kamienna Góra) in two columns and encamped at Fischbach (present-day Karpniki). Roads were so difficult that the second column arrived only on August 21.
- Zieten was further reinforced with 2 bns and 5 sqns.
- Fouqué assembled his 11 bns (Carlowitz, Grenadier Battalion Naumeister, Fouqué Fusiliers, Markgraf von Brandenburg-Schwedt Fusiliers, Prinz Heinrich von Preußen Fusiliers, I./Jung-Kreytzen Infantry, IV./Garrison Regiment VI Lattorf, Freibataillon Rapin) and 10 sqns (Seydlitz Hussars), some 10,000 men at the camp of Landeshut where he would remain until November 4.
- Austrian light troops were already occupying Schatzlar (present-day Žacléř), Trautenau (present-day Trutnov) and Braunau (present-day Broumov) on the border.
On August 21, Loudon set off from Seidenberg and marched by Muskau (present-day Bad Muskau), Forst and Kottbus to Peitz. His light troops sacked the Prussian villages and spread terror up to the gate of Frankfurt/Oder, angering Loudon with their excesses.
On August 22
- Frederick sent orders to Margrave Karl to effect a junction with his own army to relieve Berlin, after marching by Guben.
- Margrave Karl marched in the direction of Oberlangenau (present-day Dłużyna Górna) with the main body of the Army of Silesia.
On August 23
- Margrave Karl’s Army encamped near Plagwitz (present-day Płakowice) on the heights on the right bank of the Bober, across from Löwenberg. The artillery park, the supply train and the bakery then joined the army.
- Zieten was informed that the Austrians had marched from Görlitz on Rothenburg and that Loudon's Corps was marching towards towards Brandenburg where it would make a junction with the Russian Army. To prevent this junction, Zieten immediately left Löwenberg and reached Bunzlau (present-day Boleslawiec). However, he was forced to wait for supplies and lost the opportunity to intercept Loudon who had pushed parties up to Frankfurt an der Oder. Zieten was now at the head of 9 bns (Grenadier Battalion Schenckendorff, Münchow Fusiliers, Manteuffel Infantry, Prinz Ferdinand Infantry, Jung Braunschweig Fusiliers which till July 25 formed a single bn and Freibataillon Salenmon) and 30 sqns (Kyau Cuirassiers, Schönaich Cuirassiers, Württemberg Dragoons, Puttkamer Hussars and 5 sqns of Möhring Hussars).
On August 26, Margrave Karl learned from deserters that Daun had set off from Görlitz.
Zieten and Margarve Karl leave for Brandenburg
On August 27,
- Margrave Karl received confirmation from his reconnaissance party, sent from Löwenberg to Lauban (present-day Luban), that Daun had effectively left Görlitz and was marching towards Reichenbach; and that a strong detachment under the Margrave of Baden-Durlach, posted at Schönberg, covered his march.
- Zieten’s detachment reached Naumburg (present-day Nowogrod Bobrzanski) after slowly advancing from Bunzlau by Sprottau (present-day Szprotawa) and Sagan (present-day Zagan) downstream along the Bober. Zieten had 30 sqns, but, like Margrave Karl at Plagwitz, he was uncertain about the movements of the Austrians which were covered by a veil of light troops.
- Margrave Karl decided, considering the change of situation, to march towards Lauban and thus threaten the Austrian magazines at Zittau.
On the night of August 27 to 28, Margrave Karl received the news of the Prussian victory at Zorndorf and of Frederick’s intent to effect a junction at Guben with his own army to cover Berlin.
On August 28, Margrave Karl set off from Plagwitz, marching downstream along the Bober.
On August 29, Zieten marched from Naumburg to Guben with his 30 sqns and Freibataillon Salenmon.
On August 30
- The rest of Zieten’s Corps rejoined him at Guben.
- Margrave Karl reached Sprottau with his army.
On August 31, Zieten encamped at Lieberose in Brandenburg.
In August, after the departure of Zieten, de Ville did not meet any opposition in Upper Silesia and put the region to contribution. He also blockaded the Fortress of Cosel (present-day Kędzierzyn-Koźle).
On September 1, Margrave Karl crossed the Bober near Sagan and then redirected his march westwards by Priebus (present-day Przewóz), according to the new orders received from Frederick the previous day, instructing him to keep an eye on Daun’s Army.
From this point, all operations of Zieten and Margrave Karl are covered in
our articles on 1758 - Russian invasion of Brandenburg and 1758 - Austrian invasion of Saxony
On September 21, FZM Count Harsch, leaving some 7,000 Grenzer light troops and hussars under FML Count Kálnoky in the region of Trautenau, marched by Wartha (present-day Bardo Śląskie) to effect a junction with de Ville’s Corps which was marching by Patschkau (present-day Paczkow). De Ville had left a force of some 1,800 light troops to maintain the blockade of the Fortress of Cosel.
On September 26, Harsch received orders from the War Council, instructing him to leave appropriate forces to cover Bohemia and then to carry out a raid up to the Queis (present-day Kwisa River) in Lower Silesia; while de Ville, with a corps of 4,000 men, would cover Moravia from the area of Troppau (present-day Opava).
On September 27
- Harsch marched by Wartha to Frankenstein (present-day Ząbkowice Śląskie).
- The War Council, assembled at Vienna, decided to send new instructions to Harsch telling him to lay siege to the Fortress of Neisse.
On September 28, Harsch’s Corps effected a junction with part of de Ville’s Corps at Frankenstein. He was now at the head of approx. 14,500 foot and 5,000 horse.
Frederick relieves Neisse
On October 3, Harsch’s Army appeared in front of Neisse. On its way, it had effected a junction with the rest of de Ville’s Corps near Ottmachau (present-day Otmuchow/PL). Harsch immediately encircled the fortress. Even though the fortress was now completely invested, Harsch was still waiting for his heavy artillery which was on its way from Olmütz (present-day Olomouc/CZ) by Sternberg (present-day Šternberk/CZ), Würbenthal (Vrbno pod Pradědem/CZ) and Zuckmantel (present-day Zlaté Hory/CZ).
The Siege of Neisse would last from October 3 to November 6.
After the Austrian victory at Hochkirch in Saxony on October 14, Daun sent messengers to General Harsch urging him to speed up the siege of Neisse.
On October 17, Daun, who was encamped near Baruth in Saxony, detached FML Count Guasco at the head of 8 bns to reinforce Harsch’s Army.
On October 26
- Frederick, after a brilliant manoeuvre, took possession of Görlitz and threw bridges over the Neisse River to enter into Silesia to relieve Neisse.
- Harsch's batteries opened against the town and fortress of Neisse.
On October 28
- Daun, who was in the area of Görlitz, sent FML Count Wied with a strong reinforcement of 9 bns, 10 grenadier coys and 4 cavalry rgts to General Harsch, hoping that he would be able to capture Neisse before Frederick's arrival.
- Daun also detached Wehla to occupy the mountains of Schönberg (present-day Sulikow/PL).
- Loudon was preparing to vigorously pursue the Prussian rearguard in Silesia.
- Daun himself was waiting for Frederick to quit Saxony before attempting a raid on Dresden.
- Wied marched by Zittau, Trautenau and Frankenstein.
On October 29
- In the afternoon, the Prussian army being now resupplied, Bornstedt marched towards Gruna (present-day Gronów/PL) with the supply train.
- Braun crossed the pontoons bridge at Görlitz and marched to Leopoldshain (present-day Łagów/PL) with the artillery train and baggage escorted by 4 bns. The bridge of pontoons was then disassembled and followed this column.
During the night of October 29 to 30, the Prussian vanguard crossed the Neisse. At midnight, the battalions cantoned in the surrounding villages joined the main army which also crossed the Neisse.
On October 30
- From the vicinity of Görlitz in Lusatia, Daun sent instructions to Harsch to raise the siege of Neisse because he had decided to concentrate his efforts against Dresden in Saxony. Daun also specified that Harsch had to wait for positive confirmation that Frederick was approaching Neisse before undertaking his retreat.
- At daybreak, Frederick's entire army was on the eastern bank of the Neisse, abandoning momentarily Saxony to its fate with the goal of relieving the Prussian force besieged at Neisse and to stop the Austrian invasion of Silesia. Frederick immediately marched on Schönberg to dislodge Wehla. However, the latter had already retired and the Prussian vanguard advanced up to Lichtenau (present-day Zareba/PL). The first column, consisting of all the infantry, followed the same road through Pfaffendorf (present-day Rudzica/PL) and Nieder Geilsdorf (unidentified location). The second column, consisting of cavalry, advanced by Hermsdorf (unidentified location) and Lauterbach (present-day Gozdanin/PL). The third column, the convoy led by Braun, took the direct road by Leopoldshain and Lichtenberg (present-day Białogórze/PL) to Lauban. A fourth column under Bornstedt marched from Gruna to Windschdorf (unidentified location).
- Engagement near Schönborn
- As soon as Loudon heard of the departure of the Prussian army, he went through Görlitz with 2 regiments of cavalry, closely followed by the rest of his corps, and pursued the Prussian rearguard under the command of Prince Heinrich which consisted of 6 bns and of the Zieten Hussars (10 sqns). The delay incurred by the Prussian rearguard, while going through the Defile of Schönborn (unidentified location), allowed Loudon to assemble his corps, to plant a few guns and to cannonade the Prussians although without great effect. Prince Heinrich was forced to set the village of Schönborn afire to stop the Austrian light troops which were pressing his freikorps.
- Wehla's Corps soon joined Loudon near Pfaffendorf and the engagement became more contested,
- Frederick even considered returning with some cavalry regiments to support his rearguard. During the fighting, the village of Pfaffendorf was burnt. The Prussian army encamped on the heights behind Geilsdorf with its headquarters at Lauban and its right wing anchored on a wood occupied by light troops. Loudon encamped in the woods between Pfaffendorf and Heidersdorf (present-day Włosień/PL).
On October 31
- Frederick established four trestle bridges on the Queis River. His plan was to march to the relief of the Fortress of Neisse with 29 bns and 68 sqns and to detach Prince Heinrich with 24½ bns (Grenadier Battalion Retzow, Grenadier Battalion Heyden, Grenadier Battalion Manteuffel, Grenadier Battalion Dieringshofen, Grenadier Battalion Bähr, Grenadier Battalion Plotho, II. and III. Garde, Lattorf Infantry, Manteuffel Infantry, Kalckstein Infantry, Prinz Ferdinand Infantry, Asseburg Infantry, Markgraf Carl, Hagen Infantry, Itzenplitz Infantry, Prinz von Preußen Infantry and the Feldjäger zu Fuß), 4 freikorps bns and 45 sqns (Schönaich Cuirassiers, Kyau Cuirassiers, Krockow Cuirassiers, Schmettau Cuirassiers, Bayreuth Dragoons, Zieten Hussars and 5 sqns of Möhring Hussars) into the mountains through Hirschberg (present-day Jelenia Gora) to Landeshut to observe Daun’s Army and to prevent it from rescuing Harsch at Neisse.
- Daun sent the Duke d'Arenberg across the Neisse with the Reserve. This corps encamped between Moys (present-day Zgorzelec) and Leopoldshain to support Loudon. Meanwhile, Daun remained in the area of Görlitz with the main Austrian army.
On November 1
- Crossing of the Queis
- The Prussian bns, which were cantoned in the town of Lauban, left before daybreak and formed on the opposite bank of the Queis to cover the crossing of the army.
- At 7:00 a.m., the Prussian infantry crossed the river over 4 trestle bridges made of wood beams while the cavalry forded the river.
- Loudon moved closer but did not make any attempt during the crossing. Once the main Prussian army on the other bank of the Queis, he planted 8 guns and 8 howitzers on the heights between Geilsdorf and Lauban and cannonaded the rearguard.
- The Prussian rearguard (12 regular bns, the Freikorps, the Feldjäger zu Fuß and 15 sqns), personally led by Frederick, gradually retired towards the river and finally crossed it. Frederick then resumed his advance to Löwenberg while Prince Heinrich marched from Greiffenberg towards Hirschberg.
- Prussians (after the crossing of the Queis)
- After the passage of the river, the Prussians destroyed their trestle bridges.
- Fouqué’s Corps, then posted at Landeshut, was instructed to effect a junction with Frederick’s Army.
- Austrians (after the crossing of the Queis)
- In the evening, Loudon also crossed the Queis and took position on the Steinberg, south of Lauban, and opened with his artillery on Prince Heinrich’s column posted at Greiffenberg. Loudon then encamped a short distance from Frederick's camp.
- Harsch, informed of Frederick's arrival, withdrew all his siege artillery sent his siege artillery back towards Olmütz during the following night and evacuated it, along with most baggage, by the road to Zuckmantel in Moravia. Meanwhile, ammunition and siege material were transported to Jägerndorf (present-day Krnov/CZ). However, the trenches remained strongly guarded.
On November 2
- Frederick departed at daybreak and marched in two columns and reached the vicinity of Pombsen (present-day Pomocne/PL) where he established his headquarters. His corps took position in the area of Konradswaldau (present-day Kondratów/PL) and Pombsen.
- Prince Heinrich reached Hirschberg.
- Loudon let his main body march to Löwenberg to follow Frederick’s Army.
- Engagement of Pilgramsdorf
- Loudon rode with dragoons and hussars on the highway to Goldberg (present-day Zlotoryja/PL), catching up, east of Pilgramsdorf (present-day Pielgrzymka/PL), with the Prussian baggage which, along with the pontoon train, followed the army.
- Loudon captured the baggage, the pontoon train (11 pontoons) and 107 prisoners
- Prince Eugen von Württemberg, who was marching at the tail of the nearest Prussian column with Krockow Dragoons and Jung-Platen Dragoons, turned and attacked Loudon’s cavalry, recapturing part of the baggage.
On November 3
- Frederick's Corps arrived in the region of Schweidnitz (present-day Swidnica/PL). It cantoned at Zeschen (unidentified location), Zedlitz (present-day Pasieczna/PL), Arnsdorf (present-day Milikowice/PL), Zirlau (present-day Ciernie/PL), Kletskau (unidentified location), Roth-Kirschdorf (present-day Wiśniowa/PL), Sabischdorf (present-day Zawiszów/PL) and Jauernick (present-day Stary Jaworów/PL), and received bread for nine days.
On the night of November 3 to 4, Harsch was informed that Frederick’s Army had resumed its march by Löwenberg and Goldberg.
On November 4
- Frederick gave a rest day to his army.
- Prince Heinrich marched to Landeshut, leaving Zieten behind at Hirschberg with 7 bns to guard the bakery, the artillery and baggage.
- On its arrival at Landeshut, Prince Heinrich’s Corps relieved Fouqué’s Corps which had been stationed there for three months. Prinz Heinrich von Preußen Fusiliers and Seydlitz Hussars were transferred from Fouqué’s to Heinrich’s Corps; while Hagen Infantry was transferred from Heinrich’s to Fouqué’s Corps. Thus, Fouqué was now at the head of Grenadier Battalion Carlowitz, Grenadier Battalion Naumeister, Fouqué Fusiliers, Markgraf Heinrich Fusiliers, Hagen Infantry, I./Jung-Kreytzen Infantry, IV./Garrison Regiment VI Lattorf and Freibataillon Rapin.
- Fouqué’s Corps set off, late in the afternoon, from Landeshut and marched to Waldenburg (present-day Wałbrzych/PL) and then to Freiburg (present-day Świebodzice/PL) to make a junction with Frederick's army.
- Loudon followed Frederick up to Jauer (present-day Jawor/PL) and then encamped at Petrowitz (present-day Piotrowice), sending parties up to Breslau (present-day Wrocław/PL) and Hirschberg.
- Wied finally arrived at Neisse, bringing Harsch's Corps total strength to 30,000 men (33 bns, 31 grenadier coys, several regiments of cavalry and grenzer light troops).
- Harsch retired from Neisse and entrenched his corps near Giesmannsdorf (maybe Gostomia).
- Finally, instead of entering into Silesia, Daun returned to Bautzen to operate against Dresden. However, he had sent General O'Kelly to Lauban to support Loudon if necessary.
On November 5
- Fouqué’s Corps had effected a junction with Frederick’s Army near Reichenbach (present-day Dzierżoniów). Their united forces marched to Girlachsdorf (present-day Gilów) between Nimptsch (present-day Niemcza) and Reichenbach.
- Zieten sent the bakery from Hirschberg to Schweidnitz, escorted by Asseburg Infantry and 5 sqns of Möhring Hussars. He also sent the artillery and baggage to Landeshut under a strong escort. He remained at Hirschberg with with 3 bns (Grenadier Battalion Heyden, Grenadier Battalion Manteuffel, 1 bn of Markgraf Carl Infantry) and 20 sqns (Schönaich Cuirassiers, 5 sqns of Bayreuth Dragoons, Zieten Hussars). Zieten moved his camp to Thomasdorf (present-day Domanów/PL) to cover the line of communication between Schweidnitz and Prince Heinrich's Corps at Landeshut from Loudon’s enterprises.
- Loudon had followed Frederick’s Army with his light troops up to the area of Jauer, before turning his attention to the corps of Prince Heinrich. Loudon’s main body then advanced by Lähn (present-day Wlen/PL) towards Hirschberg while his vanguard reconnoitred up to Kupferberg (present-day Miedzianka/PL).
- Once Loudon had passed the Queis, O’Kelly’s Corps advanced to Lauban.
- Harsch sent de Ville to Troppau with s strong division (16 bns, 10 grenadier coys, 6 cavalry rgts and the 2 Saxon uhlan rgts) to cover his projected retreat from Neisse.
- A second division of Harsch’s Army was about to follow when Tresckow, the Prussian commander of Neisse, made a sortie, capturing 1 colonel and 458 men.
- Wied’s Corps reached the vicinity of Weidenau (present-day Vidnava/CZ) after having force marched from Görlitz by Reichenberg (present-day Liberec/CZ), Turnau (present-day Turnov/CZ), Arnau (present-day Hostinné/CZ), Braunau (present-day Broumov/CZ), Frankenstein (present-day Zabkovice Slaskie/PL) and Patschkau (present-day Paczkow/PL).
Austrians evacuate Silesia
During the night of November 5 to 6, Harsch raised the siege of Neisse and retired into Moravia by Zuckmantel.
On November 6
- Frederick’s Army marched to the vicinity of Münsterberg (present-day Ziębice/PL). Frederick established his headquarters in Gross-Nossen (present-day Osina Wielka/PL) where he was informed that Harsch had raised the siege of Neisse and retired towards Ziegenhals (present-day Głuchołazy/PL).
- In the morning, based on the false information that the vanguard of Frederick’s Army had already reached Frankenstein, Harsch retired from Giesmannsdorf towards Zuckmantel.
On November 7
- Frederick’s Army rested.
- Frederick sent Fouqué’s Corps 13 bns and 20 sqns to Glumpigau (unidentified location) to observe Harsch's and de Ville's corps.
- Frederick then personally went to Neisse, escorted by the Württemberg Dragoons, Krockow Dragoons and Werner Hussars. He arrived at Neisse around 9:00 a.m., accompanied by Seydlitz. He made remonstrances to Tresckow for his weak defence of the place and then returned to Gross-Nossen accompanied only by his staff.
- The Württemberg Dragoons, Krockow Dragoons and Werner Hussars were transferred to Fouqué’s Corps.
On November 8, now that Neisse had been relieved, Frederick's Army began its march to resume its campaign in Saxony, leaving Fouqué's Corps behind to guard Silesia. Frederick’s Army reached Nimptsch.
On November 9
- Frederick’s Army reached Schweidnitz. Since O’Kelly and Loudon were blocking all roads leading from Silesia to Saxony, Frederick did not know the exact position of Daun’s main army.
- Harsch marched to Freiwaldau (present-day Jeseník/CZ) on his way to Königgrätz (present-day Hradec Králové) to cover Bohemia against the enterprises of Prince Heinrich’s Corps which was posted at Landeshut.
- De Ville, at the head of the troops which he had previously brought to Silesia, marched to Würbenthal on his way to the border with Moravia, leaving 5 Grenzer bns and the 2 Uhlanen pulks at Zuckmantel to protect the provisions which were being transferred from there.
On the night of November 9 to 10, the Austrians who had been some time employed in the blockade of Cosel (present-day Kedzierzyn-Kozle/PL), raised it.
On November 10
- Fouqué advanced to Lindewiese (present-day Lipowa/PL) near Neisse with the main body of his corps. He sent Major-General Werner forward with the Werner Hussars and 3 bns. This detachment dislodged one of Harsch’s outposts at Ziegenhals and followed them up to Zuckmantel before rejoining the main body.
- Frederick gave a rest day to his army near Schweidnitz.
- Prince Heinrich detached Zieten to Hirschberg. The Austrians posted at Kupferberg and Hirschberg retired when Zieten approached.
On November 11
- Fouqué marched to Neustadt (present-day Prudnik/PL). He was unsure about the exact location of de Ville’s Corps, thinking that he was retiring in the direction of Engelsberg (present-day Andělská Hora/CZ) or Troppau. When he heard that the Austrians had raised the siege of Cosel, he decided to remain at Neustadt for a few days.
- Frederick’s Army marched in the direction of Löwenberg.
- Harsch’s rearguard evacuated Zuckmantel and followed the main body.
- Seeing that the Prussian relief force had not crossed the Neisse, the Austrians encircled the Fortress of Cosel once more.
On November 12
- Prince Heinrich let Major-General Rebentisch near Landeshut with 9 bns (Grenadier Battalion Heyden, Grenadier Battalion Bähr, Grenadier Battalion Plotho, Kalckstein Infantry, Asseburg Infantry, 1 bn of Markgraf Carl Infantry, Freibataillon du Verger) and 10 sqns (Seydlitz Hussars) to observe Kálnoky’s Corps. Prince Heinrich then marched with the rest of his corps to Hirschberg.
On November 13
- At Löwenberg, Frederick received confirmation that Daun was marching along the left bank of the Elbe towards Dresden.
- O’Kelly marched from Lauban towards Zittau from where he intended to cover Bohemia as ordered by Daun.
On November 14
- Informed that the Austrians had blockaded the Fortress of Cosel once more, Fouqué detached Major-General Baron von der Goltz and Major-General von Werner at the head of 3 bns (Grenadier Battalion Rath, Markgraf Heinrich Fusiliers) and 9 sqns (400 dragoons and 5 sqns of Werner Hussars) to relieve the place.
- Fouqué followed this detachment with the main body of his corps, marching to Ober-Glogau (present-day Głogówek/PL).
- Goltz, whose troops marched without knapsacks, tents and pack-horses, reached Cosel at 1:00 p.m. On his approach, the Austrians blockading the place hastily retired in the direction of Ratibor (present-day Raciborz/PL), pursued by the Prussian cavalry and losing 100 men killed, wounded or taken prisoners and a large part of their baggage.
- Frederick rested his troops near Löwenberg.
- Prince Heinrich set off from Hirschberg and marched to Greiffenberg, leaving Freibataillon Angelelli behind at Hirschberg.
- Loudon first retired to Marklissa (present-day Lesna/PL) and then to Zittau. When O’Kelly’s and Bela’s corps arrived at Zittau. Loudon took position at Rumburg (present-day Rumburk/CZ).
On November 15
- Goltz’s detachment rested in Cosel.
- Frederick’s Army marched to Lauban where the infantry occupied the town while the cavalry cantoned in the surrounding villages along the Queis River. His vanguard took position at Lichtenau.
- Prince Heinrich with 15 sqns (Kyau Cuirassiers, Krockow Cuirassiers and 5 sqns of Möhring Hussars) effected a junction with Frederick’s Army at Lauban. He had left the rest of his corps at Greiffenberg under the command of Zieten to cover Silesia.
- De Ville’s Corps marched from Würbenthal to Leobschütz (present-day Glubczyce/PL).
On November 16
- Frederick’s Army reached Görlitz.
- Fouqué’s Corps returned to Neustadt.
- Goltz marched back to Hotzenplotz (present-day Osoblaha/CZ), leaving Grenadier Battalion Rath and 50 men of the Werner Hussars in Cosel. His cavalry engaged Austrian advanced troops at Leisnitz (present-day Lisięcice/PL), forcing them to retire on the main body of de Ville’s Corps.
On November 17
- Frederick left Weissenberg for Dresden with 8 bns and 20 sqns. He sent back the rest of his army to Silesia under the command of Margrave Karl.
- Goltz’s detachment effected a junction with Fouqué’s Corps at Neustadt.
On November 18, Harsch’s Corps reached Königgrätz after marching by Goldenstein (present-day Branná/CZ), Grulich (present-day Králíky/CZ) and Adler-Kosteletz (present-day Kostelec nad Orlicí/CZ).
On November 20
- Around that date, the main Prussian army under Margrave Karl, which was posted in Lusatia, could not depend anymore on Saxony for its provisions. It had to take up its winter-quarters in Silesia. Margrave Karl slowly retired from the region of Weissenberg by Görlitz towards Naumburg am Queis (present-day Nowogrodziec).
- FZM Harsch received orders from Daun to take up his winter-quarters. He organised his troops in two main groups:
- The main force under FML Wied and Baron Wulffen took position in the region of Königgrätz, Königinhof (present- day Dvůr Králové/CZ), Nachod, and Wildenschwert (present-day Ústí nad Orlicí/CZ). To protect these quarters against any enterprises from Zieten’s Corps, Harsch posted small detachments near Schatzlar, Trautenau and Braunau under FML Count Kálnoky, thus securing the mountain roads traversing the Riesengebirge and the Eulengebirge.
- A smaller group under FML Baron Beck took position in the vicinity of Gabel (present-day Jablonne v Podještědi/CZ), Reichenberg, Münchengrätz (present-day Mnichovo Hradiště/CZ) and Hirschberg. Outposts established near Zittau, Friedland and Neustadtl (present-day Jezvé/CZ) secured the roads leading through the Isergebirge and the eastern part of the mountains of Lusatia.
- FZM Harsch received orders from Daun to take up his winter-quarters. He organised his troops in two main groups:
On November 23, Margrave Karl's Corps reached Naumburg am Queis.
On November 26, de Ville, now reinforced with 3 bns sent from Moravia, crossed the Hotzenplotz and advanced up to Zülz (present-day Biała/PL).
On November 27
- Fouqué retired to Oppersdorf (present-day Wierzbiecice/PL).
- De Ville reached the vicinity of Neustadt.
On the evening of November 28, a few bns and sqns of Fouqué’s Corps attacked an Austrian party occupying the village of Schnellewalde (present-day Szybowice/PL), forcing them to evacuate the village.
On November 29
- The main Prussian army under Margrave Karl began to take up its winter-quarters in Silesia. A small part of the army was quartered in Middle and Lower Silesia, on both sides of the Oder while a stronger corps under Zieten covered the frontier from Greiffenberg to Ottmachau. Outposts manned by the Möhring Hussars, Zieten Hussars and Seydlitz Hussars formed an advance line from Naumburg am Queis along the frontier up to the vicinity of Silberberg (present-day Srebrna Gora/PL).
- The Austrians reoccupied Schnellewalde.
- De Ville received an incorrect report stating that Frederick had returned to Neisse, closely followed by a corps under Margrave Karl.
On the night of November 29 to 30, de Ville’s Corps retired to Leobschütz and then to Troppau.
The Bavarian contingent returned to Bavaria now that France had ceased to pay subsidies.
On December 1, Margrave Karl's Corps abandoned its cantonments at Naumburg and took its winter-quarters. Zieten did the same.
On December 4, Fouqué was reinforced by the |Garrison Regiment II Sydow arriving from Breslau.
On December 7, Fouqué advanced once more to Neustadt.
On December 10, Frederick personally departed from Dresden to return to Silesia.
On December 11, Fouqué advanced advanced to Leobschütz where he established his headquarters while his troops took up their winter-quarters.
On December 14, Frederick arrived at Breslau.
Fouqué's Corps, consisting of 25 bns and 30 sqns, took up its winter-quarters in Ratibor, Zülz (present-day Biala Prudnicka), Ottmachau and Ober-Glogau.
Zieten's Corps, consisting of 36 bns and 35 sqns, took up its winter-quarters in the mountains in Greiffenberg, Hirschberg, Löwenberg and Silberberg.
The rest of the Prussian Army of Silesia (16 bns and 30 sqns) took up its winter-quarters around Breslau and Sagan.
The Austrian corps of Harsch took up its winter-quarters in Königgrätz while de Ville spent the winter in Moravia near Troppau and Teschen.
Around mid-December, Fouqué and de Ville agreed on a ceasefire for the winter.
This article is mostly made of abridged and adapted excerpts from the following books which are now in the public domain:
- Jomini, Henri: Traité des grandes opérations militaires, 2ème édition, 2ème partie, Magimel, Paris: 1811, pp. 176-180, 231, 240-257
- Generalstab Kriegsgeschichtliche Abteilung II: Die Kriege Friedrichs des Grossen, Part 3 Der siebenjährige Krieg 1756-1763, Vol. 8 Zorndorf und Hochkirch, Berlin, 1910, pp. 248-254, 307-308, 312-319, 329-337, Anhang 67
- Carlyle, T.: History of Friedrich II of Prussia, vol. 18
- Anonymous: A Complete History of the Present War, from its Commencement in 1756, to the End of the Campaign, 1760, London, 1761, p. 323
- Schuster, O. and F. Francke: Geschichte der Sächsischen Armee, 2. part, Leipzig 1885
Salisch, M. von: Treue Deserteure – Das kursächsische Militär und der Siebenjährige Krieg, Munich, 2009
Harald Skala for information on the Saxon cavalry during this period