1760-07-31 - Battle of Warburg
Prelude to the Battle
At the end of June 1760, the French Grande Armée, under the command of the Duc de Broglie, proceeded to the invasion of Hesse, seizing Marburg. On July 10, at the Combat of Corbach, the Hereditary Prince of Brunswick failed to prevent the junction of the Army of the Lower Rhine, under Saint-Germain, with the Grande Armée. On July 15, Dillenburg surrendered to the French. On July 16, the Hereditary Prince surprised and captured a French brigade at the engagement of Emsdorf but was unable to capture the magazines and the bakery established at Marburg which were timely rescued by M. de Stainville. From July 24, Broglie successfully manoeuvred to force Ferdinand of Brunswick out of his advantageous positions. On July 27, Broglie's main army marched to Volkmarsen while the Reserve under Prince Xavier marched to Naumburg; and the Chevalier de Muy marched downstream along the Diemel on Warburg. Meanwhile, Stainville's Corps besieged the fort of Ziegenhain. Broglie's manoeuvres aimed at cutting the Allies from Paderborn and Lippstadt. Reacting to these moves, Ferdinand sent the Hereditary Prince with 10 grenadier bns and 8 sqns and General Spörcken's Corps to Körbecke to secure the passage of the Diemel. Together, the two joint forces amounted to 23 bns and 22 sqns, with 26 heavy guns totalling some 14,578 men on the day of battle, not including Spörcken's detached command under Major von Bülow, one of Ferdinand's most trusted general-adjutants, consisting of the "Légion Britannique", the Bückeburg Carabiniers, and Captain von Linsingen's Brigade of Hanoverian Jägers already posted at the Diemel passage at Liebenau. On July 29, Spörcken's reinforced Corps passed the river.
On July 30, moving towards Kassel, Broglie marched to Zierenberg with his main army, leaving de Muy's Corps dangerously isolated at Warburg. The Hereditary Prince reconnoitred de Muy's position and recommended that their own corps should turn its left flank, using the heights of Daseburg and Dössel to cover their march and seizing the unoccupied Hein-Berg, while Ferdinand with the main army would advance against its front. The Hereditary Prince was not officially put in command of the attacking force, because Spörcken was senior in command, in fact, he was second in command of the Allied army at that time, but the idea for an attack stemmed from the Hereditary Prince's driving initiative, which effectively put him at the head of the operation.
As soon as Ferdinand was informed of the situation, he agreed and prepared his army. The Hereditary Prince wanted to make his flanking march during the night. However, Ferdinand decided to cross the Diemel with his entire army and ordered the Hereditary Prince and Spörcken to wait until his army had crossed the river before setting off from their present positions.
Ferdinand's general plan of attack was that Spörcken's Corps and the Hereditary Prince should advance westward in two columns from Körbecke and form up in three lines between the watchtower and Papenheim, so as to fall on de Muy's left flank and rear, while Ferdinand crossing the Diemel at Liebenau should attack his centre and right. As the Allied camp between Liebenau and Körbecke lay about 13 km from de Muy's, and as Ferdinand's camp lay between Imminghausen and Calden, some 24 km to the south of the Diemel from Liebenau, the operation called for extreme nicety in the execution.
On July 30, in the evening, Major von Bülow occupied the Desenberg with the Légion Britannique. At 9:00 p.m., Ferdinand's main army set off from its camp near Calden in eight columns and crossed the Diemel between Trendelburg and Liebenau during the night.
Description of Events
At 6:00 a.m. on the morning of July 31, the heads Ferdinand's columns, accompanied by Ferdinand, passed the Diemel They then debouched on the heights near Körbecke. They arrived, however, later than the appointed hour. The passage of the Diemel had caused much delay; and not all the haste of officers nor the eagerness of men could bring the army forward the quicker. Ferdinand then bent southward, at his best speed, to support the Hereditary Prince.
At 7:00 a.m., Spörcken and the Hereditary Prince, after much anxious waiting, decided to begin their flanking march without waiting for the entire army to have completed the crossing. They marched from Körbecke unnoticed in two columns, hidden by a thick fog for more than an hour. Just before the mist began, the Hereditary Prince had seen the first troops of Ferdinand appear on a knoll-top on the right.
The Hereditary Prince's right column (which included the right wing of all three arms), under Lieutenant-General von Hardenberg, accompanied by General Spörcken, made a long detour, passed by Borgentreich, north of Großeneder, marched across the woods near Nörde and formed in three lines towards the heights at the rear of the French positions. The left column, under the command of Lieutenant-General Zastrow, marched by way of Körbecke, Lütgeneder and Hohenwepel, north of Menne; and formed in three lines with its left at Menne and its right at Ossendorf. Both columns were led by British troops – Spörcken's columns by the 1st Royal Dragoons, whose place was on the extreme right of the first line, while the British grenadiers, massed in two battalions under Colonels Maxwell and Daulhatt marched at the head of the infantry. Zastrow's column was headed by the 7th Queen's Own Dragoons, with the 87th Foot Keith's Highlanders and 88th Foot Campbell's Highlanders following them to cover the grenadiers in second line.
With these dispositions, the Hereditary Prince was outflanking the French on their left and threatening their rear.
At about 8:00 a.m., the Hereditary Prince launched the Légion Britannique upon Warburg on de Muy's right wing.
Lieutenant-General de Muy, who knew that Allied troops were posted nearby and was worried about the thick fog preventing him from observing the vicinity, sent the Lieutenant-General Marquis de Castries with all the grenadier and chasseur coys of all his infantry rgts, the 2 dragoon rgts and the Chasseurs de Fischer to reconnoitre.
At 9:30 a.m., when the fog lifted, Castries found himself facing the Légion Britannique near the the Desenberg. He engaged it and momentarily drove it back on Rösebeck, seizing the Desenberg in front of the French positions from where he could see many columns (Ferdinand's main army) advancing from the Diemel River, but did not notice the two columns making a flank march. De Muy, who had joined Castries on the Desenberg, hurried back to deploy his troops in order of battle.
For his part, Castries retired with his detachment to move closer to the French camp, leaving only his rearguard to occupy the Desenberg.
Map and initial deployment
The Chevalier de Muy, with Broglie's rearguard of 18,000 foot and horse, occupied a high ridge across a bend on the north bank of the Diemel, facing north-east, with his back to the river with two bridges across it, south-west of Warburg and at Germete. De Muy's right flank leaned on Warburg and his left flank on the village of Ossendorf, some 3 km to north-west. Warburg was a pleasant little Hessian town, about 40 km west of Kassel, on the north bank of the Diemel, among knolls and hollows. To the left of the French rear rose a strongly protruding circular knoll. Between this knoll and the river lies the somewhat higher, narrow Hein-Berg, where an old watchtower stood, while the village of Papenheim lay in front of the French left wing.
The positions of the French offered a clear view to the east and north-east to the high, conical Desenberg south-west of Daseburg and to the range of hills extending from there to the north-west. In fact, de Muy's Corps occupied a pretty bad position with woods to the north of its front front, screening the Allied position; the watchtower on the Hein-Berg looming into its camp from which all moves could be observed; its right anchored on the weakly fortified town of Warburg; its left dominated by heights; to its rear, a river with steep banks and only two bridges which where half blocked by its baggage and mobile hospital; and for its retreat nothing but the mountain-passes from where it had debouched. The Diemel River was quite low at that time of the year and was fordable in several places.
De Muy, who expected an attack from the east, deployed his corps facing in this direction. He placed 4 brigades of foot (Bourbonnais, La Couronne, Jenner and Planta) under Major-Generals d'Amenzaga and de Travers on the Heights of Menne. The La Tour-du-Pin and Touraine brigades, under Lieutenant-General de Maupéou and Major-General de Roquepin were disposed on the right close to Warburg. The Lieutenant-Generals de Lutzelberg and d'Auvet, with Major-Generals de Lugeac, de Soupire and de Maugiron occupied the centre with the cavalry facing a very extensive plain. The dragoons under the Duc de Fronsac were placed between the right of the foot and the left of the horse. The Rouergue Brigade formed a reserve on a small knoll behind the left of the cavalry. The artillery was disposed in 5 batteries in front of the line on the big knoll east of Ossendorf.
Around noon, the right column of the Allies appeared and began to form near Ossendorf, facing south-eastwards. At the same time, the left column, which had driven back a French outpost at Hohenwepel, became visible near Menne and began to march between this village and Ossendorf. As both columns deployed, their cavalry formed a third line behind the two infantry lines. The heavy artillery under the Hessian Lieutenant-Colonel Huth took position in part west of Menne and part near Ossendorf.
Assault on the French left
At 1:30 p.m., the Hereditary Prince, having posted his artillery on the outskirts of Ossendorf and Papenheim, opened fire as the signal for attack. The 2 British grenadier bns, marching under Lieutenant-Colonel Beckwith at the head of the right column, filed to file through Ossendorf and advanced on the road leading from Ossendorf to the Diemel River. The Bourbonnais Brigade, which de Muy had thrown back en potence to protect his left flank, thereupon retired without firing. The success of the Allied attack depended on the capture of the Hein-Berg in front of Ossendorf and in rear of the French position.
De Muy realised too late that his left wing was in serious danger, as the Allies were making for the Hein-Berg. He sent the Bourbonnais Brigade to seize the Hein-Berg. 1 bn of Bourbonnais Infanterie deliberately faced about and marched off to occupy the hill. To permit such a thing would have been to derange the whole of the plans of the Allies, so it was necessary to prevent it at any cost. Colonel Beckwith with 10 grenadiers ran forward, keeping out of sight of the French, to reach the hill before them; the Hereditary Prince himself with 30 more hurried after him; and with this handful of men, all panting and breathless, they crowned the crest of the height. Bourbonnais Infanterie arriving on the scene a little later found itself greeted by a sharp fire, and, being unable to see the numbers opposed to it, halted for 10 minutes to allow its second battalion to come up. The delay gave time for Daulhatt's entire battalion of grenadiers to join Beckwith's little party; and then the two battalions of Bourbonnais Infanterie attacked in earnest, and the combat between French and British, at odds of two against one, became most fierce and stubborn. The disparity of numbers however, was too great; and Daulhatt's men after a gallant struggle were beginning to give way, when Maxwell's battalion came up in the nick of time to support them. This reinforcement redressed the balance of the fight; Daulhatt's then speedily rallied, and the contest for the hill was renewed. The grenadiers were soon joined by the Hereditary Prince, who had 2 artillery pieces brought there with great difficulty.
At 2:00 p.m., seeing the attack on the French left flank, Castries retired, throwing the Chasseurs de Fischer into Warburg to occupy the town. He then marched with the rest of his detachment to support the French left. After his departure, the Légion Britannique threw the French out of Warburg and plundered the town.
De Muy then ordered his left wing brigades to form in two lines and the engagement began. The La Couronne Brigade, supported by the Rouergue Brigade, was sent to the help of the Bourbonnais Brigade. These brigades led by MM. de Ségur and Travers, were soon joined by Castries. A furious battle broke out around the watchtower and on the slopes of the Hein-Berg. However, the Hanoverian units following the British grenadiers, which had initially been delayed near Ossendorf while manoeuvring around the artillery, also joined the fight. Lieutenant-Colonel von Bock, who led a Hanoverian grenadier bn, was severely wounded.
The situation of the Allies became critical; for a battery of artillery, which was on its way to the hill to support them, got into difficulties in a defile near Ossendorf and blocked the advance of the rest of the northern column. Fortunately it was extricated, though none too soon, and being brought up to the hill was speedily in action. Castries and Ségur launched five successive attacks on the Allied positions with the greatest courage and, notwithstanding their superiority, forced them to give way several times.
From Menne, the bns of Zastrow's column, led by the Hessian 4th Garde, advanced to attack before completing their deployment. They attacked the heights east of Ossendorf, which were defended by the Swiss Jenner and Planta brigades under M. d'Amenzaga. These brigades were already under the crossfire of the Allied batteries established near Menne and Ossendorf. Zastrow immediately sent all the units he could spare to the assault of these strategic heights. They debouched on the right flank of the Bourbonnais Brigade.
The combined attacks of the Hanoverians and Hessians forced the French left wing to give way. The French brigades were driven back. Numerous runaways rushed down the slopes towards the Diemel River. The 1st Royal Dragoons and the 7th Queen's Own Dragoons were then let loose upon the broken French battalions, completing their discomfiture and taking many prisoners.
De Muy saw that his positions had become untenable and ordered the two brigades of the right infantry wing to retire across the Diemel River and take position on the heights south of Germete. He also ordered his cavalry to follow his infantry right wing.
Ferdinand sends his cavalry forward
After desperate but fruitless efforts it had been found that the infantry of Ferdinand's Army could not hope to arrive in time to take part in the action. The British battalions, urged by General Waldegrave, struggled manfully to get forward, but the day was hot, and the ground was difficult and in many places marshy: the men would not fall out, but they dropped down insensible from fatigue in spite of themselves. Ferdinand therefore ordered Lord Granby, who had succeeded Sackville, to advance with the 22 sqns of British cavalry, followed by 2 British light artillery brigades under Count Wilhelm zu Schaumburg-Lippe. Away therefore they started at the trot, the guns accompanying them at a speed which amazed all beholders. They advanced towards the battlefield at the top of their speed for above 8 km.
Charge of the British cavalry
De Muy's attention was suddenly called to the advance of troops upon his front. It was Granby's cavalry which after two hours of trotting were finally within sight of the French positions. Granby at once turned them upon the cavalry of de Muy's right wing. The pace was checked for a brief moment as the squadrons formed in two lines for the attack. In the first line from right to left were the 1st King's Dragoon Guards, 3rd Dragoon Guards and 2nd (The Queen's) Dragoon Guards, in one brigade, the Royal Horse Guards, 4th Horse, and 3rd Horse Carabiniers in another; in the second line were the 2nd Royal North British Dragoons, 10th Mordaunt's Dragoons, 6th Inniskilling Dragoons, and 11th Dragoons.
The largest part of the French cavalry was already retiring. Only the Royal-Piémont Brigade (6 sqns) and Bourbon Brigade (6 sqns) opposed the British cavalry.
The British cavalry resumed its advance, Granby riding at the head of the Royal Horse Guards, his own regiment, and well in front of all. His hat flew from his head, revealing a bald head which shone conspicuous in the sun, as the trot grew into gallop and the lines came thundering on.
De Muy sent forward the Bourbon Cavalry Brigade under the command of the Marquis de Lugeac supported by the Royal-Piémont Cavalry Brigade to protect the right flank of his infantry. The French squadrons wavered for a moment, and then the Royal-Piémont Cavalry Brigade turned and fled without awaiting the shock. Whereupon the 6 sqns of the Bourbon Cavalry Brigade plunged gallantly down on the flank of the 1st King's Dragoon Guards, and overthrew them. But the Royal Horse Guards quickly came up to liberate their comrades. Lugeac's Brigade was beaten in two minutes and forced to withdraw in the greatest disorder.
Part of the numerically superior British cavalry pursued the fleeing French sqns while another part wheeled round upon the flank and rear of the French infantry, which, finding itself now attacked on both flanks by Zastrow's column and by Granby's cavalry, retired towards the Diemel, its retreat covered by the Swiss Planta Brigade. One bn of Planta Infanterie was surrounded and forced to deposit arms. Bourbonnais Infanterie and Lochmann Infanterie lost a few hundreds men taken prisoners.
After 4 hours of combat, some of the Allied battalions filed off towards the French bridges on the Diemel. De Muy marched with Touraine Brigade (under the command of M. de Roquepin) to defend his bridges and sent orders to La Tour-du-Pin Brigade to join him as soon as possible. The French cavalry, dragoons and the left wing infantry began to withdraw over the bridges. The two bridges being half blocked by baggage, the rest of the retreating troops were forced to pass the river at fords or to swim across it. The Touraine and La Tour-du-Pin brigades formed on the heights in front of the bridges to cover the retreat.
De Muy feigned to defend the line of the Diemel but the 2 British light artillery brigades came down to the river at a gallop, unlimbered on the height west of Warburg, and played on the fugitives so destructively as wholly to prevent them from reforming.
Duke Ferdinand authorised Lord Granby with 12 bns and 10 sqns to cross the Diemel and to pursue the French up to Welda.
General de Muy tried to assemble the rest of his corps on the hills south of the Diemel River and to rally the flow of runaways fleeing towards Volkmarsen. He then retired unmolested to Volkmarsen, 10 km south of Warburg.
Broglie, at the head of the main army, had been delayed by the thick fog and took full responsibility for this defeat.
The Légion Britannique occupied the wooded hill of Wormeln. Spörcken's Corps encamped on the conquered heights west of Warburg, while the main army encamped east of Warburg on the heights along the north bank of the Diemel up to Liebenau. The corps of the Prince of Anhalt, which had formed the rearguard of the main army and had reached the Diemel River around 8:00 a.m., took position near Lamerden on the left wing. The Castle of Trendelburg remained occupied.
During this action the French lost 1,600 men killed and wounded; 78 officers and 2,100 men taken prisoners, 28 ammunition wagons and 12 artillery pieces. The brigades of Bourbonnais, La Couronne, Rochefort and Planta (particularly Lochmann Infanterie) were the greatest sufferers. Colonel Chevalier de Valence of Bourbonnais Infanterie, the Prince de Rochefort and the Chevalier de la Tour-du-Pin were wounded. M. Lochmann was killed. Part of the French baggage was captured near Mengeringhausen by Scheither Light Troops, who had been posted near Hardehausen north of the Diemel.
The Allies lost 66 officers and 1,173 men out of which 800 were British, including 590 men from the British cavalry, 240 men from Maxwell's grenadiers. A large part of the infantry was not engaged. Colonel Beckwith was wounded in the head. For the British this battle redeemed the character of the cavalry which had been so shamefully sacrificed by Sackville at Minden; since it was evidently the recollection of that disgrace which spurred Granby on to so rapid an advance and so headlong an attack.
For Ferdinand the victory effectually opened the way for his retreat to Westphalia.
Order of Battle
Allied Order of Battle
Commander-in-chief: Karl Wilhelm Ferdinand Hereditary Prince of Brunswick
Summary: approx. 14,500 men, excluding the Légion Britannique and the light troops
Extreme right wing
- British Converged Grenadier Battalion Maxwell, lieut.col. (of Kingsley's 20th regt)
- British Converged Grenadier Battalion Daulhat, major (of Griffin's 50th regt)
- First line (in front of Ossendorf)
- Hanoverian Converged Grenadier Battalion Wersabé, lieut.-col. (of Laffert 5-A regt)
- Hanoverian Converged Grenadier Battalion Bock, titular lieut.-col. (of Foot Guards)
- Hanoverian Converged Grenadier Battalion Geyso, lieut.-col. (of Plessen 7-B regt)
- Hanoverian Scheither (1 bn)
- Hanoverian Estorff (1 bn)
- Hanoverian Post (1 bn)
- Second line (in front of Ossendorf)
- Third line (on each side of Ossendorf)
- Fourth line (behind Ossendorf)
- Artillery battery
Center between Ossendorf and Menne
- First line
- Second line
- Third line
- Hessian Converged Grenadier Battalion Mirbach, lieut.-col. (of Anhalt regt No. 11)
- Hessian Converged Grenadier Battalion Papenheim, lieut.-col. (of Bischhausen regt No. 4)
- Hessian Converged Grenadier Battalion Rückersfeld, lieut.-col. (of Erbprinz regt No. 12)
- Hanoverian Bremer Cavalry (2 sqns)
- Hanoverian Bock Dragoons (4 sqns)
- Hanoverian Reden Dragoons (4 sqns)
Left wing isolated facing Warburg
- Converged Légion Britannique Dragoons (5 sqns)
- I./Légion Britannique (1 bn)
- II./Légion Britannique (1 bn)
- III./Légion Britannique (1 bn)
- IV./Légion Britannique (1 bn)
- V./Légion Britannique (1 bn)
- First line
- Second line
French Order of Battle
Commander-in-chief: Lieutenant-General Chevalier de Muy
Corps of the Chevalier de Muy (about 18,000 men in 28 battalions and 32 squadrons with 24 heavy guns)
|Right Wing under Lieutenant-General de Maupéou and Mestre-de-Camp de Roquepin
|Chasseurs de Fischer (2,000 men) in front of the town of Warburg
La Tour-du-Pin Brigade (4 bns)
|Centre under Lieutenant-Generals de Lutzelberg and d'Auvet and the Mestres-de-Camp de Lugeac, de Soupire and de Maugiron
|Royal-Étranger Cavalry Brigade
Bourbon Cavalry Brigade
Thianges Dragons (4 sqns)
Royal Dragons (4 sqns)
|La Reine Cavalry Brigade
Royal-Piémont Cavalry Brigade
|Left Wing under Lieutenant-Generals Marquis de Ségur and the Mestres-de-Camp d'Amenzaga and de Travers
La Couronne Brigade
Bourbonnais Brigade (4 bns) en potence on the left flank
Corps Royal de l'Artillerie: 24 pieces
Corps of Maréchal-de-Camp M. de la Morlière in support of de Muy, at Welda 6 km to the south of Warburg
This article is essentially a compilation of texts from the following books which are now in the public domain:
- Jomini, baron de: Traité des grandes opérations militaires, Vol. 3, 2nd ed., Magimel, Paris, 1811, pp. 230
- Carlyle, T.: History of Friedrich II of Prussia, Vol. 20
- Dumouriez, Charles-François (attributed): in Galerie des Aristocrates militaires et Mémoires secrets, London, 1791 (translated by Christian Rogge)
- Fortescue, J. W.: A History of the British Army Vol. II, MacMillan, London, 1899, pp. 508-512
- Grosser Generalstab Kriegsgeschichtliche Abteilung II: Die Kriege Friedrichs des Grossen, Part 3 Der siebenjährige Krieg 1756-1763, Vol. 12 Landeshut und Liegnitz, Berlin, 1913, pp. pp. 262-268
- Hotham (probably): The operations of the Allied Amy under the command of his Serene Highness Prince Ferdinand Duke of Brunswic and Luneberg beginning in the year 1757 and ending in the year 1762, London: T. Jefferies, 1764, pp. 160-164
- Pajol, Charles P. V.: Les Guerres sous Louis XV, vol. V, Paris, 1891, pp. 67-69
For the allied order of battle: Service Historique de l'Armée de Terre, Château de Vincennes/Paris original allied staff document entitled Disposition des corps détachés de l'armée du camp de Calle [sic.] au 29 juillet 1760 and Ordre de bataille au camp de Calle [sic.] le 29 juillet 1760
Castries, Duc de: Le Maréchal de Castries (1727-1800), Flammarion, 1956, pp. 40-41
Grosser Generalstab: Die Kriege Friedrichs des Grossen - Part 3 Der Siebenjährige Krieg 1756-1763, vol. 12, Berlin, 1913