1760 - Swedish campaign in Pomerania

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Hierarchical Path: Seven Years War (Main Page) >> Campaigns >> 1760 - Swedish campaign in Pomerania

The campaign lasted from August to December 1760

Introduction

On October 29, 1759, after the Prussian incursion in Mecklenburg during the previous spring, the Duke of Mecklenberug-Schwerin had concluded a treaty with Albrekt Lantingshausen for the accommodation of Mecklenburg's troops in Swedish Pomerania or on the island of Rügen in the event that Mecklenburg was again threatened by a Prussian invasion.

At the beginning of November, when the Swedish army felt compelled to retreat from Prenzlau to Swedish Pomerania, the Mecklenburg troops also withdrew from their country and crossed over to Rügen in mid-November. Only 1 captain with 100 men were left behind to garrison Schwerin while the Leibgarde was on leave.

By December 1, the Mecklenburger forces stationed on the Island of Rügen consisted of 2 infantry rgts (each of 6 coys), 1 infantry bn (4 coys) and artillery.

In December, King Frederick II of Prussia ordered that the regiments Lehwaldt Infantry and Kanitz Infantry, which had been taken prisoners by the Austrians at Maxen and Meissen during the last campaign, should be re-established in Western Pomerania with convalescents, men who escaped from captivity, and recruits enlisted in Mecklenburg. Furthermore, Dohna Infantry (370 rank and file) was sent from Saxony to Pomerania, where it should be brought back to full strength.

For the campaign of 1760, the Swedish Army was under the command of Lantingshausen.

In January, the Prussians had launched a winter offensive, hoping to surprise the Swedes in their winter-quarters. However, they had soon been forced to retire to Anklam, where Lieutenant-General Heinrich von Manteuffel, Governor of Pomerania, was taken prisoner during a surprise attack by the Swedes. Nevertheless the Swedes were repulsed. Major-General Stutterheim replaced Manteuffel at the head of the small Prussian Army of Pomerania. General Manteuffel was later sent back home on "parole" that he would not take part in the war. In 1762, after the Treaty of Hamburg, Manteuffel would be released from his "parole", allowing him to participate in the ending battles of the war against the Austrians.

Note: for more details on Manteuffel’s brief winter offensive, see our article 1759 - Swedish campaign in Pomerania.

At the end of January 1760, the Prussians retired behind the Peene River in a line between Anklam and Demmin. Stutterheim established his headquarters in Krien. The Swedes took their winter-quarters, remaining idle at Greifswald, north of the Peene with outposts along the river. By this time, the Swedish Army consisted of 17 bns and 42 sqns with 8 bns deployed as a cordon along the border. It totalled some 15,000 men.

Stutterheim was at the head of 10 bns and 10 sqns for a total of approximately 6,500 men. Another Prussian corps served as garrison at Stettin (present-day Szczecin/PL) under the command of the Duke von Bevern.

Stutterheim's Corps needed a thorough reorganization, because apart from the Meinicke Dragoons, the Belling Hussars and the unreliable Freiregiment Hordt, it initially consisted only of convalescents, who had been assembled in Stettin and Berlin after the bloody battles of Paltzig and Kunersdorf, and formed into temporary battalions. However, Frederick's needed these convalescent men to complement the regiments of his own army.

Description of Events

Preparations for the Campaign

On February 3, Dohna Infantry joined Stutterheim's Corps.

During winter, Frederick ordered that the Hessen-Kassel Fusiliers and Grabow Fusiliers, who had been taken prisoners at Maxen, should be re-established at one battalion each, in Magdeburg and in Neisse, and should then join Stutterheim's Corps.

In February, when the Russian Major-General Count Totleben took position in Eastern Pomerania and launched raids into Neumark, the governor of Stettin, Lieutenant-General Duke of Bevern, recalled the 2 coys (Knesewitz and Hüllesem) of the Pomeranian Frei-Grenadier-Corps, and the 2 sqns (Hohendorff and Natzmer) of the Pomerania Provincial Hussars from Stutterheim's Corps.

On February 29, Bevern also recalled the Grenadier Battalion Köller and the Grenadier Battalion Ingersleben from Stutterheim's Corps to Eastern Pomerania.

At the beginning of March, Stutterheim detached Major von Podewils with 300 horse (200 convalescent cavalrymen from various rgts and 100 convalescent hussars from various rgts) to reinforce Bevern in Eastern Pomerania.

In the spring, the Mecklenburger forces stationed on the Island of Rügen received recruits, and the single battalion was transformed into a rgt. Thus, this force now consisted of 3 rgts which had been brought to 8 coys each.

In March and April, the Austrians and Russians included the Swedish army in their operational plan for the coming campaign. It was supposed to march through Mecklenburg to Havelberg, and from there to block supplies destined to the Prussian army on the Havel and the Elbe, and to advance on Berlin if it had the opportunity. It would then make a junction with an Austrian corps sent from Saxony. However, Lantingshausen considered that this plan would expose his long line of supply to attack from the Prussian troops posted around Stettin.

By April, the Duke of Bevern had partly reconstituted his small flotilla, which now counted 2 gunboats (each with 1 mortar and 5 guns) and 2 espings (each with 6 small guns).

At the beginning of April, a number of Swedish galleys and smaller vessels entered the Stettiner Haff (Stettin Lagoon). From then on, they appeared at various places along the lagoon: Ziegenort, Ückermünde, Wollin, etc. Meanwhile, Swedish troops repeatedly visited the two islands of Usedom and Wollin, mostly to fetch wood for burning or shipbuilding.

In April, the Plettenberg Dragoons, arriving from Frederick's Army in Saxony, reinforced Stutterheim's Corps.

By the end of April, 2 bns of the Garrison Regiment Puttkamer were still prisoners of the Swedes (they had been captured in the Oder Islands during the previous campaign), as well as 500 men of other units.

At the beginning of May, the newly re-established Hessen-Kassel Fusiliers (1 bn) and Grabow Fusiliers (1 bn) joined Stutterheim's Corps. The battalions of convalescents had by then all been disbanded and the men had rejoined their respective regiments.

In mid-May 1760, the Meinicke Dragoons, who were stationed in Western Pomerania were transferred to Forcade's Corps which had meanwhile moved to Eastern Pomerania. Major-General von Stutterheim was now at the head of only 10 bns and 10 sqns, for a total of approx. 6,550 men. With this small army, he had to defend Western Pomerania against a Swedish army of approx. 15,000 men.

Order of Battle
Detailed order of battle of the Prussian forces operating in Western Pomerania in early June.

At the end of May, General Stutterheim concentrated the Prussian cantonments behind the Peene River, holding Demmin and Anklam. The Freiregiment Hordt, the I./Dohna Infantry, a few hussars and a detachment of dragoons covered the Peene River from Anklam to Demmin. Stutterheim also established a few batteries to defend the passages of the Peene River.

At the end of May, the Swedes posted a strong detachment in the town of Wollin. They disassembled the bridge of boats leading from Wollin to the mainland and cut off all connections across the Dievenow River.

On May 30, a detachment of the Pomeranian Frei-Grenadier-Corps attacked the crew (15 men) of a boat belonging to the Swedish galley Mars, which had landed near Altwarp on the coast of Western Pomeranian and captured all of them.

In July, 2 galleys (each with 10 guns) reinforced the Prussian flotilla.

At the beginning of July, the Swedes once more posted a strong detachment in the town of Wollin.

By mid-July, most of the Swedish recruits were arrived in Western Pomerania. and the army was concentrated in two large camps near Grimmen and between Greifswald and Eldena; and two smaller camps on the frontier with Mecklenburg near Nehringen and Volksdorf. Troops also occupied the advanced line and the towns of Barth, Damgarten, Tribsees, Loitz, Gützkow and Wolgast. The galley flotilla assembled in the "Grossen Haff" near Wollin.

On July 16, Lantingshausen received orders from Stockholm to launch an offensive, because the armies of their allies were all on the move. However, with the Russians still assembling at Posen and the Austrians not advancing in his direction, Lantingshausen decided to postpone the beginning of this offensive.

On July 22, the Duke of Bevern reported to Prince Heinrich that the armed barges and batteries in the Papenwasser, at the mouth of the Oder, to cover the communication between Stettin and Gross-Stepenitz (present-day Stepnica/PL). However, with the Swedish galleys controlling the exits of the Stettiner Haff, and Russian and Swedish warships controlling the Baltic Sea; communications by sea with Eastern Pomerania were almost impossible.

From August 5, the Kanitz Infantry was posted in two groups on the heights south of Anklam and near Kagenow to support the right wing. The outposts of the left wing were supported by Colonel Belling's detachment (II./Dohna Infantry, Belling Hussars (1 bn) and 120 dragoons) posted near Kruckow. The main body (Lehwaldt Infantry, Grabow Fusiliers, Hessen-Kassel Fusiliers, 3 sqns of the Plettenberg Dragoons, and the heavy artillery) encamped near Krien.

Swedish Offensive

Order of Battle
Detailed order of battle of the Swedish forces operating in Western Pomerania in August.

The Swedes had been very slow to assemble the necessary men, horses, arms and clothing for the coming campaign, and the Prussians greatly benefited from this delay.

Lantingshausen planned to appear unexpectedly in front of the extreme left wing of Stutterheim near Demmin, to make himself master of this place and then to advance against the rear of the Prussians. To draw the attention of the Prussians in another direction, he detached Lieutenant-General Ehrensvärd from Greifswald with 5 bns, 2 sqns and 4 six-pdrs to advance on Anklam by way of Ziethen.

On August 16, the Swedish troops encamped near Grimmen and Greifswald made a junction at Medrow. The vanguard (7 bns, 9 sqns, the Hästjägare and a strong detachment of the Blå Hussars), under Lieutenant-General Count Fersen, crossed the Trebel River near Mehringen and Volksdorf and advanced on Demmin to cut the line of communication on the western side of the town and thus secure the crossing of the main body.

On August 17

  • Swedes
    • Ehrensvärd appeared in front of Anklam, while the galley flotilla entered the Peene River.
    • Lantingshausen's vanguard under Fersen marched from Volksdorf towards Demmin. Near Beestland, it came to contact with a detachment of 50 Belling Hussars under Captain von der Schulenburg. The Prussians initially managed to take a few prisoners, including the French military plenipotentiary Brigadier Marquis de Caulaincourt, who was riding with the Swedish hussars. However, Schulenburg finally had to give way to superior forces, but was able to bring his prisoners back.
    • Fersen appeared in front of Demmin. When the Prussian garrisons rejected his offer to surrender, Fersen bombarded the place while establishing a camp near Drönnewitz.
    • Lantingshausen marched with the main body of his army from Medrow by way of Volksdorf and followed the road taken by his vanguard up to Beestland, on the left flank of the Prussian army
  • Prussians
    • Stutterheim transferred the main body of his small army from Krien to Medow, closer to Anklam and Stolpe.
    • Demmin was defended by detachments of Dohna Infantry and Kanitz Infantry under Major von Rosenberg.
    • Anklam was defended by 3 coys of Freiregiment Hordt under Major von Below. There were also 3 coys of the same regiment under Lieutenant-Colonel von der Goltz posted in Stolpe. Stutterheim had also erected entrenchments.

On August 18

  • Swedes
    • Ehrensvärd vainly summoned the garrisons of Anklam and Stolpe to surrender. He then cannonaded the entrenchments near Stolpe and made preparations to cross the Peene River. However, he remained in his positions near Ziethen.
    • Lantingshausen learned that the left wing of the Prussian positions near Demmin had been reinforced. Therefore, crossing the Peene River in this area would be difficult. He decided to march further and to attempt the crossing between the lakes of Kummerow and Malchin. To mask this manoeuvre, Fersen remained in front of Demmin with the vanguard. Furthermore, the I. German Grenadiers (aka Grenadier Battalion Meijerfelt) occupied the passage of the Peene River at Verchen. Lantingshausen also formed a new vanguard (2 bns and 9 sqns) under Colonel Baron von Stackelberg.
  • Prussians
    • When Colonel von Belling, who was posted at Kruckow with his detachment (1 bn, 5 sqns of Belling Hussars and 120 dragoons), heard about the advance of the Swedes towards Demmin, he hastened towards the place, which was also reinforced by the I./Dohna Infantry, previously posted at Wüstenfelde.

In the night of August 18 to 19, Stackelberg's vanguard marched to Malchin behind the Prussian left flank.

On August 19

  • Swedes
    • In the morning, Lantingshausen marched to Malchin with the rest of his army.
    • In the morning, after having crossed the Peene River at Malchin, the Swedish vanguard marched north-eastwards around Lake Kummerow to Demmin, where it arrived in the evening.
  • Prussians
    • The Prussian hussar outposts at Verchen and Malchin, as well as the garrison of Demmin, managed to retire in time.
    • In the afternoon, when Stutterheim was informed of the crossing of the Peene by the Swedes at Malchin, he realised his mistake. The line of retreat of his dispersed small army was now threatened.
    • In the evening, Stutterheim recalled all his detachments to Medow.

After the evacuation of Anklam, Lieutenant-General Ehrensvärd occupied the place with the left column. Similarly, Lieutenant-General von Fersen occupied Demmin with the former vanguard.

On August 20

  • Prussians
    • After the evacuation of Demmin, Belling's detachment formed the rearguard of Stutterheim's small army. Belling marched by way of Japenzin to Zinzow, to the north-west of the Kavelpass.
    • Stutterheim marched his small army from Medow by way of Spantekow and the Kavelpass to Neue Mühle, approx. 8 km to the south-east of Friedland.

On August 21

  • Swedes
    • Lantingshausen marched from Malchin with the main body of his army and crossed the Tollense. near Schmarsow.
  • Prussians
    • Stutterheim's small army marched to Schönwalde in the vicinity of Pasewalk.
    • Belling's detachment followed Stutterheim's main body, and reached Galenbeck. Only hussar patrols were left north of the "Landgraben".
    • Stutterheim detached Freiregiment Hordt to occupy Ückermünde, Ferdinandshof and Wilhelmsburg to protect his line of communication with Stettin.

On August 23

  • Swedes
    • Fersen's detachment marched from Demmin and made a junction with the main army at Schmarsow. The vanguard advanced to Daberkow.
  • Prussians
    • Colonel von Belling advanced again with the rearguard (5 sqns of Belling Hussars, approx. 100 Plettenberg Dragoons and Dohna Infantry) from Galenbeck to support the hussar patrols, which had been left north of "Landgraben" for reconnaissance purposes. He took position near Friedland and posted 1 coy of Freiregiment Hordt, 100 men of Dohna Infantry and 2 artillery pieces at the Kavelpass.

On August 25

  • Swedes
    • Lantingshausen's Army marched from Schmarsow to Iven. Prussian deserters informed Lantingshausen that the Kavelpass was occupied and that Stutterheim's small army was posted at Friedland.
    • Ehrensvärd's column reached Thurow, some 7 km east of Iven.

On August 26

  • Swedes
    • Lantingshausen sent a few bns and sqns to reinforce Ehrensvärd's column. He then ordered him to advance towards the Ücker, hoping that Stutterheim would fear for his communications with Stettin.
    • Ehrensvärd marched with 6 bns, 8 sqns and a few 6-pdrs, leaving 1 bn behind to garrison Anklam. Ehrensvärd also detached Major von Platen with 130 hussars and 40 foot jägers to Woserow to protect his line of communication with Anklam.
    • Lantingshausen ordered Colonel Count Sparre, who was posted near Rebelow with 1,250 men (4 hussar sqns, 2 sqns of Hästjägare, 5 sqns of Västgöta Horse, and the I. Swedish Grenadiers with his 3-pdr gun) to make himself master of the Kavelpass. Ehrensvärd, who was posted near Thurow, was instructed to advance to Spantekow to support Sparre's attack.
  • Prussians
    • Major von Kalckstein had erected entrenchments at the Kavelpass.

In the night of August 26 to 27

  • Prussians
    • Major von Knobelsdorff with 150 men and 1 artillery piece of Freiregiment Hordt wanted to advance from Ückermünde and attack Platen's Swedish detachment. However, his plan failed. because Platen was encamped outside the village as a precaution. Nevertheless, the Swedes suffered significant losses.
    • Belling's the infantry tried to attack Lantingshausen's outposts near Rebelow and Rehberg.

On August 27

  • Engagement at the Kavelpass
    • In the morning. Major von Kalckstein saw the Swedes advancing by way of Zinzow. He opened fire with his two artillery pieces.
    • Sparre countered with his 3-pdr gun. His Hästjägare dismounted and advanced against the Prussian entrenchments. Meanwhile, the Adjutant-General Baron von Wrangel, who accompanied Sparre's detachment on behalf of Lantingshausen, trotted with the Västgöta Horse to Putzar, where he made preparations to cross the Landgraben.
    • Kalckstein felt so threatened by this manoeuvre, that he had the bridge at the Kavelpass set on fire and then retired to Friedland with his company (Freiregiment Hordt).
    • The Swedes occupied the Kavelpass and rapidly extinguished the fire and preserved the bridge.
  • Prussians
    • With the Kavelpass in the hands of the Swedes, Belling could not maintain his positions near Friedland and had to retire to Galenbeck where 1 coy of Freiregiment Hordt occupied the narrow passage at Neuen Mühle.

On August 28

  • Swedes
    • Lantingshausen received a bread convoy which had been sent from Anklam.
    • Ehrensvärd set off from Thurow with his column and marched towards Ducherow.

On August 29

  • Swedes
    • Ehrensvärd reached Blumenthal, north of Ferdinandshof, which had been evacuated by the Prussians. The advance elements of this column found Ückermünde and Wilhelmsburg free of Prussian troops. Stutterheim had recalled the I./Freiregiment Hordt to Pasewalk.
    • Lantingshausen's Army set off from Iven and marched to Boldekow, some 3 km north of the Kavelpass.
    • In the evening, Count Sparre crossed the Kavelpass with Lantingshausen's vanguard and advanced in the direction of Friedland.
  • Engagement near the Kavelpass
    • Belling reconnoitred towards Friedland with 5 sqns of Belling Hussars. He made a halt near the Kavelpass and rode accompanied by a few hussars to a nearby height. From there, he saw the Swedish horse as they came out of the pass. The Swedes had spotted him and tried to isolate him from his hussar sqns. However, Belling fought his way through them and quickly retreated to the Neue Mühle. He was closely pursued by the Swedish cavalrymen.
    • At the Neue Mühle, 100 men of the Freiregiment Hordt under Kalckstein and 100 Plettenberg Dragoons came to Belling's support.
    • Sparre then returned to the Kavelpass while Belling remained near Galenbeck.
    • In this combat, the Prussians captured a young standard-bearer belonging to the Blå Hussars, the future Field Marshal Blücher.

On August 30

  • Swedes
    • Lantingshausen's Army crossed the Kavelpass and took the road leading to Strasburg by way of Heinrichswalde.
  • Prussians

On August 31

  • Swedes
    • Lantingshausen's Army reached Strasburg less than 20 km west of Pasewalk.
  • Prussians
    • Stutterheim's little army crossed the Ücker River and encamped near Rollwitz to protect his left flank. He threw troops into Pasewalk and Prenzlau and posted detachments to defend the passages of the Ücker.
    • Prussian troops from Stettin screened the Lower Ücker from Torgelow downstream.
    • Belling occupied the crossing at Taschenberg with the rearguard. Stutterheim ordered him to harass the advancing Swedish corps.

In August and September, the Swedish galleys were particularly active, and magazines were established on the Island of Usedom. In Stettin, it was assumed that the Swedes planned operations in Eastern Pomerania from their base at Wollin, but without any communication with the islands of the Oder, it was impossible to ascertain the strength of the Swedish units posted there.

At the beginning of September, 2 newly built galiots (each with 20 guns) joined the Prussian flotilla. Nevertheless, the flotilla was still much too weak to consider an engagement against the vastly superior Swedish flotilla.

On September 3

  • Swedes
    • In the morning, Lantingshausen sent forward Colonel Count Sparre and Colonel von Wrangel at the head of 3 cavalry sqns, a few hussar sqns, part of the Hästjägare and 3 bns against Taschenberg to drive the Prussians out of this post.
    • Lantingshausen's Army marched towards Werbelow.
    • Early in the morning, Lieutenant-General Ehrensvärd set off from Blumenthal with 6 bns, 8 cavalry sqns and a few hussar sqns. Around 8:00 a.m., he reached the village of Belling on the west bank of the Ücker, some 4 km north of Pasewalk. Around noon, there was also a clash with the Prussians on the right wing of their positions. A patrol of Prussian dragoons reconnoitring on this side of the Ücker on Stutterheim's right wing was driven back towards Pasewalk by the Blå Hussars.
    • Ehrensvärd vainly summoned Lieutenant-Colonel von der Goltz to evacuate Pasewalk, where the Anklam Gate and the Mühl Gate were manned by 3 coys of the Freiregiment Hordt. Ehrensvärd then cannonaded the Anklam Gate and the suburb of Pasewalk, causing the barns at the gates to catch fire. However, all attempts by the Swedes to enter the town were repelled. Then came an order from Stutterheim to evacuate Pasewalk and retire southwards to Dauer. However, the 3 coys of the Freiregiment Hordt still had to withstand the Swedish fire, because it was important to wait for the 2 coys under Major von Knobelsdorff arriving from Neuenkrug and for the departure of the field bakery which had previously been established in Pasewalk. When the Prussians finally retired from Pasewalk, Ehrensvärd's Corps immediately occupied the town.
  • Prussians
    • Belling had taken position near Jagow behind the defile of Taschenberg with the II./Dohna Infantry, most of the bn of Belling Hussars and the 350 Plettenberg Dragoons. The I./Dohna Infantry was posted near Bandelow, east of Taschenberg to cover the road west of the Ücker River, leading from Pasewalk to Prenzlau. The company of Freiregiment Hordt under Captain Kalckstein was posted at the Schindel-Mühle some 2 km to the north-east of Jagow. A hussar patrol had also been posted near Güterberg. Behind Belling's positions, the remaining 4 coys of Freiregiment Hordt occupied Prenzlau and the passage of the Ücker near Schmarsow. Furthermore, 3 coys of the I./Freiregiment Hordt occupied Pasewalk, while the 2 other coys of this battalion, under Major von Knobelsdorff occupied a position near Neuenkrug, not far to the south-east of Liepe.
    • Stutterheim had been erroneously informed that, in addition to the two Swedish columns that had advanced to Pasewalk and Werbelow, a third corps was advancing southwards from Milow, 4 km to the north-west of Werbelow. He feared that this third column would advance on Prenzlau or Templin and could threaten Berlin. Accordingly, he decided to move to a new camp to maintain communication with Berlin. He set off from Rollwitz and marched to Dauer. Major von Knobelsdorff remained at Nieden with his 2 coys and 200 hussars to observe the Swedes in the vicinities of Schmarsow and Werbelow. He was in constant contact with the Ehrensvärd's column.
  • Engagement near Taschenberg
    • In the morning, when Belling was informed of the advance of the Swedes towards Strasburg, he rode forward with the 5 sqns of Belling Hussars to reconnoitre and if necessary to support his outposts near Güterberg. He soon bumped into Sparre's detachment and hastily retired.
    • Belling sent orders to II./Dohna Infantry to retire from Jagow to Bandelow and support Kalckstein's company which was guarding the passage at the Schindel-Mühl.
    • The II./Dohna Infantry had scarcely managed to break up camp and set out in a hurry when the Swedish cavalry, hurrying far ahead of their infantry, appeared at Taschenberg. Count Sparre, with most of his hussars and Hästjägare, and some sqns of regular cavalry, followed Belling's hussars and dragoons, who covered the II./Dohna Infantry.
    • Meanwhile Wrangel, having crossed from Taschenberg, turned with 6 sqns of the Upplands Liv Regiment and Smålands Horse, together with 1 sqn of Blå Hussars and 1 sqn of Hästjägare, against Kalckstein's Company, which was just retreating from the Schindel-Mühl across the open field. In spite of the most stubborn resistance, during which the gun accompanying the company also went into action, it succumbed to repeated attacks from all sides. After most of the soldiers of the company had been killed or wounded, the rest surrendered, and the gun also fell into the hands of the Swedes. In this action, the Swedes captured 140 rank and file.
    • Wrangel then turned against the II./Dohna Infantry, which was retiring from Jagow towards Bandelow. The battalion found itself in such dire straits that it almost seemed as if it would share the same fate as Kalckstein's Company.
    • Suddenly Belling, despite being pursued by Count Sparre's hussars and jägers, rushed up with all his cavalry and threw himself with full force at the disordered Swedish squadrons. After a brief melee, the Swedish cavalry gave way, leaving 7 officers and more than 100 men behind as prisoners.
    • Sparre did not dare to attack, and the Prussians retired unmolested to Prenzlau. The I./Dohna Infantry joined them on the way at Bandelow.
    • Wrangel and Sparre rejoined the Swedish main body at Werbelow.

On September 4, Stutterheim continued his retreat southwards from Dauer to Blindow, closer to Prenzlau.

On September 6

  • Swedes
    • Lantingshausen's Army marched from Werbelow in four columns to Prenzlau. He was already determined to remain in the vicinity of Prenzlau to wait for the next movements of the Russians and Austrians. He had plenty of provisions available to his army in the region.
    • Ehrensvärd advanced from Pasewalk and made a demonstration against Nieden.
  • Storming of Prenzlau
    • On his arrival before Prenzlau, Lantingshausen vainly summoned Major Below to surrender.
    • The Swedes then launched an assault. The Swedes damaged the Berlin Gate with heavy artillery and then filled the ditch with fascines. Then 2 bns (I./Västmanlands Infantry, I.Kungl Livgardet) entered the town. The Prussians opposed a stubborn resistance, and the Swedes had to fight their way up to the marketplace.
    • Below then evacuated Prenzlau by the Stein Gate.
    • Meanwhile, 2 additional Swedish bns (II./Västmanlands Infantry, German Grenadiers) had forced their way into town through the Anklam Gate. The defenders of this gate managed to retire in time and to join Below in his retreat.
    • Not far from Prenzlau, Below received the support of Belling's detachment and the Swedes put an end to the pursuit and returned to Prenzlau.
    • In this action, Below had lost some 40 men and the Swedes 11 men.
  • Prussians
    • When Stutterheim learned of the advance of the Swedes towards Prenzlau, he decamped from Blindow and took a new position at Seelübbe, some 6 km south of Prenzlau and prepared for battle.
    • There were still 3 coys of the II./Freiregiment Hordt posted in Prenzlau under Major von Below, while Belling's detachment had taken position on the heights east of the town.
    • Due to incorrect reconnaissance, Stutterheim initially thought that the main Swedish force was advancing on the right bank of the Ücker towards Prenzlau while only a small corps was marching along the left bank. That is why he had taken up a position near Seelübbe, with his left wing leaning against the Unterückersee to prevent the Swedes from advancing further southwards.
    • In the afternoon, Stutterheim was informed that the main body of Lantingshausen's Army was in fact marching along the left bank of the Ücker. He feared that the Swedes would continue their march southwards along the western side of the chain of small lakes, in the direction of Berlin.
    • In the evening, Stutterheim retired to Greiffenberg (present-day Angermünde). Belling remained near Meichow and Polssen with his detachment to observe the Swedes.

The main Swedish army then remained in the vicinity of Prenzlau until the end of September, awaiting the result of the Siege of Colberg (present-day Kołobrzeg/PL) by the Russians.

By September 8, Belling's patrols had established that only weak Swedish detachments were still stationed on the right bank of the Ücker near Prenzlau and Pasewalk, and that there was only a small camp on the left bank near Pasewalk.

On September 9

  • Swedes
    • Swedish troops appeared at Flieth and Suckow to the south of the Oberückersee; it was even reported that the detachment observed at Flieth (under Major-General Karpellan) had marched on to Templin.
  • Prussians
    • Stutterheim was so concerned for Berlin that he retired from Greiffenberg to Gollin.

On September 10

  • Prussians
    • Stutterheim resumed his retreat and marched to Zehdenick. Belling remained at Gollin to observe the movements of the Swedes.
    • Stutterheim was informed that the Russians had laid siege to Colberg, but he also knew that the garrison hoped to hold out until the arrival of the relief corps sent from Glogau by Lieutenant-General von der Goltz. According to information received from the Duke of Bevern at Stettin, Major-General Paul von Werner was expected to reach Landsberg an der Warthe (present-day Gorzów Wielkopolski/PL) on September 11.

By September 13, Stutterheim considered that he could continue to devote his foremost attention to the security of Berlin, for the preservation of which he was prepared to risk everything.

Around September 14, a force of 450 horse formed in Berlin from convalescents from various regiments joined Stutterheim at Zehdenick. The rumor significantly increased the size of these reinforcements.

On September 15, Lantingshausen set off from his positions at Röpersdorf and retired through the morass stretching between Prenzlau and Boitzenburg, leaving only outposts near Röpersdorf. He found a suitable camp between Prenzlau and Güstow. Lieutenant-General Ehrensvärd remained at Pasewalk with 3,000 men and established a chain of outposts along the Ucker River to cover the main Swedish army against enterprises from the Prussian forces posted at Stettin.

On September 17, Colonel Belling drove the Swedes out of their outposts in the vicinity of Röpersdorf.

On September 19, Belling forced the Swedish outposts to retire to the main army.

On September 21

  • Prussians
    • Belling encamped near Flieth and launched raids against the flank and rear of the Swedes as far as Schönermark, Gollmitz and Bietikow.
  • Swedes
    • Captain Poppe, who had been sent towards Colberg to get some news of the siege, arrived at Prenzlau and informed Lantingshausen that Major-General Demidov, who commanded the Russian siege corps (6,000 foot, 1,000 cavalry), was urging him to remain in his present positions near Prenzlau to fix Stutterheim's small army and prevent it from attacking the siege corps. On his way back from Colberg, Poppe had also been informed of the march of a Prussian force under Major-General von Werner, sent from Glogau to relieve Colberg.

On September 22, the Prussians attacked a Swedish foraging party escorted by 400 horse near Fredershof (unidentified location), capturing 8 officers and 170 men, while losing only 2 men killed and 6 wounded.

On September 30, Prince Eugen of Württemberg arrived in Western Pomerania with 1 bn and some guns and took command of Stutterheim’s Corps

On October 2

  • Prussians
    • After the relief of Colberg, Werner with 5 bns and 8 sqns marched on Pasewalk against the communications of the Swedish Army, by way of Stettin where the Duke von Bevern reinforced his small corps with part of his garrison troops and some artillery. Werner’s Corps now consisted of 6 bns, 2 coys, 12 sqns and a detachment of 150 horse.
    • The Duke of Bevern had already established an operational plan for the corps of Werner and Prince Eugen, to drive back the Swedes behind the Peene River through concerted offensives. Werner would march undetected from Stettin to Torgelow, cross the Ucker there and make himself master of the defiles near Ferdinandshof in the rear of the Swedish army. Meanwhile, Prince Eugen would advance against the right flank of the Swedes by way of Templin and Boitzenburg.
    • Werner proceeded towards Pasewalk. He first captured a Swedish outpost at Löcknitz.
    • Prince Eugen of Württemberg marched from Zehdenick to Templin.
  • Swedes
    • In the evening, General Ehrensvärd was informed that some Prussian infantry had passed by Stettin and marched to Löcknitz. He immediately sent Major Platen with 200 volunteers, 100 hussars and 2 guns to cross the Randow River and reconnoitre the area.
Map of the Prussian raid on Pasewalk on October 3, 1760
Copyright: Dinos Antoniadis
Key to the map:
 
a Swedish outpost near Löcknitz consisting of 200 volunteers and 100 hussars, partly made prisoners of war when attacked by a Prussian corps marching from Stettin on Pasewalk.
b March of the Prussian corps, under command of General Werner, crossing the Randow River.
c Position Werner's Corps in front of Pasewalk.
d Position of the Swedish corps under command of General Ehrensvärd on the opposite side of Pasewalk.
e Swedish redoubts made for the defence of the suburbs.
f Prussian attack made by one battalion of volunteers and grenadiers who became masters of the redoubts and took their Swedish defenders prisoners. The Prussian corps then continued its attack against Pasewalk but, achieving nothing, was obliged to retire to Löcknitz and Stettin.

On October 3

  • Raid on Pasewalk
    • In the morning, Platen arrived near Löcknitz and was immediately attacked by the Prussians. He retired to Wetzenow but the Prussian infantry caught up with his corps. Most of Platen’s men were taken prisoners, only hussars managed to reach Pasewalk.
    • After the arrival of the first refugees Ehrensvärd sent out 1 bn of the Östgöta Infantry and 350 horse to support Platen. Ehrensvärd had 4 bns and 8 sqns in Pasewalk. 1 bn of Åboläns Infantry and all 8 sqns were kept in reserve in his camp.
    • After its return, the bn of Östgöta Infantry was sent to the entrenchments in front of Prenzlauer Gate; while the bn of Västerbottens Infantry was posted at the Anklam Gate; and the bn of Älvsborgs Infantry took position at the “Mühlentor.”
    • Around 11:30 a.m., Werner arrived almost at the same time as Platen’s hussars. He captured all the redoubts defending Pasewalk. However, General Ehrensvärd, commanding the Swedish force, set fire to the barns in the suburbs and threatened to do the same to the town.
    • During, the fight, Ehrensvärd was wounded and General Stackelberg took command of the Swedish force.
    • Around 6:00 p.m, Werner summoned the Swedes to surrender but his summon was rejected. Werner then retired towards Löcknitz with 215 prisoners (5 officers and 210 men) and 8 guns.
    • In this action, the Swedes had lost a total of 30 officers and 483 men; and the Prussians, 9 officers and 282 men.
  • Prussians

In the night of October 3 to 4, alarmed by the Prussian attack on Pasewalk, the Swedish Army under Lantingshausen retired from its entrenched camp near Prenzlau and marched to Breetsch (probably Brietzig) near Pasewalk.

On October 4

  • Swedes
    • Lantingshausen’s Army made a junction with Ehrensvärd’s Corps, which was, since Ehrensvärd had been wounded, under command of General Stackenberg.
  • Prussians
    • Belling, remaining on the right flank of the Swedes, marched by way of Wolfshagen and Güterberg to Gehren, on the road leading from Pasewalk to Friedland. At night, Knobelsdorf was sent with 3 coys and 30 hussars to Jatznick to cut the lines of supply of the Swedes.

On October 6

  • Swedes
    • Lantingshausen marched to Werbelow (present-day Uckerland).
  • Prussians
    • Belling reached Gehren.

On October 8, Belling retired from Gehren by way of Woldegk and returned to Prenzlau.

On October 9

  • Prussians
    • The Duke of Bevern recalled the 3 bns, 2 coys and 2 sqns, which he had contributed to Werner’s force, to protect the vicinity of Stettin from the depredations of Russian light troops.
    • Werner marched to Prenzlau with the rest of his small corps (3 bns, 10 sqns) and made a junction with Belling's Corps.

On October 12, Werner set off from Prenzlau and marched to Wolfshagen. Belling remained there to observe the Swedish army.

On October 13, Werner marched to Neu-Brandenburg.

On October 14, Werner marched to Treptow (present-day Altentreptow), as if to pass the Trebel River and to march on Swedish Pomerania. However, Werner abandoned his design to march on Demmin when he was informed that the place was occupied by a strong garrison. He decided to redirect his march towards Tribsees.

On October 16, Lantingshausen instructed General Stackelberg to occupy the defiles near Anklam.

On October 17, the Swedish main army retired towards Anklam.

On October 18, the Swedish army reached Anklam. The Swedes also evacuated Ueckermünde, which was occupied by the Prussians.

On October 19

  • Prussians
    • Werner reached Neukalen. However, reconnaissances conducted in the area of Tribsees and Beestland discovered that both places were defended by strong garrisons. Now that the Swedes had retired behind the Peene River, he decided to retire and take position behind Tollensesee.
    • Belling followed up the retiring Swedish army and reached Friedland.

On October 27, Lantingshausen retired from Anklam after destroying the bridge.

On October 28,

  • Prussians
    • Belling occupied Anklam and proceeded towards Demmin.
    • Werner marched towards Stettin to put a stop to the incursions of the Russian cossacks in Eastern Pomerania.
  • Swedes
    • The Swedes evacuated Demmin.

Belling then entered into Mecklenburg, crossed the Peene River and put the country to contributions.

On November 7, Belling detached Major Schulenburg with 230 horse to drive Swedish parties out of Mecklenburg.

On November 11, Belling himself, with 300 hussars and 60 dragoons, rode by way of Dargun to Viecheln to defend the crossing over the Trebel near Tribsees and thus cover his detachment that was stationed near Wismar in Mecklenburg.

On November 14

  • Prussians
    • Belling was informed that Lantingshausen had sent 200 foot and 300 horse by way of Tribsees to Tessin and Laage to threaten the rear of the Prussians operating in Mecklenburg. Belling advanced on Tessin and the Swedes retired to Tribsees.
  • Swedes
    • The Swedish cavalry (300 men) under Major Schwarzer, which had advanced against Laage, intercepted Major Schulenburg's detachment returning from Weismar, and captured 1 officer and 26 men.

On November 15, Belling was informed that the Swedish cavalry was retreating by way Rostock and Damgarten. He planned to intercept it near Rostock, but, during the night, Major Schwarzer cleverly evaded and escaped Tribsees without any loss.

On November 20, Prince Eugen, who had left Saxony for Pomerania with 8 bns and 8 sqns after the victorious Battle of Torgau reached Schwedt, where he received orders to send his cavalrt to reinforce Werner’s Corps, which was fighting Russian light troops in Eastern Pomerania, and then march to Mecklenburg with his infantry.

On November 25, Prince Eugen arrived on the theatre of operation with his 8 bns.

On November 27, the Swedish army repassed the Peene River and took up its winter-quarters. Lantingshausen took his quarters at Greifswald, and his troops around Tribsees, Loitz, Bandelin, Klein-Bülow and Wolgast.

On December 3, after marching by way of Prenzlau and Neu-Brandenburg, Prince Eugen arrived at Malchin in Mecklenburg. His troops took up their winter-quarters behind the Trebel and Recknitz rivers. He established his headquarters in Rostock.

In the first half of December, now that the Russians had retired towards Poland, Frederick also instructed Werner to march to Western Pomerania with 1 bn, 10 sqns and 150 horse.

On January 3 and 4, 1761, Werner reached the Peene River and his troops took up their winter-quarters between Anklam and Demmin.

At the beginning of January 1761, the Württemberg Dragoons arrived from Saxony and took position on the Trebel River. Overall, the Prussians now had 11 bns, 25 sqns and 350 horse from various rgts stationed in Western Pomerania and Mecklenburg.

A truce was signed for cessation of hostilities between January 12 and March 27, 1761.

References

This article is essentially a compilation of texts from the following books which are now in the public domain:

  • Grosser Generalstab Kriegsgeschichtliche Abteilung II: Die Kriege Friedrichs des Grossen, Part 3 Der siebenjährige Krieg 1756-1763
    • Vol. 12 Landeshut und Liegnitz, Berlin, 1913, p. 75
    • Vol. 13 Torgau, Berlin, 1914, pp. 108-136
  • Officers of the Grosser Generalstab: Geschichte des Siebenjärigen Krieges in einer Reihe von Vorlesungen, mit Benutzung authentischer Quellen, Vol. 4 – Der Felzug von 1760, Berlin 1834, pp. 255-265
  • Säve, Teofron: Sveriges deltagande i Sjuåriga Kriget Åren 1757-1762, Beijers Bokförlagsaktiebolag, Stockholm, 1915
  • Jomini, Baron de: Traité des grandes opérations militaires, Vol. 3, 2nd ed., Magimel, Paris, 1811, pp. 244, 336-337, 368-371

Other sources

Kessel, E.: Das Ende des Siebenjährigen Krieges 1760-1763, 2007, Paderborn, pp. 67-74

Sharman, Alistair: Sweden's Role in the Seven Years War: A Brief Chronology 1756-1761, Seven Years War Association Journal Vol. XII No. 4

Wilson, Peter: Swedish Mobilization and Strategy, Seven Years War Association Journal Vol. X No. 1

Wilson, Peter: The Campaign in Pomerania 1757-1762, Seven Years War Association Journal Vol. X No. 1

Acknowledgments

Gunnar W. Bergman for the additional information on the capture of General Manteuffel

Harald Skala for the translation and integration of info from Kessel’s work

Richard Couture for the translation and integration of the work of the Grosser Generalstab