1762 - Siege of Schweidnitz – First phase of mining operations

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Hierarchical Path: Seven Years War (Main Page) >> Sieges >> 1762 - Siege of Schweidnitz >> 1762 - Siege of Schweidnitz – First phase of mining operations

The siege lasted from August to October 1762

Introduction

The state of the fortrees and the arrival of the Prussian army and its initial deployment are described in our article 1762 - Siege of Schweidnitz – Preparations.

The initial siege operations and the battle of Reichenbach are described in our article 1762 - Siege of Schweidnitz – Siege till the Battle of Reichenbach.

The continuation of the siege after the Prussian victory at Reichenbach, the Prussian unsuccessful attempts to storm the place and the decision to rely on mining operations to conquer the fortress are described in our article 1762 - Siege of Schweidnitz – Siege till mining operations.

Map

Plate V - Map of the fortress of Schweidnitz in 1762.
Source: Tielke, J.G.: Beytrage zur Kriegs-Kunst und Heschichte des Krieges von 1756 bis 1763, Vol. 4, Freyberg, 1781

Description of Events

The Mining of Schweidnitz

In the night of August 22 to 23, the Prussians started to work on the third parallel measuring 200 paces long, at just 150 paces from the covert way. Lefebvre, the commander of the Prussian engineers, began digging a mine under the point of approach to the fortress at the Jauernick Fort. From the third parallel, Lefebvre spotted a stretch of the covered way of the ditch facing an angle of the bastion between two caponnieres. He had now to estimate the correct distance to his objective a most difficult thing during a siege. His miners dug the opening of a 1.25 m. deep mine. Meanwhile, Batteries No. 16 and 17 were erected in a hurry. During this night, the Prussians lost a total of 20 privates and 2 bombardiers killed; 11 NCO, 33 privates and 1 gunner wounded.

On August 23, Frederick sent back Major-general von Lottum from the camp of Peterswalde with II./Zeuner (1 bn), I./Ramin (1 bn), and I./Finck (1 bn) and 10 x 12-pdr guns to encamp between Pülzen and Niedergiersdorf. Lottum immediately started to build an entrenchment along the Beyla stream to prevent any breakthrough of the Austrian garrison in this area. Meanwhile, Bredow Cuirassiers (5 sqns) and Flanss Dragoons (5 sqns) took post at Grumenau (unidentified location); Malachowski Hussars (10 sqns) at Ritschendorf and Jacobsdorf (maybe present-day Jakubów); and Finckenstein Dragoons (5 sqns) at Bögendorf; thus forming a cordon around the Austrian fortress. The same day, the Austrians placed 3 x 12-pdrs in Ravelin II and 3 x 6-pdrs on the curtain of the Striegauer Barrière and 1 x 12-pdr in No. IX. However, these new guns were soon silenced. Furthermore, the Prussian jägers inflicted heavy casualties to the troops defending the Flèche. The Austrian defenders were now completely cut from any possible relief. In the evening, Major-general Prince von Bernburg came with 9 bns as covering force while 310 men were assigned to artillery work and 100 men to engineering work.

In the night of August 23 to 24, the Prussians reinforced their trenches and began to work on Battery No. 18 (2 mortars) in their third parallel while their miners continued to dig a gallery towards Fort No. II. The Austrian artillery of the fortress aimed its fire against the third parallel. During this night, the Prussians lost a total of 1 officer and 5 privates killed; 20 privates, 3 gunners, 1 miner and 1 jäger wounded.

On August 24, the Prussian Battery No. 18 opened against the fortress. In the evening, Major-general von Thadden came with 9 bns as covering force while 300 men were assigned to artillery work and 100 men and 50 sappers to engineering work.

In the night of August 24 to 25, the Prussians started sapping towards the Striegauer Flèche. The Austrians made an opening in the parapet of the envelope of Fort No. I to eventually launch an attack on the third parralel. Their also strengthened their entrenchments. During this night, the Prussians lost a total of 6 privates killed; 4 NCOs, 40 men, 1 bombardier, 3 gunners, 1 miner and 3 jägers wounded.

On August 25 by 7:00 a.m., the Prussian miners had advanced their gallery by 18 additional feet during the last 24 hours. In the morning 150 Prussian workers were sent towards Schönbrunn to work at the communication trench. In the evening, Major-general von Gablenz came with 8 bns as covering force while 300 men were assigned to artillery work and 100 men, 50 sappers and 6 carpenters to engineering work. Meanwhile the Prussian Battery No. 18 finally silenced the Austrian guns located in Enveloppe No. II, inflicting heavy losses to the defenders.

In the night of August 25 to 26, Prussian engineers continued their work in the area of the Jauernicker Flèche while the Austrians erected chevaux-de-frise to protect the approach. The Prussian miners advanced their gallery by 10 feet. Furthermore, four 12-pdrs were added to the 3 guns already posted in Battery No. 16. The Prussians also tried to establish a sape volante and a lodgment across the road to Striegau. The Austrians reacted by ceaselessly hurling hand grenades from the Jauernicker Flèche. Their grenades were so effective that the Prussians did not manage to complete their lodgement. The Austrians also attacked Battery No. 18, forcing it to interrupt its bombardment. They then seized this opportunity to make loopholes in Ravelin I and to re-establish the curtains between Lunette I, Fort II and No. IX. During this night, the Prussians lost a total of 1 lieutenant, 1 NCO and 18 men killed; 4 officers, 5 NCOs, 120 men and 3 gunners wounded.

On August 26, the gallery of the miners reached a length of 52 feet. Towards noon, an Austrian detachment (a grenadier company from Starhemberg Infantry along with 50 volunteers and 30 workers) led by Captain Mohr made a small sortie from their lodgements but were soon driven back. In the evening, the Prince von Bernburg came with 9 bns as covering force while 300 men were assigned to artillery work and 50 sappers to engineering work. At 6:00 p.m., another Austrian detachment (a grenadier company from Moltke Infantry along with 20 grenadiers of Sachsen-Gotha Infantry led by Captain Christalling, made a sortie to destroy the lodgement near the Jauernicker Flèche. They were repulsed, losing 2 officers and several men wounded; and the minor damages made to the lodgment soon repaired. Meanwhile the Austrian had made a loophole in Work No. IX and planted a third 12-pdr there. They also placed a 12-pdr in the glacis to enfilade the newly erected Flèche No. XIII.

In the night of August 26 to 27, Prussian sappers protected the left flank of the tunnel with fascines. Major Lefebvre sent out a miner with a rope to measure the distance between the parallel and the closest point he could reach from the parapet of the covered way without being killed. The miner slowly progressed towards his objective, hiding in shell holes. He managed to get quite close to the palisade and estimated the remaining distance before returning to the trench. He told Lefebvre that the total distance was approximately 29 meters. The latter, without seeking confirmation, immediately ordered the excavation of a 29 meters long tunnel. During this night, the Prussians lost a total of 1 lieutenant and 25 privates killed; 1 lieutenant, 2 NCOs and 53 privates wounded.

On August 27, Prussian sappers continued to dig their tunnel, progressing some 6.5 m. The tunnel now measured about 22.5 m. The covering force (9 bns) was placed under command of Major-general von Thadden. Furthermore, 290 men were assigned to artillery work and 40 sappers to engineering work. The Austrians continued to work on the extension of their flèche leftward and started to dig a counter-mine.

In the night of August 27 to 28, the Prussians extended their tunnel and improved their breastworks. An Austrian detachment (100 fusiliers and a grenadier company of Arberg Infantry) vainly tried to interrupt the progress of the Prussian sappers. During this night, the Prussians lost a total of 1 lieutenant, 1 NCO and 9 privates killed; 2 officers, 3 NCOs and 3 privates wounded.

On August 28, Prussian sappers continued to dig their tunnel, progressing some 4 m. The tunnel now measured about 26.5 m. The covering force (9 bns) was placed under command of Major-general von Gablenz. Furthermore, 300 men were assigned to artillery work and 40 sappers to engineering work.

In the night of August 28 to 29, Austrian grenadiers attacked the left tunnel and managed to destroy part of its entry, seriously delaying work. During this night, the Prussians lost a total of 22 privates and 1 jäger killed; 2 officers, 3 NCOs and 43 privates wounded; 1 NCO, 1 miner and 2 privates taken prisoners.

On August 29, Prussian sappers repaired the entry of the tunnel while 100 workers planted fascines to protect the third parallel. The covering force (9 bns) was placed under command of Major-general Prince von Bernburg. Furthermore, 300 men were assigned to artillery work.

In the night of August 29 to 30, the left tunnel was extended. The Austrians established a 12-pdr gun on the left face of Enveloppe No. II. During this night, the Prussians lost a total of 15 privates killed; 1 officer, 3 NCOs, 21 privates, 1 miner and 4 gunners wounded.

By August 30, the tunnel had reached a length of 30 m. The Prussian artillery concentrated its fire upon the curtain between Lunette No. I and Fort No. II and the Prussian jägers attacked the battery of Enveloppe No. II. The covering force (9 bns) was placed under command of Major-general von Thadden. Furthermore, 280 men were assigned to artillery work, 20 sappers to engineering work and 1 officer and 26 men to prepare the lodgement for the bomb at the end of the tunnel.

In the night of August 30 to 31, the Prussians prepared the bomb to be placed in the tunnel while its lodgement was completed. During this night, the Prussians lost a total of 1 NCO, 14 men and 1 gunner killed; 4 officers, 31 privates and 3 gunners wounded.

On August 31, the Prussians placed their bomb in the tunnel. They also directed 2 guns against the curtain left of the Striegauer Barrière. The covering force was placed under command of Major-general von Gablenz. Furthermore, 290 men were assigned to artillery work and 110 men to sapping and engineering work.

In the night of August 31 to September 1, the tunnel was filled with some 2,300 kg of black powder. At 3:00 am, an Austrian detachment (20 grenadiers of Platz Infantry and 1 grenadier company of Los Rios Infantry) vainly tried to attack the tunnel. During this night, the Prussians lost a total of 1 NCO, 10 privates and 1 gunner killed; 1 officer, 1 NCO, 28 privates, 4 gunners and 1 jäger wounded.

On September 1, Frederick recalled Kanitz Infantry (2 bns) and Wied Fusiliers (2 bns) to Schweidnitz and ordered them to take post in a camp between Niedergiersdorf and Pülzen to replace Major-general Lottum's Corps (II./Zeuner (1 bn), I./Ramin (1 bn), I./Finck (1 bn)) which was sent to reinforce the Duke von Bevern's Corps. The covering force (9 bns) was placed under command of Major-general Prince von Bernburg. Furthermore, 280 men were assigned to artillery work and 200 men to sapping and engineering work.

Illustration of the four major mining attempts - Source: Tielke – Copyright: MZK Brno

In the night of September 1 to 2, at 9:00 pm, the mine was exploded. However, the tunnel turned out to be too short. At 2:00 am, an Austrian detachment (1 grenadier company and 250 fusiliers) made a sortie but was driven back by Grenadier Battalion 35/36 Schwartz. The Austrians strengthened the breastwork of No. XIV and established a line of fascines between No. XXI and Gartenfort No. III. During this night, the Prussians lost a total of 12 men killed; 1 officer, 2 NCOs, 37 men, 2 gunners and 4 jägers wounded.

On September 2, Prussian miners began a new gallery from the bottom of the crater while the Austrians resumed work in their counter-mines. The covering force (9 bns) was placed under command of Major-general von Thadden. Furthermore, 280 men were assigned to artillery work and 80 men to engineering work.

In the night of September 2 to 3, the Prussians continued their mining work. During this night, the Prussians lost a total of 1 officer, 1 NCO, 14 men and 1 gunner killed; 2 officers, 1 NCO, 36 men, 3 gunners, 2 miners and 1 jäger wounded.

On September 3, the Prussian covering force (9 bns) was placed under command of Major-general von Gablenz. Furthermore, 280 men were assigned to artillery work and 100 men to engineering work.

In the night of September 3 to 4, the new Prussian gallery reached a depth of 6.5 m. During this night, the Prussians lost a total of 1 NCO and 9 men killed; 2 officers, 2 NCOs, 30 men and 2 gunners wounded.

On September 4, the Austrians exploded a counter-mine. The Prussian covering force (9 bns) was placed under command of Major-general Prince von Bernburg. Furthermore, 260 men were assigned to artillery work and 50 men to engineering work.

In the night of September 4 to 5, mining and counter-mining continued. During this night, the Prussians lost a total of 1 NCO, 12 men and 1 gunner killed; 1 NCO, 29 men, 1 jäger and 4 gunners wounded.

On September 5 at daybreak, the gunners of Battery No. 7 located a small Austrian patrol (about 20 men) and opened fire on them. Laterm two 24-pdrs were removed from this battery and one howitzer from Battery No. 6. The Austrian defenders could by then barely oppose the progression of the Prussian siege works. The same day, Wied Fusiliers (2 bns) was sent to join the Silesian Corps in the hills near Hirschberg. It was replaced at Schweidnitz by I./Lindstedt and I./Alt Braunschweig. The Prussian covering force (9 bns) was placed under command of Major-general von Gablenz while 250 men were assigned to artillery work and 50 men to engineering work.

In the night of September 5 to 6, Prussian miners hit a water vein. Both opponents kept a lively fire all night. During this night, the Prussians lost a total of 2 NCOs and 14 men killed; 2 officers, 2 NCOs, 16 men, 1 jäger and 1 gunner wounded.

On September 6, problems persisted with water infiltration in the new Prussian gallery, which had by then reached a length of 10 m., and the gallery crumbled. Lefebvre then proceeded to dig a parallel excavation to the left of the former. The Prussian covering force (9 bns) was placed under command of Major-general von Gablenz while 260 men were assigned to artillery work and 25 sappers to engineering work.

In the night of September 6 to 7, the Prussian miners progressed about 2.8 m. The Austrians made additional embrasures in their entrenchments to place guns to cover the Köppen and Striegauer Gates. During this night, the Prussians lost a total of 7 men, 1 jäger and 1 gunner killed; 1 officer, 1 NCO and 20 men wounded.

On September 7, the new Prussian gallery reached a length of 5.3 m. The Austrian were running short of powder and had to diminish their rate of fire. The Prussian covering force (9 bns) was placed under command of Major-general Prince von Bernburg while 230 men were assigned to artillery work and 37 sappers to engineering work.

In the night of September 7 to 8, two additional 24-pdrs opened on Enveloppe II from Battery No. 17. During this night, the Prussians lost a total of 3 men and 3 gunners killed; 1 officer, 16 privates and 2 gunners wounded.

On September 8, the Prussian gallery reached a length of 11 m. while their artillery silenced the Austrian guns posted in the curtain of the Köppen Barrière. The Prussian covering force (9 bns) was placed under command of Major-general von Thadden while 230 men were assigned to artillery work and 37 sappers to engineering work.

In the night of September 8 to 9, the Prussians resumed mining. During this night, they lost a total of 6 men and 3 gunners killed; 23 men, 1 bombardier and 4 gunners wounded.

On September 9, Frederick inspected the siege works. The new gallery now measured 16.9 m. Meanwhile, the Austrian counter-mine had reached alength of 13.8 m. The noise produced by the excavation alarmed the Austrians stationed in the counter-mine galleries surrounding the fort who placed a charge of powder nearby. The Prussian covering force (9 bns) was placed under command of Major-general von Gablenz while 230 men were assigned to artillery work and 25 sappers to engineering work.

In the night of September 9 to 10 at 9:00 pm, the Austrians exploded a mine which did not cause much damage but interrupted work for a while. During this night, the Prussians lost a total of 4 privates and 1 gunner killed; 1 officer, 4 privates and 3 gunners wounded.

From September 10, workers were relieved at 3:00 pm and the covering force at 4:00 pm. The Prussian covering force (9 bns) was placed under command of Major-general Prince von Bernburg while 230 men were assigned to artillery work and 25 sappers to engineering work.

In the night of September 10 to 11, the new Prussian gallery reached a length of 22.6 m. Around midnight an Austrian mine exploded near the Prussian gallery cutting it. During this night, the Prussians lost a total of 2 NCO and 4 privates; 1 officer, 3 NCO, 12 men, 1 gunner and 1 miner wounded.

On September 11, the Prussian worked to restore the destroyed gallery. The Prussian covering force (9 bns) was placed under command of Major-general von Thadden while 222 men were assigned to artillery work and 37 sappers to engineering work.

In the night of September 12 to 13, the Prussians continued to work on their gallery while bombarding the city with 58 bombs. During this night, they lost 2 men killed and 1 officer, 17 men and 2 gunners wounded.

On September 12, two sqns of Malachowski Hussars were sent to the Schweidnitzwasser from Tunkendorf. The Prussian artillery concentrated its fire against the Austrian pieces located to the left of the Köppen barrier. Major Lefebvre opened a new gallery to the left of the recently damaged one. The Prussian covering force (9 bns) was placed under command of Major-general von Gablenz while 230 men were assigned to artillery work and 37 sappers to engineering work.

In the night of September 12 to 13, the Prussians resumed their mining works. During this night, the Prussians lost 2 privates killed; and 1 officer, 1 NCO, 19 men, 3 artillery NCO and 6 gunners wounded.

On September 13, the new Prussian gallery reached a length of 5.3 m. The Prussian covering force (9 bns) was placed under command of Major-general Prince von Bernburg while 230 men were assigned to artillery work and 25 workers and 37 sappers to engineering work.

In the night of September 13 to 14, the Prussians proceeded to the necessary repairs to their siege works. During this night, they lost 6 men killed; and 14 privates, 1 bombardier and 3 gunners wounded.

On September 14, the new Prussian gallery reached a length of 10 m. The Austrian exploded 2 mines, one on each side of the Prussian gallery. The Austrian commander offered to surrender as prisoners of war on the conditions that:

  1. units would not be separated
  2. garrison would be exchanged within 3 months
  3. officers and soldiers would retain their equipage

However, negotiators did not manage to come to an agreement. The Prussian covering force (9 bns) was placed under command of Major-general von Thadden while 230 men were assigned to artillery work and 37 sappers to engineering work.

In the night of September 14 to 15, the Prussian miners continued to work on the gallery which reached a length of 12.5 m. The Austrians resumed counter-mining works. During this night, the Prussians lost 3 privates killed; and 1 NCO, 14 men, 1 artillery NCO and 1 gunner wounded.

On September 15, the Prussian gallery reached a length of 13.75 m. The Prussian covering force (9 bns) was placed under command of Major-general von Gablenz while 250 men were assigned to artillery work and 120 workers and 25 sappers to engineering work.

In the night of September 15 to 16, the Prussians bombarded the Enveloppe. During this night, they lost 1 NCO, 4 men and 1 gunner killed; 1 officer, 2 NCO, 17 men, 1 bombardier and 4 gunners wounded.

On September 16 at 5:00 a.m., the Prussians exploded their mine, missing once more the covered way. The Prussian covering force (9 bns) was placed under command of Major-general Prince von Bernburg while 230 men were assigned to artillery work and 50 workers and 57 sappers to engineering work.

In the night of September 16 to 17, the Prussians began a new gallery from the bottom of the crater. During this night, they lost 1 officer, 4 privates, 1 gunner and 1 jäger killed; 4 officers, 14 privates and 3 gunners wounded.

On September 17, the Austrian commander made a new offer to surrender but his conditions were rejected. The Prussian covering force (9 bns) was placed under command of Major-general von Thadden while 230 men were assigned to artillery work and 3 NCO and 45 men to engineering work.

In the night of September 17 to 18 around midnight, the new Prussian gallery was destroyed by three counter mines. At about the same moment, the Austrians attacked the besiegers from the covered way No. II with 1 grenadier company of De Ligne Infantry and 60 fusiliers. During this night, the Prussians lost 5 men and 2 miners killed; 1 NCO, 12 privates, 1 bombardier and 2 gunners wounded.

On September 18, Lefebvre resumed his work by digging a new gallery but, in the afternoon, an Austrian mine destroyed all work made during morning. Immediately a new gallery was started between the two previously destroyed ones. The Prussian covering force (9 bns) was placed under command of Major-general von Gablenz while 230 men were assigned to artillery work and 120 workers and 45 men to engineering work.

In the night of September 18 to 19, the Prussians concentrated their artillery fire on Fort No. II and its envelope. During this night, the Prussians lost 1 NCO, 8 men and 3 miners killed; 1 officer, and 10 men wounded.

On September 19, the new Prussian gallery progressed some 2 meters but the explosion of an Austrian mine destroyed it once more. In the evening, Colonel Anhalt arrived from Frederick's headquarters to enquire on the progress of the siege. The Prussian covering force (9 bns) was placed under command of Major-general Prince von Bernburg while 250 men were assigned to artillery work and 130 men to engineering work.

In the night of September 19 to 20, the Prussians lost 3 privates, 1 bombardier and 1 gunner killed; 2 NCO, 15 privates and 1 miner wounded.

On September 20 at 6:00 a.m., the new Prussian gallery had reached a length of only 3 m. when it was destroyed anew by a counter-mine. In the evening, Lefebvre started a new gallery towards the Flèche. The Prussian covering force (9 bns) was placed under command of Major-general von Thadden while 220 men were assigned to artillery work and 80 men to engineering work.

In the night of September 20 to 21, the Prussians lost 1 officer, 1 NCO, 3 privates and 1 gunner killed; 2 officers, 1 NCO, 9 privates, 4 gunners and 2 miners wounded.

On September 21, Prussian miners resumed their work. The Austrians prepared a position to house two 60-pdr mortars to bombard the area where they expected the Prussian gallery to be. The Prussian covering force (9 bns) was placed under command of Major-general von Gablenz while 220 men were assigned to artillery work and 80 men to engineering work.

In the night of September 21 to 22, the Prussians resolved to mount a diversionary attack on the right side of the Schweidnitz Wasser. A Prussian force (Bredow Cuirassiers (5 sqns), Malachowski Hussars (7 sqns), I./Lindstedt (1 bn), I,/Alt Braunschweig (1 bn) and Kanitz (2 bns)) under Major-general von Thiele was already encamped on this side between Niedergiesdorz and Pülzen. A small depot had already been established near Jacobsdorf. At 7:00 p.m., the Prussians assembled a small detachment (400 workers and 200 men to cover them) under Ingenieur-lieutenant Freundon the Kuhberg in front of Klotzkau. They opened a trench 450 paces wide and built Battery No. 19 where they placed 2 mortars, 1 howitzer, 4 12-pdr guns and 2 24-pdr guns. The Austrian moved part of their force to counter this new initiative. During this night, the Prussians lost 4 privates killed; 2 NCO, 9 privates, 1 bombardier, 3 gunners and 1 miner wounded.

On September 22 from 9:00 a.m., Battery No. 19 opened against the Bogen Fort, Garten Fort and Ravelin III. Kanitz Infantry (2 bns) moved its camp from Niedergiersdorf to the left of Jacobsdorf. It was charged to occupy the newly built trenches and battery on the Kuhberg. Meanwhile Prussian miners worked on the new gallery. The Prussian covering force (9 bns) was placed under command of Major-general Prince von Bernburg while 300 men were assigned to artillery work and 180 men to engineering work.

In the night of September 22 to 23, around 8:00 p.m., the leftmost Prussian gallery and the entrance of the rightmost one were destroyed by a mine. Meanwhile the right wing of the first parallel was extended to make Battery No. 20 which housed 4 12-pdr guns aimed on the arear between the town and Fort No. II. During this night, the Prussians lost 3 privates and 4 gunners killed; 2 NCO, 17 privates, and 4 gunners wounded.

Continuation

The last phase of the siege is described in the following articles:

  • Second phase of the mining operarions (September 23 to October 11, 1762) describing the mining operations from the arrival Frederick II to the capitulation and occupation of the fortress.

References

The article is mainly a condensed translation of:

  • Tielke, J.G.: Beytrage zur Kriegs-Kunst und Heschichte des Krieges von 1756 bis 1763, Vol. 4, Freyberg, 1781, pp. 151-359

A few paragraphs are excerpts from the following books which are now in the public domain:

  • Carlyle T.: History of Friedrich II of Prussia vol. 20
  • Jomini, Henri: Traité des grandes opérations militaires, 2ème édition, 4ème partie, Magimel, Paris: 1811, pp. 215-224
  • Pajol, Charles P. V.: Les Guerres sous Louis XV, vol. V, Paris, 1891, pp. 301-304

Other sources

Archenholz, J. W. von, Geschichte des Siebenjahrigen Krieges in Deutschland, Berlin: 1828

Duffy, Christopher, Fire and Stone: The Science of Fortress Warfare (1660-1860), David & Charles, London: 1975

Fiedler, Siegfried, Geschichte der Grenadiere Friedrichs des Grossen, München 1981

Grosser Generalstab, Die Kriege Friedrichs des Grossen, Hiller, Berlin, 1830-1913

Jany, K., Geschichte des Koniglische Preussische Armee, t. 2, Berlin 18??

Plan der Festung Schweidnitz nebst der Kayserl. Konigl. Attaque A(nn)o 1757 - Collection of Krzysztof Czarnecki

Tempelhoff, G. F., Geschichte des Siebenjahrige Krieges in Deutschland, t. VI, Berlin 1801, pp. 140-155

Acknowledgments

Carlo Bessolo for the initial version of this article