Origin and History
In May 1701, when Louis XIV invaded the Spanish Netherlands, the British Parliament agreed to send 12 battalions, then stationed in Ireland, to the Low Countries. Furthermore, directions were issued for the levying of 10,000 recruits in England to take their place. But, immediately after, came bad news from the West Indies, and it was thought necessary to despatch thither 4 more battalions from Ireland. Thus, within fifteen months of the disbandment of 1699, the garrison of Ireland had been depleted by 15 battalions out of 21; and 4 new battalions required to be raised immediately. The regiment was among these new battalions. It was raised in Ireland on 28 June by William, Viscount Charlemont.
N.B.: Charlemont had previous owned a regiment of foot from 23 April 1694 to its disbandment in 1698.
From its creation to 1751, the regiment was known by the name of its successive colonels.
In 1701, on the eve of the War of the Spanish Succession, the newly raised regiment was stationed in Ireland. In 1702, it was appointed for sea service and proceeded to the Isle of Wight. It then took part in the unsuccessful expedition against Cádiz. After the failure of this expedition, the regiment was one of the units selected to proceed to the West Indies, and it sailed on this service on October 4, with a division of the Royal Navy under Commodore Walker. In 1703, the regiment served as marines in the West Indies. In March, it took part in the unsuccessful expedition against Guadeloupe before being redirected towards Newfoundland in an ill planned expedition against the French settlement of Placentia. Bad weather made landing impossible and illness spread aboard the transports. The regiment suffered heavy losses. In 1704, it returned to Ireland where it replenished its ranks. In 1705, the regiment was embarked from Ireland and sailed for Lisbon. The expedition then proceeded to Gibraltar. The fleet next proceeded to the bay of Altea, in Valencia where the inhabitants displayed their attachment to the Habsburg pretender. The city of Barcelona, the capital of Catalonia was finally selected as the first objective of the expedition. The regiment took part in the siege and capture of the city. In 1706, the regiment campaigned in Spain under the command of the Earl of Peterborough. The Allies advanced from Valencia towards Madrid, capturing Requena and Cuenza on their way. Archduke Charles then delayed his advance and was finally forced to retire towards the frontiers of Valencia and Murcia, where they remained during the winter.In 1707, the regiment took part in the siege of the Castle of Villena and in the Battle of Almansa where it was forced to surrender as prisoners of war. New recruits were raised in Great Britain and assembled at Chester and Namptwich. In 1711, the regiment took part in the expedition against Québec. On July 30 , the expeditionary force sailed from Boston for the Saint-Laurent River. On 21 August, the expedition finally reached the river where it encountered storms. Eight transports, a store-ship and a sloop were lost by shipwreck, and 29 officers, 676 soldiers and 35 women of the Queen's Own Regiment of Foot, William Windress' Foot, Kane's Foot and Clayton's Foot perished. There was also a scarcity of provisions. It was therefore determined in a council of war, that further operations should be abandoned. Some of the regiments engaged in the expedition proceeded to Annapolis Royal, but the regiment returned to England. On October 9, it arrived at Portsmouth. In 1713, the regiment occupied Dunkerque according to the terms of the Treaty of Utrecht.
After the war, in the Spring of 1714, the regiment returned to England. It was subsequently sent to Ireland and was placed on the establishment of that country.
During the War of the Austrian Succession, in 1740, the regiment took part in an expedition against the Spanish colonies of the West Indies. In 1743, it was stationed in Great Britain. In the spring of 1744, it was sent to Flanders. In 1745, the regiment was garrisoning Ghent when it was recalled to Newcastle in Great Britain to quell the Jacobite rebellion. In the first days of January 1746, it arrived in Edinburgh and fought at the battle of Falkirk on January 17. It then retired to Edinburgh along with the defeated British corps. On April 16, the regiment took part to the victorious battle of Culloden. The regiment was then sent to occupy Aberdeen. In 1747, the regiment was sent back to Flanders. On July 2, it took part to the battle of Lauffeld where it was part of the rearguard which covered the retreat of the army. In 1748, at the end of the war, the regiment returned to Great Britain and was soon sent to Gibraltar where it assumed garrison duties until 1753.
On July 1 1751, when a Royal warrant reorganised the British infantry, the regiment was designated as the "36th Regiment of Foot".
In 1754, the regiment returned to Great Britain.
As per a resolution of September 20 1756, a second battalion was exceptionally added to the regiment. However, this second battalion was detached from its parent regiment in April 1758 to form the 74th Foot.
During the Seven Years' War, the regiment was commanded by:
- since March 13 1751 to ???: Robert Manners
Service during the War
From June 17 to October 12 1756, the regiment was stationed at Chatham in the south of England.
In 1757, the regiment was stationed at Barham between Canterbury and Dover in the south of England
In May 1758, the regiment was at the Isle of Wight in preparation for a raid on the French Coasts. It then embarked on the fleet and took part in the first expedition from June 1 to July 1. It also took part in a second expedition on the French Coasts from August to September of the same year. Its grenadiers suffered heavy losses during the re-embarkation at Saint-Cast.
As of May 30 1759, the regiment was once more stationed at Chatham in England and counted 1 battalion for a total of 900 men.
In 1760, the regiment was stationed at Sandheath.
In 1761, the regiment took part in the expedition against Belle-Isle. This French island was besieged and captured.
In 1762, the regiment was stationed in the south of England.
|Coat||brick red lined grass green and laced white (unknown pattern) with 3 white buttonholes under the lapels (same lace as above)
|Waistcoat||brick red laced white (same lace as above)|
|Gaiters||white with black buttons|
brown, grey or black during campaigns (black after 1759)
Troopers were armed with with a "Brown Bess" muskets, a bayonet and a sword. They also carried a dark brown haversack with a metal canteen on the left hip.
Officers of the regiment wore the same uniforms as the private soldiers but with the following differences
- gold gorget around the neck
- an aiguilette on the right shoulder
- silver lace instead of normal lace
- a crimson sash
Officers wore the same headgear as the private soldiers under their command; however, officers of the grenadier company wore a more decorated mitre cap.
Officers generally carried a spontoon, however, in battle some carried muskets instead.
According to the Royal Clothing Warrant of 1751:
- The drummers of the regiment were clothed in grass green, lined, faced, and lapelled on the breast with red, and laced in such manner as the colonel shall think fit for distinction sake, the lace, however, was of the colours of that on the soldiers' coats.
- The front or forepart of the drums were painted grass green, with the king's cypher and crown, and the number “XXXVI” under it. The rims were red.
King's Colour: Union with its centre decorated with a rose and thistle wreath around the regiment number "XXXVI" in gold Roman numerals.
Regimental Colour: grass green field with its centre decorated with a rose and thistle wreath around the regiment number "XXXVI" in gold Roman numerals. The Union in the upper left corner.
N.B.: since this regiment exceptionally counted 2 battalions, the colours of the 2nd Battalion were distinguished by a flaming ray superposed to the upper left branch of the saltire.
This article incorporates texts of the following source:
- Cannon, Richard: Historical Record of the Thirty-Sixth or The Herefordshire Regiment of Foot, London: Parker, Furnivall & Parker, 1853
- Fortescue, J. W.: A History of the British Army Vol. II, MacMillan, London, 1899
Funcken, Liliane and Fred: Les uniformes de la guerre en dentelle
George II: The Royal Clothing Warrant, 1751
Mills, T. F.: Land Forces of Britain the Empire and Commonwealth (an excellent website which unfortunately seems to have disappeared from the web)
Mitchard, R.: Website - The Thirty-Sixth Regiment of Foote (website seems to have disappeared from the web)
N.B.: the section Service during the War is mostly derived from our articles depicting the various campaigns, battles and sieges.