45/G-XIII/G-IX Ingersleben Grenadiers
Origin and History
In 1744 the grenadier companies from the regiments located in Wesel and Minden formed the II Standing Grenadier Battalion (from 1748 in Magdeburg). Thus the grenadiers from Dossow Fusiliers (2 coys), Garrison Regiment Nr. IX (1 coy) and Garrison Regiment Nr. XIII (1 coy) were converged into the Grenadier Battalion 45/G-XIII/G-IX counting four companies. In 1756, the Garrison Regiment Nr. XIII was transformed into Fusilier Regiment Nr. 48. Therefore its grenadier company now formally belonged to Fusilier Regiment Nr. 48 as well. The II Standing Grenadier Battalion was captured in Glatz in 1760 and was not rebuilt during the war. In 1763 it was replaced by the Pomeranian-Provincial-Grenadier-Battalion.
During the Seven Years' War, the battalion was commanded by:
- since 1756: Colonel Rudolf August von Ingersleben
- from May 19 1757 until July 26 1760: Major K. R. von Unruh
In 1776 the grenadier company from Garrison Regiment IX was also attached formally to Fusilier Regiment Nr. 48. Only now both grenadier companies got the uniforms from Fusilier Regiment 48 but still kept their old grenadier caps.
Service during the War
On August 26 1756, when the Prussian army proceeded to the invasion of Saxony, the battalion was part of Ferdinand of Brunswick's column which had concentrated at Halle and advanced unopposed through Leipzig, Chemnitz, Freyberg and Dippoldiswalde, to the village of Cotta (reached on September 9) south of the Elbe near Pirna. The battalion then took part in the blockade of Pirna till the capitulation of the Saxon Army on October 17.
In April 1757, the battalion took part in the invasion of Bohemia. On May 6, it fought at the Battle of Prague where it was deployed on the extreme left of the second line of the infantry centre in Saldern's Brigade. On September 7, when an Austrian force under the command of General Nádasdy attacked Winterfeldt's isolated corps in the Combat of Moys, the battalion was deployed in the first line of the left wing. After the combat, the battalion was temporarily converged with Grenadier Battalion 41/44 until the Spring of 1758. On November 22, the battalion took part in the Battle of Breslau where it was deployed en potence as right flank guard under Major-General von Rohr. On December 5 at the Battle of Leuthen, the battalion was deployed in the refused right flank protecting the Prussian infantry.
In the Spring of 1758, the battalion took part in the invasion of Moravia and Siege of Olmütz. By May 20, it was attached to a corps (7 bns, 3 sqns) under Margrave Karl, in a camp near Mährisch Neustadt (present-day Uničov) covering the siege. On June 10, the battalion occupied Sternberg. By June 18, it had been transferred to Retzow's Corps and posted at Bistrowan (present-day Bystrovany). In the night of June 28 to 29, the battalion was sent from to reinforce an important convoy of supply destined to the Prussian besiegers, arriving from Troppau under the command of Colonel von der Mosel. On June 30, the battalion fought in the Combat of Domstadl where it managed to break through the Austrian encircling forces and to return to Bistrowan. The battalion then accompanied Frederick's army in its retreat. On October, the battalion took part in the Battle of Hochkirch in Saxony where it was initially deployed in Manteuffel's Corps, en potence towards Lauske, on the extreme left flank of the Prussian positions. When it was attacked by the entire corps of Arenberg, the battalion was overwhelmed and 2 of its companies were captured. After the battle, the remaining companies were once more converged with Grenadier Battalion 41/44.
By July 21 1760, the battalion was part of the garrison of Glatz. During the Siege of Glatz, on July 26, it counter-attacked the Austrian troops who had stormed a fleche, but it was soon isolated and forced to retreat back into the main fortress. On July 26, the entire battalion was taken prisoners at Glatz. The Austrians did not exchange prisoners and the battalion was not re-established during the war.
Line infantry grenadiers wore the uniform of their respective regiments. Therefore, for details about the uniforms of the grenadiers of regiment Nr. 45, please refer to the article related to von Dossow Fusiliers. However, the uniforms of the grenadiers of the garrison regiments differed from those of the musketeers of the same units. This was the case for Garrison Regiment Nr. IX and Garrison Regiment Nr. XIII. For these reasons, this section depicts the mitre cap of IR47 von Wietersheim and the entire uniforms of the grenadier companies originating from Garrison Regiment IX and Garrison Regiment XIII.
N.B.: For NCOs of the grenadier companies, the long pike (4,10 m long) was introduced in 1756 just before the war. This long pike was not very popular and was often shortened. At the beginning of the Seven Years' War and throughout the conflict, NCOs carried a mixture of M1713 (2,37 m long), M1755 (3 m long) and M1756 (4,10 m long) pikes.
Mitre Caps of IR45
|von Dossow Fusiliers: mitre with polished brass front plate; blue headband with a red/black/yellow braid and brass ornaments; white backing with a similar braid; yellow within black within red pompom|
Grenadiers of G-IX and G-XIII
The grenadiers of Garrison Regiment Nr. IX and XIII wore identical uniforms.
|Headgear||mitre cap with polished brass front plate; polished brass headband edged with a yellow within black within light blue braid and decorated with yellow metal ornaments; red backing piped with an identical braid; yellow within black within light blue pompom|
|Coat||Prussian blue lined red with 2 yellow buttons under the right lapel; 6 yellow buttons grouped 2 by 2 on the chest; and 3 yellow buttons on each side to fasten the skirts forming the turnbacks
Privates were armed with a musket, a bayonet and a curved blade sabre.
NCOs wore uniforms similar to those of the privates with the following distinctions:
- quartered black and white pompom on the mitre cap
- no shoulder strap
- gold laced cuffs
- yellowish leather gloves
- black and white sabre tassel
Grenadier NCOs were armed with a sabre and a white pike measuring 13 Rhenish feet (4.10 m.) in the grenadier companies (carried by the 3 most senior NCOs while other grenadier NCOs were armed with rifled muskets since 1744).
Besides a pike, NCOs also carried canes (normally attached to a button at the top of the right front while carrying the half-pike).
Uniforms of officers were very similar to those of the privates with the following exceptions:
- black tricorne with a golden scalloped lace and with black within silver pompoms (officers always wore tricornes notwithstanding if they were commanding musketeers, fusiliers or grenadiers)
- no shoulder strap on the coat
- no turnbacks on the coat
- black and silver sash around the waist
Their coats were similar to those of the privates but had no shoulder straps and no turnbacks.
Officers carried white spontoons measuring 7 ½ Rhenish feet (2.36 m.) and an officer stick.
The lace of the drummers was bordered in white and consisted of a 3 rows of alternating yellow and black rectangles.
The uniforms of the drummers were similar to those of the privates but had more elaborate lacing and other peculiarities:
- collar edged with the narrow drummer lace
- no shoulder strap
- swallow nest on each shoulder consisting of 4 vertical narrow drummer laces and 1 horizontal narrow drummer lace
- coat bordered with the narrow drummer lace
- pockets edged with the narrow drummer lace
- cuffes edged with the wide drummer lace
The converged grenadier battalions did not carry any colour.
Bleckwenn, Hans: Die friderzianischen Uniformen 1753-1786, Band II: Infanterie II, Osnabrück 1984
Fiedler, Siegfried: Grenadiermuetzen der Armee Friedrichs des Grossen, Schild Verlag GmbH, Munich, 1981
Grosser Generalstab Kriegsgeschichtliche Abteilung II: Die Kriege Friedrichs des Grossen, Part 3 Der siebenjährige Krieg 1756-1763, Vol. 1 Pirna und Lobositz, Berlin, 1901, App. 2
Riehn, R.: Linear Tactics Part III - Grenadier Battalions 1756-1763, The Courier Volume 2 No. 6, May-June 1981
Schirmer, Friedrich: Die Heere der kriegführenden Staaten 1756 - 1763. Edited and published by KLIO-Landesgruppe Baden-Württemberg e.V., Magstadt: 1989, pp. 30-32
N.B.: the section Service during the War is mostly derived from our articles depicting the various campaigns, battles and sieges.
Martina Hager and User:Zahn for the initial version of the depiction of the uniform of Garrison Regiment IX and XIII.