Alt-Wolfenbüttel Infantry

From Project Seven Years War
Revision as of 13:16, 20 September 2014 by RCouture (Talk | contribs)

(diff) ← Older revision | Latest revision (diff) | Newer revision → (diff)
Jump to: navigation, search

Hierarchical Path: Seven Years War (Main Page) >> Armies >> Austrian Army >> Alt-Wolfenbüttel Infantry

Origin and History

The regiment was raised in 1704 from the “Alt-Daun Regiment” and from 5 companies of the “von Haslinger Regiment” for General Johann Adam Count von Wendt.

In 1716, the regiment became the property of Duke Ferdinand Albrecht von Branschweig-Wolfenbüttel.

During the War of the Polish Succession, the regiment served on the Rhine in 1734 and 1735.

In 1738 and 1739, the regiment served in Hungary.

During the War of the Austrian Succession, the regiment took part in several campaigns.

As per the Etat nouveau des Troupes de sa Majesté Impériale Royale comme elles se trouvent effectivement l'an 1759 and Etat général des Troupes qui servent sa Majesté Impériale et Royale Apostolique sur pié en 1760, the regiment counted 4 battalions (2 grenadier coys and 16 fusilier coys) for a total of 2,300 men. This was the administrative organisation of the regiment. However, the tactical organisation differed: 2 field fusilier battalions, each of 6 companies; 2 grenadier companies (usually converged with grenadiers from other battalions into an ad hoc unit); and 1 garrison battalion of 4 companies (see Austrian Line Infantry Organisation for more details).

During the Seven Years' War, the chef of the regiment was:

  • since September 1 1735: Duke Carl von Branschweig-Wolfenbüttel (son and successor of Duke Ferdinand Albrecht)
  • from 1760 to 1767: Ernst Gideon Baron von Loudon

During the Seven Years' War, its colonel-commander was:

  • in 1759: Baron Müffling
  • in 1760: Marquis Botta
  • in ????: Horatius von Schröder
  • in ????: Christian Franz, Prince von Sachsen-Coburg
  • in ????: Olivier, Baron von Wallis
  • in ????: von Kalwel

Regimental numbers were introduced only in 1769 when this regiment was designated as "I.R. 29".

Service during the War

In 1756, at the outbreak of the Seven Years' War, the regiment was stationed in Bohemia. On October 1, it took part in the battle of Lobositz where it was deployed in the first line of the centre under General C. Kollowrat in the brigade of General Perony.

On April 21 1757, one battalion of the regiment was probably part of Major-general von Würben's brigade on the left wing of Count von Königsegg's force at the combat of Reichenberg. On May 6, one battalion of the regiment took part in the battle of Prague where it was deployed in Count Würben's brigade, in the first line of the left wing of infantry under Baron Kheul. On November 22, two battalions of the regiment took part in the battle of Breslau where they were deployed in Browne's brigade, in the first line of the infantry centre under Baron Kheul. On December 5 at the battle of Leuthen, two battalions of the regiment were deployed in Angern's brigade in the first line of the infantry left wing under Colloredo.

By August 2 1758, the regiment served in the first line of the main Austrian army under the command of Daun near Jarmeritz (actual Jaroměřice nad Rokytnou). Daun was following up the Prussian army retiring through Bohemia after the failure of the invasion of Moravia.

By mid August 1759, the regiment was part of Buccow's corps posted in Lusatia. On September 2, it took part in the combat of Sorau. On December 3 and 4, the regiment formed part of Beck's corps who attacked an isolated Prussian force and captured part of it at the combat of Meissen.

On June 23 1760, two battalions of the regiment took part in the battle of Landeshut where they proved their courage by storming the Buchberg and the Kirchberg.

To do: more details on the campaigns from 1760 to 1762

Uniform

For the moment we have very few information on the uniform in 1756, at the outbreak of the war. Most of our references describe the uniform in 1762. However, Wrede, Muhsfeldt and Schirmer mention that, in 1756-57, the coat was white lined blue (therefore blue turnbacks), the distinctive colour was blue and the waistcoat and breeches were blue. Therefore, the uniform at the beginning of the war seems to have been quite different from the uniform of 1762.

Privates

Uniform in 1762 - Source: Kronoskaf
Uniform in 1762
as per the Albertina Handschrift

completed with other sources where necessary
Headgear
Musketeer black tricorne laced white; white strap with a yellow button; with a white within dark blue within white pompom
Grenadier bearskin with a dark blue bag probably laced white and a white tassel
Neckstock one red and one black (for parades the regimental commanders agreed before on the colour of the neckstocks)
Coat white lined white with 3 yellow buttons under the right lapel and 1 yellow button in the small of the back on each side
Collar none
Shoulder Straps white edged dark blue fastened by a yellow button (left shoulder only)
Lapels dark blue lapels with 7 yellow buttons (1-3-3)
Pockets horizontal pockets, each with 3 yellow buttons
Cuffs dark blue, each with 3 yellow buttons
Turnbacks white fastened with a white tab edged dark blue and a small yellow button
Waistcoat white with 2 rows of small yellow buttons (3-3-3) and with horizontal pockets, each with 3 yellow buttons
Breeches white
Gaiters one pair of black (for winter) and one pair of white gaiters (for summer and parade)
Leather Equipment
Crossbelt white
Waistbelt white with a brass buckle
Cartridge Box black with a small brass plate carrying the initials “MT”
Bayonet Scabbard black with brass fittings
Scabbard black (grenadiers only)
Footgear black shoes


Troopers were armed with a musket (Model 1745 for fusiliers, Model 1754 for grenadiers). Grenadiers carried a sabre while fusiliers carried only a bayonet.

Other interpretations

The Bautzener Handschrift illustrates the following differences:

  • dark blue tabs to fasten the turnbacks

Donath illustrates the following differences:

  • black tricorne laced white with a red within dark blue pompom and red/darkblue tassels in the lateral cornes
  • white buttons
  • dark blue shoulder strap
  • no tab on the tirnbacks

Knötel illustrates the following differences:

  • white scalloped tricorne without pompom or tassels

NCOs

no information available yet

Officers

The officers wore the same uniform as the privates with the following exceptions:

  • tricorne laced gold with a white and green cockade
  • black neckstock
  • a golden epaulette instead of a shoulder strap on the left shoulder
  • no turnbacks
  • yellow and black silk sash

Senior officers carried sticks identifying their rank:

  • lieutenant: bamboo stick without knob
  • captain: long rush stick with a bone knob
  • major: long rush stick with a silver knob and a small silver chain
  • lieutenant-colonel: long rush stick with a larger silver knob without chain
  • colonel: long rush stick with a golden knob

Musicians

As per a regulation of 1755, musicians were now distinguished from troopers only by dark blue swallow nests on the shoulders.

The drum had a brass barrel decorated with black flames at the bottom and with a black double headed Eagle on a yellow field. Rims were decorated with red and white diagonal stripes. The bandolier was white.

Colours

All German infantry regiments carried identical colours: a white Leibfahne (colonel) and yellow Regimentsfahne. The hand painted colours were made of silk and measured Size 178 cm x 127 cm. The 260 cm long flagpoles had golden finial and were decorated with black and yellow spirals of cloth.

The colonel colour was carried by the first battalion.

Colonel flag (Leibfahne):

  • field: white
  • border: alternating white and yellow outer waved triangles pointing inwards, red and black inner waved triangles pointing outwards
  • obverse (right): the Immaculate Mother of God (which had been declared the patroness of the army by kaiser Ferdinand III) on a cloud, crushing a snake under her foot and surrounded by rays
  • reverse (left): crowned and armed Imperial double-eagle with the "Lothringen-Toscanian" arms on a shield and the initials of the Emperor CF (Corregens Franciscus) on the left wing and IM (Imperator Magnus) on the right
Leibfahne – Source: PMPDel

Regimental flags (Regimentsfahne):

  • field: yellow
  • border: alternating white and yellow outer waved triangles pointing inwards, red and black inner waved triangles pointing outwards
  • obverse (right): crowned and armed Imperial double-eagle with the "Lothringen-Toscanian" arms on a shield and the initials of the Emperor CF (Corregens Franciscus) on the left wing and IM (Imperator Magnus) on the right
  • reverse (left): unarmed and crowned Imperial double-eagle with the arms of Hungaria and Bohemia on a shield and the initials M on the left wing and T on the right
Regimentsfahne – Source: PMPDel

In fact, the situation on the field was slightly more complex than this, since colours were usually replaced only when worn out. It is fairly possible that some regiment who had been issued colours of the 1743 pattern were still carrying them at the beginning of the Seven Years' War. For more details, see Austrian Line Infantry Colours.

References

This article contains texts from the following sources, which are now in the public domain:

  • Seyfart, Kurzgefaßte Geschichte aller kaiserlich-königlichen Regimenter zu Pferde und zu Fuß, Frankfurth and Leipzig, 1762, pp. 25-26

Other sources

Dihm, Dr. Hermann; Oesterreichische Standarten und Fahnen zur Zeit des 7 jährigen Krieges, Die Zinnfigur, Klio

Donath, Rudolf; Die Kaiserliche und Kaiserlich-Königliche Österreichische Armee 1618-1918, 2. Aufl., Simbach/Inn 1979

Etat nouveau des Troupes de sa Majesté Impériale Royale comme elles se trouvent effectivement l'an 1759

Etat général des Troupes qui servent sa Majesté Impériale et Royale Apostolique sur pié en 1760

Funcken, Liliane and Fred, Les uniformes de la guerre en dentelle

Hausmann, Friedrich, Die Feldzeichen der Truppen Maria Theresias, Schriften des Heeresgeschichtlichen Museums, vol. 3, Vienna: 1967

Knötel, Herbert d.J.; Brauer, Hans M.: Heer und Tradition / Heeres-Uniformbogen (so-called “Brauer-Bogen”), Berlin 1926-1962, Österreich-Ungarn – 1756-63

Muhsfeldt, Th.; Abzeichenfarben der K. und K. Regimenter zu Fuss im Jahre 1757 und früher, in Mitteilungen zur Geschichte des militärischen Tracht, No. 12, 1904

Pengel, R. D. and G.R. Hurt; Austro-Hungarian Infantry 1740-1762; On Military Matters; Birmingham, 1982

Schirmer, Friedrich, Die Heere der kriegführenden Staaten 1756-1763, hrsg. von der KLIO-Landesgruppe Baden-Württemberg, überarb. u. aktual. Neuauflage 1989

Seidel, Paul; Nochmals österreichische Standarten und Fahnen zur Zeit des 7 jährigen Krieges, Die Zinnfigur, Clio

Thümmler, L.-H., Die Österreichiches Armee im Siebenjährigen Krieg: Die Bautzener Bilderhandschrift aus dem Jahre 1762, Berlin 1993

N.B.: the section Service during the War is mostly derived from our articles depicting the various campaigns, battles and sieges.

Acknowledgments

User:Zahn for gathering most of the information about this regiment