Austrian Dragoons Colours
On October 21 1740, when Maria Theresa inherited the throne of Austria from her father Charles VI, the Austrian Army was in bad condition after the disastrous war against Turkey from 1736 to 1739. Furthermore, the treasury was empty.
Usually, the new ruler would issue new guidons. However, the so called War of the Austrian Succession broke out two months after Maria Theresa's accession and she had no time to issue new guidons. A regiment of dragoons had 12 ordinary companies (in 6 squadrons) and a company of horse grenadiers. Therefore, each dragoon regiment carried 13 guidons (1 Leibstandarte and 12 Ordinair-standarten). These guidons were swallow tailed or had their external edges cut in a wavy line.
The Leibstandarte was white and heavily embroidered:
- one side had a central device depicting the Blessed Virgin;
- the other side had a central device depicting the double eagle.
The Ordinair-standarten could differ from one squadron to another. They were mostly green or red. They were made of damask or patterned silk, heavily embroidered and fringed in the button colour.
- obverse: embroidered with the heraldic devices of the Chef of the regiment or with a motto, or with an allegory or a scene depicting an event from the history of the regiment;
- reverse: central device consisting of imperial eagle bearing the red-white-red shield on its breast and the collar of the Order of the Golden Fleece.
Dragoon guidons were nailed to tournament lances. They were reinforced with iron plates along their length, onto which the guidon bandolier was hooked. The spear-points were engraved or pierced with the double eagle or the imperial cipher, or a patron saint, or the Chef`s crest, or a provincial badge.
Guidons in 1741 and 1742
In January 1741, the Hofkriegsrat ordered that each squadron would now carry only one guidon. The surplus guidons were handed in to the Spielberg arsenal in Brünn.
Guidons from 1743
In 1743, the 'Hofkriegsrat abrogated the regulation of January 1741. Now each company was allowed to carry a guidon and stored guidons were sent back to their respective regiments.
During the period between January 24 1742 Karl, when Theodor of Bavaria became Holy Roman Emperor, and September 13 1745, when Francis I succeeded him as emperor, Maria Theresa had to remove imperial insignia (including all black and gold colours) from the guidons of her cavalry. However, as long as guidons were considered as serviceable, they were not replaced. Furthermore, the new rules concerning the designs of colours were widely ignored.
Guidons from 1745
On 13 Sep 1745, her consort, Franz, was elected Kaiser of the HRE and all the imperial insignia could be borne on the colours and guidons again. The regulation of 1743 was rescinded and the old pattern reinstated.
In 1766, Franz Moritz count Lacy introduced a new design for guidons which, instead of being made of appliques and embroidery, were painted in oils. However, these new guidons replaced the old one gradually since they were issued when old colours were worn out.
Distribution of colours within regiments
In 1751, a new regulation stipulated that each dragoon regiment would now have only 6 guidons.
Dihm, Dr. Hermann; Oesterreichische Standarten und Fahnen zur Zeit des 7 jährigen Krieges, Die Zinnfigur, Klio
Hausmann, Friedrich; Die Feldzeichen der Truppen Maria Theresias; in Schriften des HGM, Vol III; Vienna and Koeln, 1967; pp. 129-174
Seidel, Paul; Nochmals österreichische Standarten und Fahnen zur Zeit des 7 jährigen Krieges, Die Zinnfigur, Clio
Digby Smith for the translation.