Austrian Liechtenstein Cannon

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Description

After years of experimentation between 1744 and 1750, the teams of Fürst Joseph Wenzel von Liechtenstein introduced a new artillery system in 1750 (Regulation of April 15, 1750) and approved with the Regulation of July 1752. It consisted of a family of three groups of cannons, not including the howitzers and mortars:

  1. A range of new so entitled Field Guns (Austrian: 'Feld-Stücke’): 3-pounder battalion guns (Austrian: 'Regiments-Stücke‘) and 6- & 12-pounder position guns, whose barrels measured 16 shot diameters or calibres in length.
  2. A range of new so entitled Light Battery Guns (Austrian: 'Leichte Batterie Stücke‘) – a short-barrelled light range of siege guns: 12- and 24-pounder pieces. They were of 18 calibres barrel length by 1750. However, the 12-pounder was recommended to be designed 3 calibres longer with the explanatory text of an original 1752 Regulation ordnance found in the Vienna Liechtenstein House Archive.
  3. A range of so entitled Heavy Battery Guns (Austrian: 'Schwere Batterie Stücke‘) – long-barrelled heavy siege guns: 12- and 24-pounder pieces of 27 and 23 calibres barrel length respectively. By 1752 and all during the Seven Years' War, this branches guns continued to be dimensioned to the old pattern ordnance of the 1716/1722 systematisation, with the exception of the new 1750 and 1752 models being designed with somewhat less metal strength, hence, becoming somewhat lighter. Only after the Seven Years' War the range of Battery Guns saw a complete revision, also introducing 18-pounder battery pieces again, which had all been removed from the tables in 1737.

All pieces had been designed and built according to a particular scheme with respect to their designated gun powder charge. Each range of guns was fired with a different charge of gun powder ranging from 1/4 the weight of the shot for the field guns – the more solid 3-pounder with nearly 1/3 – to 1/3 or somewhat more for the battery guns. The barrels embellishing mouldings were designed to a common scheme. All guns except for the 3-pounder "Regiments-Stück" or battalion gun received cast on trunnion shoulders (Austrian: "Anguss-Scheiben") of a new design to prevent the barrel from shaking in its carriage. Its design varied somewhat depending on which of the many gun foundries found across Austrias dominions had cast the piece. Austria's gun foundries were spread across half of Europe reaching from Mechelen in nowadays Belgium, to Milan in Italy and all the way to Hermannstadt in Transylvania (nowadays Sibiu, Rumania), apart from the foundries in Vienna, Prague, and Budapest.

All gun barrels were dimensioned by multiples or fractions of its shot diameter, also entitled its calibre. For design purpose, the calibre was divided into 32 equal parts: 1 calibre = 32 parts. Most distinctive for the new Austrian ordnance was that all new short barrel field- and light battery guns were designed with a cylindric 1st and 2nd reinforce, with only the chase of the barrel being designed conic. The range of long barrel heavy battery guns continued to be designed with all three sections of the barrel being designed conic. The metal strength of the three ranges or ordnance varied, depending of its designated gun powder charge. The below table lists the barrels metal strength design in order 1st reinforce rear—front / 2nd reinforce rear—front / chase rear—front, expressed in parts of the calibre.

  • 3-pdr field gun: cylindric 28—28 / cylindric 27—27 / conic 23—10
  • 6- & 12-pdr field gun: cylindric 24—24 / cylindric 22—22 / conic 20—10
  • 12- & 24-pdr light battery gun: cylindric 26—26 / cylindric 24—24 / conic 22—12
  • 12- & 24-pdr heavy battery gun: conic 30—28 / conic 26—24 / conic 22—14

Note: with the publications on Austrian artillery, the new ordnance is usually referred to as M1753. Really, an original 1753 Regulation is non existent. The single original systematisation is found in the Liechtenstein archive. It is signed by general Feuerstein, chef of the artillery corps then. The Vienna artillery archive had been resolved at around 1770 with all of its documents being lost, hence, the surviving Liechtenstein archive 1752 Regulation remains the most reliable source for a dating. The believed false dating of 1753 made its way into the sources only much later with the documents found in the Vienna "Kriegsarchiv", a department of the Austrian National Archive today.

The whole system was soon admired by the Prussians as the Austrian guns were even more mobile than their own, thanks to its light construction and the numerous and well trained soldiers of the Austrian artillery corps serving the pieces. All during the war,the number of guns with the army was increased considerably.

N. B.: in this article we use the Vienna Schuh as the original unit of measure for Austrian artillery pieces. One Vienna Schuh measures 31.61 cm or 12.444 inches. Furthermore, we also make use of the old Vienna Pfund at a ratio of metric 561.2 g – a heavy pound. It should be noted that the traditional Austrian gun denomination was by its calibre expessend in Nürnberg weight unit. In order to find the weight of each guns powder charge in relation to the weight of its solid iron shot, it is required to convert the Nürnberg weight into Vienna Pfund, since the Austrian artillery corps used the Vienna weight for computing the gun powder charges. As per the 1807 Waffenlehre, the gunners calculated the Vienna shot weight with rounded 19.5 Vienna Pfund for the 24-pdr, 10 Pfund for the 12-pdr, 5 Pfund for the 6-pdr, and finally 2.5 Pfund for the 3-pdr iron shot.

Field Guns (Feld-Stücke)

3-pounder cannon

Model Barrel
Weight
Barrel
Length
Barrel
Bore
Calibre (Ratio
Length/Shot Diameter)
Shot
Diameter
Charge Horses
Liechtenstein 3-pdr Ordnance M1750 390 Vienna Pfund
212 kg
3 Schuh 7.5 Zoll
114.5 cm
2.83 Vienna Zoll
7.45 cm
16 2.72 Vienna Zoll
7.16 cm
0.75 Vienna Pfund
1/3 shot weight*
2
Liechtenstein 3-pdr Ordnance M1752 390 Vienna Pfund
212 kg
3 Schuh 7.5 Zoll
114.5 cm
2.83 Vienna Zoll
7.45 cm
16 2.72 Vienna Zoll
7.16 cm
0.75 Vienna Pfund
1/3 shot weight*
2

The effective range of a 3-pdr cannon firing solid shots had a maximum effective range of 1,600 paces (1,500 paces as per Wrede) and a point blank range of 500 paces (1,200 paces as per Wrede). While firing canister, its range was reduced to 400 paces (300 to 400 paces as per Wrede). At 400 paces it could penetrate 1.5 m of well-rammed earth.

Note: the 3-pdr shot weighs 2.5 Vienna Pfund.

Liechtenstein M1750 3-pdr

The Prussian Holtzmann M1738/1741 3-pdr battalion gun, likewise 16 calibers long, seems to have inspired the design of the present gun.

Liechtenstein 3-pdr Ordnance M1750 – Copyright Christian Rogge

This field gun was designated as Regiments-Stück (regimental piece), also known as the new Liechtenstein ordnance in 1749 and 1750. It illustrates the earlier design produced up to 1752. Several 3-pdrs fielded during the first campaigns of the Seven Years’ War would have looked like this gun.

The explanatory text accompanying the 1752 Regulation would later recommend to fit the irons for using the Avancier–Stange (the pole illustrated in our plate) to the front face in front of the wheel, rather than in the position illustrated in our plate, at the rear of the wheel.

The 1750 Regulation carriage continues to be designed in the custom manner adopted earlier at around 1700; and its dimensions are the same as its immediate predecessor model fielded from around 1745 onwards. The backet cheeks were cut from a plank 34 calibres or rounded Vienna 7 Schuh 9 Zoll long (245 cm). With the introduction of the Keil–Richtmaschine (the screw driven elevating wedges) after 1748, and contrarily to Rubli’s draft of the bracket cheek, the carriage had no centre transoms, as it is revealed by sketches found in the Stuttgart Nicolai Collection. The lower lying wedge of the Keil–Richtmaschine, containing the endless threaded rod for driving the upper wedge, served as mobile transom instead. It was fixed to the carriage with a bolt at its front, while resting on another bolt at its rear.

The wheel had a diameter of 44.5 Vienna Zoll (117.17 cm).

N. B.: the universal 51.25 Vienna Zoll (135 cm) wheel for all field guns would be introduced only with the new Verordnung (regulation) of 1752.

The weight of the carriage, excluding the carriage ammunition chest, was 371 Vienna Pfund (202 kg). Its track was 47 Vienna Zoll (123.73 cm) wide.

Liechtenstein M1752 3-pdr
Liechtenstein 3-pdr Ordnance M1752 – Copyright Christian Rogge

This field gun was designated as Regiments-Stück (regimental piece), also known as the new Liechtenstein ordnance of 1752. It illustrates the new 1752 Regulation carriage.

The bracket cheeks were cut from a plank 34 calibres or rounded Vienna 7 Schuh 9 Zoll long (245 cm). With the introduction of the Keil–Richtmaschine (the screw driven elevating wedges), its lower lying wedge, containing the endless threaded rod for driving the upper wedge, served as mobile transom instead. It was fixed to the carriage with an iron rod a at its front, while resting on another removable one b at its rear, which could be placed in two different positions c & d to set different elevations when aiming the piece. A second rod, permanently fixed beneath the lower face of the bracket cheek e, served as a bed for the Keil–Richtmaschine when the piece was limbered for the march. The date of introduction of the the Keil–Richtmaschine is unknown. The 1752 Regulation found in the Vienna Liechtenstein House Archive does indeed show a competing wrought iron machinery for the 3– and 6–pdr with a vertical elevating screw that works similar to the machinery of the French Gribeauval field guns. It is Gribeauval who wrote in 1762 that all Austrian field, as well as the siege or battery guns were fitted with the Keil–Richtmaschine. The sources of the Vienna Kriegsarchiv provide no information here at all for the period before 1770. The placement of the removable iron bar at the right bracket cheek when the piece was limbered for the march is found with an original 3–pdr carriage dating to approx. 1810 on display at the Styrian Armoury (Landeszeughaus Graz, Austria).

As per the 1752 Regulation found in the Vienna Liechtenstein House Archive, the Avancier–Eisen (manhandling irons for using the Avancier–Stange illustrated in our plate) were now fixed to the front face of the bracket cheek, rather than to the rear of the wheel, as in the illustrated 1750 3-pdr plate. The 1752 Regulation advises to have the Avancier–Eisen fixed to all of the new field guns including the 12–pdr. However, the 12–pdr seems to have never been equipped with them. It is believed that the initial 1752 construction came with only a pair of irons instead of the more elaborate construction with a pair of irons on each side, documented for the guns with drafts of the 1770’s period. Unfortunately, drafts of carriages including all the 1752 iron fittings do not exist.

The new 3–pdr carriage had an ammunition chest: the Lavetten–Trügl measuring 11.5 by 18 by 9.5 Vienna Zoll according to the 1750s Nicolai Collection tables. This chest was placed between the bracket cheeks 4.5 Zoll in front of the trail transom. It rested on a pair of iron rails fixes to the lower face of the carriages bracket cheeks in front of the trail — as illustrated with this plate. Its iron fittings are illustrated as per the 1774 model, the M1752 ones are unknown. It is assumed they were quite similar. Note that Horace St. Paul observed that in 1757, the guns of the Niederländische Feldartillerie had Lavetten–Trügl made of wickerwork that were painted blue instead of the yellow painted boxes of the German artillery. It is believed, the distinctive yellow painted furnish was introduced only by 1750 or 1752. Before this date, Austrian gun carriages were not painted but were instead treated with linseed oil to protect them from the weather. Older weathered carriages would receive an additional treatment with tar, which must have given them an even darker look.

The weight of the carriage, excluding the carriage ammunition chest, was 371 Vienna Pfund (202 kg). The dimensions remained unaltered to those of 1750 and are also found in the Vienna Waffenlehre (weaponry) published in 1807. The carriage had no centre transoms; it had a front and trail transom only. The new carriage now had the axletree placed somewhat more rearwards and the wheels became taller, having a diameter of 51.25 Vienna Zoll (135 cm). This denotes the introduction of the universal 51.25 Vienna Zoll wheel for all field guns in the new Verordnung (regulation) of 1752. Its track was 47 Vienna Zoll (123.73 cm) wide.

As per the 1757 published Reglement for the Field-Artillery Corps § 210, this piece was to be served by 6 learned gunners or Büchsenmeister and to be moved or manhandled by 6 Handlangers (handy-men). Of the latter, five were employed to manually move this piece: 2 using the Avancier-Stange and 2 Handlangers using the towing slings fastened to the hooks of the bricole, while a fifth Handlanger lifted the trail. Meanwhile the sixth 2 Handlanger took position near the limber.

These pieces were usually moved in the field by two horses. Each Liechtenstein 3-pdr had one two-horse ammunition wagon (four horses if the piece was to accompany cavalry) transporting 120 balls or shell cartridges, 48 grape rounds and 12 canister rounds.

6-pounder cannon

Model Barrel
Weight
Barrel
Length
Barrel
Bore
Calibre (Ratio
Length/Shot Diameter)
Shot
Diameter
Charge
Ratio to Weight of Shot
Horses
Liechtenstein 6-pdr Ordnance M1752 708 Vienna Pfund
397 kg
4 Schuh 6.09 Zoll
144.5 cm
3.55 Vienna Zoll
9.40 cm
16 3.42 Vienna Zoll
9.04 cm
1.5 Vienna Pfund
1/4 shot weight
4

The effective range of a 6-pdr cannon firing solid shots had a maximum effective range of 2,000 paces (2,100 paces as per Wrede) and a point blank range of 600 paces (1,400 paces as per Wrede). While firing canister, its range was reduced to 500 paces (300 to 600 paces as per Wrede). At 800 paces it could penetrate 2.2 m of well-rammed earth.

Liechtenstein M1752 6-pdr Field Gun (Feld-Stück)
Liechtenstein 6-pdr Ordnance M1752 – Copyright Christian Rogge

The new 6-pdr field-gun, also known as the 1/8 Carthaune on its new M1752 carriage. Its barrel had more massive trunnion shoulders.

An entirely new carriage design was introduced in 1752. The bracket cheeks were cut from a plank 28 calibres long, which is very short. The illustrated bracket cheek is 30.5 calibres long, a length adopted somewhat later. The 6–pdr carriage now included a pair of additional trunnion-sockets entitled Marsch–Lager. This additional pair of trunnion-sockets is not found with the draft of the carriage in the 1767 printed Waffenlehre. Apparently it was not considered necessary as the piece was rather light.

The new carriage accounted for only a single largish centre transom, placed more rearwards than the former pair of centre transoms. It served as the bed for the barrel when it was placed into the Marsch–Lager.

The design of the pair of Avancier–Eisen (manhandling irons for using the Avancier–Stange) in our illustration is somewhat speculative. Later constructions accounted a pair of irons on each side to serve for a pair of Avancier–Stangen (poles). This way they could be left plugged into the irons when the piece fired. With the illustrated design, the pole had to be removed before firing. The illustrated design is closer to the construction found with the 3–pdr already in use well before 1752.

The wheels had a height of 51.25 Vienna Zoll (135 cm). The fellies, spokes, nave, and axle tree were designed somewhat more massive than the ones of the 3-pdr. The figures of the 1752 bracket cheek design reveal that the axle tree had different dimensions. We have to wait well after the Seven Years’ War for both guns (3-pdr and 6-pdr) to be fitted with identical wheels and axle trees in order to facilitate the exchange of the parts for repair.

The piece had a 4-horse draught. As per the 1757 Reglement for the Field-Artillery § 211, a total of 6 Büchsenmeisters and 8 Handlangers served the piece. The positions of the Büchsenmeisters were the same as with the 3-pdr Regiments-Stück. The 8 Handlangers were positioned as follows: 6 for advancing and retiring the piece by use of a combination of Avancier-Stange & drag slings (Zugseile or Leineln, 1 at the trail, and 1 near the pieces limber.

As per the Nicolai tables, the 6–pdr Lavetten–Trügl (carriage chest) measured 19 x 9.75 x 13.25 Vienna 'Zoll'. The number of rounds it contained is unknown.

These pieces were usually moved with a 4-horse team. Each piece had 144 balls or shell cartridges, 36 grape rounds and 6 canister rounds. Each pair of Liechtenstein 6-pdrs had three two-horse ammunition wagons. As of 1759, the latter wagons had 4-horse teams.

12-pounder cannon

Model Barrel
Weight
Barrel
Length
Barrel
Bore
Calibre (Ratio
Length/Shot Diameter)
Shot
Diameter
Charge
Ratio to Weight of Shot
Horses
Liechtenstein 12-pdr circa 1749
as illustrated by Rubli
1,000? Vienna Pfund
561 kg
5 Schuh 9.2 Zoll
182.25 cm
4.49 Vienna Zoll
11.82 cm
16 4.32 Vienna Zoll
11.38 cm
not available
Liechtenstein 12-pdr Ordnance M1750 1,344 Vienna Pfund
755 kg
5 Schuh 9.2 Zoll
182.25 cm
4.49 Vienna Zoll
11.82 cm
16 4.32 Vienna Zoll
11.38 cm
2.5 Vienna Pfund
1/4 shot weight
Liechtenstein 12-pdr Ordnance M1752 1,344 Vienna Pfund
755 kg
5 Schuh 9.2 Zoll
182.25 cm
4.49 Vienna Zoll
11.82 cm
16 4.32 Vienna Zoll
11.38 cm
2.5 Vienna Pfund
1/4 shot weight
6

The Rubli barrel came with mouldings in use before 1750. No information could be found about the precise date of introduction of this 16 calibre light barrel. However, we know that Austria’s troops in the Austrian Netherlands received new ‘light design’ guns for the campaign of 1747, as mentioned by the Austrian general staff history of the War of the Austrian Succession. They may well have been guns of this design.

The only difference between the M1750 and M1752 barrel were the different design of the trunnion shoulders, as well as the different button design. Otherwise, they were identical. Likewise, the dimensioning of the mouldings was identical.

The effective range of a 12-pdr cannon firing solid shots had a maximum effective range of 2,300 paces (2,400 paces as per Wrede) and a point blank range of 800 paces (1,600 paces as per Wrede). While firing canister, its range was reduced to 700 paces (300 to 1,000 paces as per Wrede). At 800 paces it could penetrate 2.4 m of well-rammed earth.

Liechtenstein M1752 12-pdr Field Gun (Feld-Stück)
Liechtenstein 12-pdr Ordnance M1752 – Copyright Christian Rogge

The new 12-pdr field-gun, also known as the 1/4 Carthaune or "light" or "short" quarter cannon on its new M1752 carriage.

The weight of the carriage, excluding the carriage ammunition chest, was approx. 950 Vienna Pfund (533 kg) as a result of the smaller wheels and the bracket cheek being cut less strong then the bracket cheeks of the former M1750. They were cut from a plank 27 calibers or rounded 9.75 Schuh long and nearly 4 calibres high (precisely 3 30/32). The new carriage also had an additional pair of trunnion sockets entitled Marsch–Lager and the axletree was placed considerably rearwards, as with the new 6–pdr carriage. The wheels had a diameter of 51.25 Vienna Zoll (135 cm). This denotes the introduction of the universal 51.25 Vienna Zoll wheel for all field guns in the new Verordnung (regulation) of 1752. The track of the carriage was 47 Vienna Zoll (123.73 cm) wide.

The new 12-pdr carriage had an ammunition chest: the Lavetten–Trügl measuring 19 by 11.5 by 12 Vienna Zoll according to the 1750s Nicolai Collection tables.

The Englishman Horace St Paul, serving as volunteer with the staff of Prince Charles de Lorraine in 1757 made the following observation of the gun seen just before the Battle of Prague on May 6:

"the [new] 12-pdr cannon [read barrels] are always mounted on their carriages, which must be turned around on arrival [St Paul’s original journal was in French language. This is the editor's translation. The French original probably meant the barrels had to be fitted to the forward trunnion sockets on arrival]. They are elevated and pointed by machine. They have leavers, breech telescopes, chains for the horse-harness, sponges and cartridges for 28 rounds of cannonballs."

The piece was served by 6 Büchsenmeisters (learned gunners) assigned to the same positions as with the 3-pdr Regiments-Stück. Furthermore, according to the 1757 Reglement (article 212), it was manhandled with drag–slings only. A total of 12 Handlangers (handy-men) were recommended to assist the gunners. 8 to advance or retire the piece, 1 at the trail spike. 1 more at the limber, and 2 employed for the ammunition supply. Article 214 also advised to employ a horse in addition to the Handlangers in case of casualties or if going over rough ground. However, the horse should be trained in advance not to panic when working so close to an operating gun.

In March 1762, Gribeauval described this piece as follows:

"M. de Montrosat must have sent the details of the 12-pounder carriages [to Paris] which have two pairs of trunnion–sockets in order to place more weight to the rear onto the limber when marching. Montrosat also specifies the placing of the wedges on a removable embedding, the end of which rests on an iron pin which is joint through the bracket cheeks in place of our [read French carriages] centre transoms, where it has two holes in each bracket cheek.

Source: Favé, Études sur le Passé et l’Avenir de l’Artillerie, Paris 1863, p. 103)

Each piece had 90 balls or shell cartridges, 20 grape rounds and 4 canister rounds. Each pair of Liechtenstein 12-pounder had three two-horse ammunition wagons. As of 1759, the latter wagons had 4-horse teams.

Battery Guns

Battery pieces consisted of light and heavy 12-pdr and 24-pdr guns.

The types and numbers of field guns that have been fielded during the campaigns of the Seven Years' War have been researched and well documented in considerable detail. More recently by Christopher Duffy in his “Instrument of War – The Austrian Army in the Seven Years’ War”, vol 1, Helion Books 2020.

A comparable documentation on the types and numbers of battery or siege guns, used within fortifications for the defence or at a siege for an attack, does not exist to the present day – unfortunately. It is therefore quite impossible to tell how many of this new range of Light Battery Guns have actually been fielded.

With near certainty, the greater part of the heavy guns used during the Seven Years' War were of the older 1716/1722 and 1737 designs. Within an Austrian fortress, such as Prague or Olmütz, even older designs were in use.

The range of Heavy Battery Guns will be covered further below. The 1750 and 1752 Regulation constructions remained mostly unaltered to the accepted regulation ordnance of 1716/1722 and 1737. They were now designed with somewhat less metal strength as the old pattern guns, in the event, becoming somewhat lighter, but their pricipal dimensions remained the same. Also their mouldings had been altered to the new design.

Light Battery Guns (Leichte Batterie Stücke)

Model Barrel
Weight
Barrel
Length
Barrel
Bore
Calibre (Ratio
Length/Shot Diameter)
Shot
Diameter
Charge Horses
Liechtenstein Light Battery 12-pdr Ordnance M1752 1,850 Vienna Pfund
1,006 kg
6 Schuh 5.83 Zoll
204.93 cm
4.49 Vienna Zoll
11.82 cm
18 4.32 Vienna Zoll
11.38 cm
3 Vienna Pfund
1/4 shot weight
6
Liechtenstein Light Battery 12-pdr Ordnance M1752 (revised) not available 7 Schuh 6.72 Zoll
239.2 cm
4.49 Vienna Zoll
11.82 cm
21 4.32 Vienna Zoll
11.38 cm
3 Vienna Pfund
1/4 shot weight
6
Liechtenstein Light Battery 24-pdr Ordnance M1748 3,300 Vienna Pfund
1,852 kg
8 Schuh 2.12 Zoll
258.12 cm
5.65 Vienna Zoll
14.91 cm
18 5.447 Vienna Zoll
14.34 cm
6 Vienna Pfund
1/4 shot weight
8
Liechtenstein Light Battery 24-pdr Ordnance M1752 3,960 Vienna Pfund
2,222 kg
8 Schuh 2.12 Zoll
258.12 cm
5.65 Vienna Zoll
14.91 cm
18 5.447 Vienna Zoll
14.34 cm
6 Vienna Pfund
1/4 shot weight
10

Liechtenstein Light Battery 12-pdr Ordnance M1752

Liechtenstein Light Battery 12-pdr Ordnance M1752 – Copyright Christian Rogge

This light battery gun was designated as verjüngte’ Viertel–Carthaune (‘light’ or ‘short’ quarter cannon), also known as the Liechtenstein ordnance M1752, on its 1752 carriage.

The carriage bracket cheek was cut from a plank 35 calibres or 398.5 cm long, which is quite an extraordinary length. About 34 cm longer then the 1750 model.

The standard wheel diameter for all battery guns was now fixed at 54 Vienna Zoll (142.25 cm). The track was 47 Vienna Zoll (123.73 cm) wide.

N.B.: In our illustration, the wheel with paired spokes is based on an original draft found in the Stuttgart Nicolai Collection, believed to belong to the 1752 Regulation sheets. According to the information provided with this sheet, its original designer was a certain Grumbach – believed to be the Austrian Anton Grumbach, a major in 1760 – commanding the Reichsarmee artillery at the capture of Wittenberg that year. Grumbach’s wheels for the battery guns limbers had a height of 3 Vienna Schuh 6 Zoll (110.6 cm) as opposed to the limbers of the field guns with a height of 3 Vienna Schuh. Likewise, the limbers track was 47 Vienna Zoll (123.73 cm) wide.

The piece was assigned a 6–horse draught for the march. The battery guns did not have ammunition boxes as they were expected to see employment in more stationary combat situations behind erected batteries or within fortifications. It is also believed that no gear to take the sponge and other equipment was found attached to the battery guns carriages. The equipment would have been found with the artillery trains requisition wagons instead.

Fewer learned gunners were needed to serve the battery guns. Article 218 of the 1757 regulation advised a minimum of 2 Büchsenmeisters for the 12–pdr piece. One for laying the piece, and the second to take care of the ammunition and to load it – specially if no cartridges were at hand and the piece had to be loaded with loose gun powder. The remaining positions could be filled with Handlangers (handy-men); the articles advised 8 to 10 Handlangers for this piece.

Liechtenstein Light Battery 12-pdr Ordnance M1752 (revised)

Liechtenstein Light Battery 12-pdr Ordnance M1752 (revised) – Copyright Christian Rogge

This plate illustrates the same piece with a barrel length of 21 calibres instead of 18, as recommended with the 1752 Regulation explanatory text found in the Vienna Liechtenstein archive. It should be noted that the 1752 Regulation tables found in the Veinna Kriegsarchiv all list the piece with 18 calibres length.

The illustrated carriage dimensions are the ones of the carriage mounting the 18 calibre barrel. Only the iron fittings and gear to take the Keil–Richtmaschine had been placed somewhat more rearwards. This pieces carriage dimensions seem to make a much better fit to take the 21 calibre barrel, hence the 18 calibre figure found in the sources might be a false transcription.

Liechtenstein Light 24-pdr Ordnance M1748

Liechtenstein Light Battery 24-pdr Ordnance M1748 – Copyright Christian Rogge

This plate illustrates the immediate predecessor construction of the new 1750 & 1752 ordnance, found in the Vienna Rubli Manuscript. It is presented as a verjüngte 1/2–Carthaune (‘light’ or ‘short’ half cannon). The date of its introduction is unknown, for the Rubli manuscript has been misfiled by the Viennese archivists of the Kriegsarchiv, dating it to 1753 in some parts and 1754 in others. We believe this 24-pdr construction to present the master design of Liechtenstein's new light ordnance fielded from 1745 onwards. With this periods cannon design, the 24-pdr was usually regarded as the principal construction of a given system. All lighter calibre guns would have been proportioned according to this principal master construction. For this reason we found it rather important to present. Its design was nearly the same as the guns of 1750 & 1752. A different length ratio for the 1st and 2nd reinforce and a smaller diameter of the trunnions made the construction somewhat lighter, really. The Rubli manuscript also presents a short barrel or light 16 calibres barrel length 3- & 6-pdr, and a 16 and 18 calibres 12-pdr to the same design, all mounted on old pattern carriages.

This old pattern carriage design accounted for an additional pair of trunnion sockets (a) for the march – known as Marsch-Lager. We dated it to around 1748, because on that year a series of test marches were done from Vienna to Dürnstein in the Wachau region, as recorded in a specification found in the Vienna Liechtenstein House-Archive. Only 8 horses were employed as draught. Interestingly, this new carriage design was fully adopted only in 1752, while the 1750 Regulation carriages continued to be designed according to the old pattern without the additional Marsch-Lager.

The presentd plate of this piece is exaclty according to Rubli's draft. The wooden parts of the carriage are not painted yellow but saw a treatment with linseed oil to protect them from the weather, hence, they had a more natural wood colour looks. Older weathered carriages would receive an additional treatment with tar, which must have given them an even darker tone, as already stated further above with the 3-pdr article.

The bracket cheeks of this new carriage were cut from a plank 13 Schuh 8 Zoll (430 cm) long. The track was 47 Zoll wide.

Prior to the introduction of the Keil–Richtmaschine, battery guns were aimed with ordinary wooden wedges known as Schusskeile.

The wheels of Rubli's draft had a height of 58 Vienna Zoll (153 cm). The 1748 model still had the two custom centre transoms on which the wedges were placed. The axle tree was still found in its more forward position.

The custom way of moving the heavy 24–pdr siege guns among European armies was to transport the barrel on a 4-wheel platform wagon and the carriage without the barrel. A total of 22 to 24 horses were needed this way. In his manuscript, Rubli takes the effort to also illustrate the gun limbered for the march, with the barrel fixed into the Marsch-Lager.

Barrel and carriage of this new Austrian 24–pdr gun had a total weight of 5,292 Vienna Pfund, as per Rubli’s manuscript. The old pattern 24–pdr barrel alone had a nominal weight of 5,700 Vienna Pfund (3,200 kg).

Liechtenstein Light Battery 24-pdr Ordnance M1752

Liechtenstein Light Battery 24-pdr Ordnance M1752 – Copyright Christian Rogge

This plate illustrates the light battery gun designated as verjüngte’ 1/2 Carthaune (‘light’ or ‘short’ half cannon), also known as the Liechtenstein ordnance M1752 on its new 1752 carriage.

This is probably the first plate illustrating the new M1752 light battery guns. Prior to Christian Rogge's work, we have never seen a detailed illustration of this artillery piece.

The bracket cheeks of this 24-pdr carriage were cut from a plank 32 calibres (459 cm) long. The new light battery gun carriages were somewhat longer and more massive than the 1748 initial construction. At the front face, both were 3.5 calibres high, and likewise 3.5 calibres at the bow (the point of the upper faces angle). The cutout for the Marsch-Lager was placed more rearwards right into the bow. Also the axle tree was placed considerably to the rear – as far as 4 12/32 calibres (nearly 63 cm) from the bracket cheeks lower front face with this 24-pdr construction.

With its smaller 54 Vienna Zoll wheel, the barrel of this piece reached much further into the embrasure than the 1748 model. This had been an issue with the earlier short barrel battery gun designs. The 18 calibre 12-pdr battery gun still had this shortcoming with the 1752 regulation carriage, for which reason it was recommended to make it 21 rather than 18 calibres long instead. According to Anton Dolleczeck Geschichte der Österreichischen Artillerie, published in Vienna in 1887, the piece was assigned a 10-horse draught for the march. This may be true, as the mass of the heavier 1752 carriage and barrel should have required more then 8 horses. But Dolleczeck refers to the six or eight 24-pdrs with the field army from 1759 on. These guns were most certainly captured Prussian super light 24-pdrs M1744, which Gribeauval mentions in his earlier cited 1762 paper addressed to the French Minister of War.

Heavy Battery Guns (Schwere Batterie Stücke)

Model Barrel
Weight
Barrel
Length
Barrel
Bore
Calibre (Ratio
Length/Shot Diameter)
Shot
Diameter
Charge Horses
Old Pattern Heavy Battery 12-pdr Ordnance M1737 3,200 Vienna Pfund
approx. 1,795 kg
9 Schuh 8.75 Zoll
307.5 cm
4.55 Vienna Zoll
12 cm
27 4.32 Vienna Zoll
11.38 cm
approx up to 1/2 shot weight not available
Liechtenstein Heavy Battery 12-pdr Ordnance M1752 3,040 Vienna Pfund
approx. 1,706 kg
9 Schuh 8.75 Zoll
307.5 cm
5.49 Vienna Zoll
11.82 cm
27 4.32 Vienna Zoll
11.38 cm
not available not available
Old Pattern Heavy Battery 24-pdr Ordnance M1716/1722 & M1737 5,700 Vienna Pfund
approx. 3,200 kg
10 Schuh 5.1 Zoll
329 cm
5.67 Vienna Zoll
14.94 cm
23 5.447 Vienna Zoll
14.34 cm
approx up to 1/2 shot weight not available
Liechtenstein Heavy Battery 24-pdr Ordnance M1752 4,800 Vienna Pfund
approx. 2,694 kg
10 Schuh 5.1 Zoll
329 cm
5.65 Vienna Zoll
14.91 cm
23 5.447 Vienna Zoll
14.34 cm
7 Vienna Pfund
near 1/3 shot weight
not available

The 1716/1722 systematization still accounted for a 36–pdr double culverin or doppelte Noth–Schlange and a 48–pdr cannon royale or German Carthaune. Its entitlement originates from the German reading of the original Italian Quaranta – i.e. a cannon that fires rounds of 40 pounds iron shot. But the two latter calibres were not cast any more since the late 1700s.

Old Pattern Heavy Battery 12-pdr Ordnance M1737

Old Pattern Heavy Battery 12-pdr Ordnance M1737 – Copyright Christian Rogge

With this plate we present the old pattern heavy 12-pdr, entitled Quartier-Schlange (quarter culverine), in service with the Austrian artillery since the 1716/1722 systematizations. We don’t know the origin of its rather odd name, for this piece ranked among the range of cannon, rather then among the range of culverines. Possibly because of its unusually long barrel design, as its predecessor construction from around 1680 was shorter, having a length of only 288 cm, as presented in Michael Mieth’s 1683 published book on Austrian artillery.

The barrel with its 1737 mouldings is mounted on the old pattern carriage, as presented in Rubli’s manuscript. Rubli does not illustrate the heavy 12–pdr but – as with the barrel design – knowing the principles of Austrian carriage construction, it is not so difficult to redraw the carriage for the 12–pdr cannon.

The illustrated bracket cheeks were cut from a plank 36 calibres long, 4 calibres tall, and 30/32 thick. The front faces lower cut-out was 0.5 calibres, leaving the front face with 3.5 calibres height, 3 at the bow, and 2 calibres height at the front of the trail.

The height of the wheels were the same as for the old pattern heavy 24–pdr with a rather large diameter of 64.5 Vienna Zoll (nearly 170 cm). It is believed that it was the custom height for all heavy guns –i.e. the 12–pdr and 24–prd cannon, as well as the 18–pdr common culverin (Austrian Noth–Schlange).

Another custom wheel height was 53.5 Vienna Zoll (140 cm) which are shown on Rubli’s carriages for the two pre-1750 light 12–pdrs he presents in his manuscript.

Prior to the introduction of the Keil–Richtmaschine, battery guns were aimed with ordinary wooden wedges known as Schusskeile.

More Information about the Barrels

Old Pattern Heavy Battery 12-pdr Barrels M1737 – Copyright Christian Rogge

This plate presents the old pattern M1737 heavy 12–pdr barrel in more detail. The gun was known as Quartier–Schlange (Engl: ‘Quarter Culverine’) in Austrian service.

The illustrated barrel is the author's tentative reconstruction of its design. The Rubli manuscript does not include the heavy 12-pdr, but assuming its principal proportions and order of the mouldings were the same as with the M1737 24-pdr, we can be near certain that the piece looked as illustrated. Its metal strength is believed to have been: 1st reinforce proportioned conic 32–29 / the 2nd reinforce proportioned conic 26–24 / the chase dropping 21–16. Its bore diameter is believed to be equal Nuremberg 14 pounds iron shot diameter or 4.55 Vienna Zoll (12 cm). It equals the bore diameter also described for the older 12-pdr ordnance presented in Michael Mieth’s book on the Austrian artillery published in 1683. The M1716/1722 & 1737 barrel weight is listed with 3,200 Vienna Pfund for the Quartier–Schlange. Mieth’s 1683 barrel entitled ‘1/4 Carthaune’ is 24 bore diameters long (288 cm) and weighs 3,000 Vienna Pfund – i.e. somewhat shorter and lighter then the 1716/1722 & 1737 Regulation barrels.

Liechtenstein Heavy Battery 12-pdr Ordnance M1752

Liechtenstein Heavy Battery 12-pdr Ordnance M1752 – Copyright Christian Rogge

This plate illustrates the heavy battery gun known as the Liechtenstein ordnance M1752 on its new 1752 carriage. It was also designated as a verjüngte 1/4–Carthaune (‘lightened’ quarter cannon), formally entitled Quartier–Schlange,

The bracket cheeks of this 12-pdr carriage were cut from a plank 33 18/32 calibres long (381.5 cm), which is somewhat shorter than the bracket cheek of the light battery 12-pdr. Apparently, the light model required more rear weight as its axle tree was placed more rearwards, adding a lot more weight to the structure in front of the axle tree, as with this heavy 12-pdr construction.

The standard wheel diameter for all battery guns was now fixed at 54 Vienna Zoll (142.25 cm). The track was 47 Vienna Zoll.

More Information about the Barrels

Liechtenstein Heavy Battery 12-pdr Barrels M1750 and M1752 – Copyright Christian Rogge

This plate examines the new Liechtenstein system heavy 12-pdr barrels of 1750 and 1752 in more detail. The metal strength of both constructions was proportioned: 1st reinforce conic 30–28 / 2nd reinforce conic 26–24 / chase 22–14. The order of the mouldings was the same as with the other guns, laid out with the afore illustrated 12–pdr field gun. Apparently, as with the new heavy 24–pdr cannon of this new range of Heavy Battery Guns, its dimensions differed only slightly from the older designs, accepted with the 1716/1722 and 1737 Regulations. The 1757 Reglement for the Austrian artillery continued to use the term Quartier–Schlange (Engl: ‘Quarter Culverine’) to designate the heavy 12-pdr cannon in service. The weight of the barrel of the M1752 cannon arrives at 3,040 Vienna Pfund (1,706 kg), thanks to its reduced metal strength.

Old Pattern Heavy Battery 24-pdr Ordnance M1716/1722 and M1737

Old Pattern Heavy Battery 24-pdr Ordnance M1716/1722 and M1737 – Copyright Christian Rogge

With this plate we present the old pattern ’schwere’ 1/2–Carthaune (‘heavy’ half cannon), as per the Regulations M1716/1722 and M1737. A draft of the 1737 gun with its carriage is illustrated in the Rubli Manuscript. The carriage is also presented strictly to the figures of Rublis draft in all details including the iron fittings with Fig. 1 & 2. Fig. 2 illustrates the M1716/1722 barrel. Both designs were quite similar. The 1737 Regulation ordnancs saw the universal adoption of dolphin sculptored holds in place of the many creatures found with the older gun designs. Also the cascabel and button were now non sculptored, but designed with pure geometrical figures. The Fig. 2 barrel is of the older pattern with the cascabel and button sculptored as an eagle. The holds were sculptored as bundles of lightning flash and thunder clouds. 10 or more original 24-pdr barrels to this design are on display at the Vienna Army Museum to the present day. For our illustration an original barrel cast by the Anton Zechenter gun foundry in Ofen served as template (todays Buda part of Budapest, Hungary). Its a cast of 1724, weighs 5,735 Vienna Pfund, as per its markings — indeed very close to its 5,700 Pfund nominal weight. Other such 24-pdr barrels to the same design on display in Vienna arrive at mor then 5,900 Vienna Pfund. Our examined template barrel is 326.6 cm long, as per the authors measurements. The deviation to its nominal length of 329 cm should be the result of this pre-industrial periods manner of making, rather then an indication to a different design.

Both figures show the same carriage, which is most apparently the custom carriage in use from the early eighteenth century onwards. In fact, Castle Forchtenstein in Austria has several original carriages on display of which some date back as far as 1643. They are part of the tremendous Estherhazy Armory Collection on display here. The 17th century carriages seen here already looked much like the one Rubli illustrated, including many elements of the iron fittings seen on this plate. For instance, the peculiar L-shaped iron sheet right behind the trunnion sockets linking with the bolt of the front transom, probably served as a reinforcement of the structure in this part of the carriage.

The bracket cheek of Rubli’s scale drawing was cut from a plank 31 calibres or 14 Schuh 1 Zoll (445 cm) long and 4 calibres high. The track of Rubli’s 1737 carriage was 47 Vienna Zoll. Rubli also illustrated the same M1722 gun on a much longer carriage whose bracket cheeks were 42 calibres long.

Prior to the introduction of the Keil–Richtmaschine, battery guns were aimed with ordinary wooden wedges known as Schusskeile.

By 1722, there were four different wheel dimensions accepted, the wheel illustrated here had a height of 64.5 Vienna Zoll or near 170 cm. It was taller than the 58 pouce (157 cm) wheel of the Vallière M1732 French 24–pdr carriage.

The gunner aiming the piece required a stool or something similar, unless he was taller than 6 foot!

More Information about the Barrels

Old Pattern Heavy Battery 24-pdr Barrels M1716/1722 and M1737 – Copyright Christian Rogge

Rubli presents the old pattern heavy 24–pdr. The so entitled ‘heavy battery gun’ design of the 1750 Regulation did not exist by the late 1740’s, it seems. Its dimensions remain unaltered to the ordnance of the 1722 systematization. The old pattern 24–pdr was scaled to the diameter of its shot, divided into 32 parts. The metal strength was 1st reinforce 34 or 35—31 / the 2nd reinforce 29—27 the chase dropping 23–16. Variants with a part more or less here and there would have been found.

The 1722 Regulation barrels more often continued to be designed with a realm of different creatures serving as holds (dolphins) and with the cascabel and button design. Awesome looking is the design of sculptured eagles with the cascabel & button cast on part of the barrel; and holds sculptured as thunder clouds with lightning flashes found with the M1716 1722 24–pdr.

The Vienna HGM has more then 10 such pieces on display to the present day. The template for this illustration is a bit shorter than its nominal 329 cm barrel length. It is once more believed to be the result of this periods manner of making, rather then evidence to a different design. The 1737 Regulation set an end to the baroque opulence of embellishing forms and figures found with the M1722 and earlier Austrian gun designs of the 17th century. With Fig. 3, the author presents Mieth’s construction from his book published in 1683. It was bored to the diameter of 27 Nuremberg Pfund, which was its calibre. For construction purposes it was divided into 20 equal parts. The barrel was given a length of 22 calibres (nearly 329 cm). Its nominal weight was 6,400 Nuremberg or 5,800 Vienna Pfund. It was given a metal strength of 1 calibre at the rear, 0.75 in front of the trunnions, and 0.5 calibre at the muzzle. As can be seen, the principal design hardly changed from the 1680’s or even earlier, up to 1750.

Liechtenstein Heavy Battery 24-pdr Ordnance M1752

Liechtenstein Heavy Battery 24-pdr Ordnance M1752 – Copyright Christian Rogge

This plate illustrates the heavy battery gun known as the Liechtenstein ordnance M1752 on its new 1752 carriage.

The bracket cheeks of this 24-pdr carriage were cut from a plank 31 calibres long, 4 tall, and 30/32 thick. They were actually 1 calibre shorter then the bracket cheek for the 24-pdr Light Battery Gun. The same length is found with the 1750 Regulation tables and also Rubli’s draft for the old pattern pre-1750 construction arrives at 14 Vienna Schuh 1 Zoll equalling 31 calibres (445 cm) for the old heavy 24–pdr ‘1/2 Carthaune’ with the same barrel length. For this illustration, the figures found with two tables from the Vienna Kriegsarchiv were applied, however, another table found in the artillery folders of the Stuttgart Nicolai Collection records a length of 34 calibres. For this illustration, Christian Rogge opted for the shorter 31 calibre bracket cheeks. The overall dimensions remained rather unaltered.

In the 1752 design, the carriage had three transom design and the attached Keil–Richtmaschine replacing the former two centre transoms at this place beneath the rear of the barrel.

The wheel had a diameter of 54 Vienna Zoll and an overall stronger design than that of the 24–pdr Light Battery Gun.

This heavy 24-pdr carriage design did not include the additional pair of Marsch–Lager or trunnion sockets for the march. In fact, for the march, the barrel was removed from the carriage and mounted on a 4-wheel platform wagon instead. During this period, it was the custom manner of marching heavy 24-pdr ordnance with all armies accross Europe.

N.B: The single table giving the barrel weight of this construction available to us derives from the Vienna Kriegsarchiv. It has the entry of 5,650 Vienna Pfund. We believe this is an transcription error. With its reduced metal strength, the barrel should be much lighter then the old pattern 1722 and 1737 constructions. Fortunately, the Vienna Army Museum has an original M1750 barrel on display. Its a cast of 1750, likewise by the afore mentioned Anton Zechenter gun foundry in Ofen. Its mouldings are in most stylish 'Vienna rococo'. As per our measurments, the barrel is perfectly fitting the M1750 proportions and dimensions. As per its markings, it weighs 4,870 Vienna Pfund. We decided to list its nominal weight at 4,800 Pfund as the cast barrels were moreoften found somewhat heavier then the paper weight figures found with the drafts.

More Information about the Barrels

Liechtenstein Heavy Battery 24-pdr Barrels M1750 and M1752 – Copyright Christian Rogge
Note: a contemporary table of the Vienna Kriegsarchiv actually has the entry of 6.15 Nuremberg Zoll (15 cm) for the bore diameter. The author not take the effort to recalculate all dimensions anew, as it is only a minor deviation to his earlier calculated calibre figures, prior to being forwarded this Vienna Kriegsarchiv 1752 ordnance table.

The M1750 and M1752 constructions were identical with the exception of the designs of the trunnion shoulders and the shape of the button. The metal strength of the new Heavy Battery 24–pdr Cannon was: 1st reinforce proportioned conic 30–28 / the 2nd reinforce proportioned conic 26–24 / the chase dropping 22–14. The button illustrated for the M1750 barrel (Fig. 1) is actually more rounded than the Regulation shape found in the 1750 tables. It resembles the shape of an original barrel on display at the Vienna Heeresgeschichtliches Museum (HGM). A cast of 1750 by the gun founder Anton Zechenter in Ofen (present-day Buda, the right bank part of Budapest, Hungary). See the grey marked measurements done at this barrel that confirm its design being a nice match with the 1750 Regulation tables. The minor deviations should be the result of this periods pre–industrial manner of making, rather then evidence to a different construction. The dimensioning of the barrels principal parts indicated with red markings. Also note the variant of the trunnion shoulder design. It is identical to the design found with the 1765 draft of the earlier presented light 24–pdr. Also the shape of the illustrated Pratzen or dolphins is a variant to the many other designs seen in Vienna that mostly resemble the ones of the M1752 barrel illustration (Fig. 2 & 3).

The barrel weight of both constructions should arrive at around 4,800 Vienna Pfund. A Vienna Kriegsarchiv table has the entry of 5,650 Vienna Pfund, which is hard to believe. It should be a transcription error, for the pre–1750 constructions with the same barrel length and with more metal strength had a nominal weight of 5,700 Vienna Pfund, which is confirmed by many original barrels on display at the HGM. The single M1750 heavy 24–pdr original barrel on display in Vienna has a weight of 4,870 Vienna Pfund (2,732 kg), as per its markings found between the Pratzen, as well as on the trunnions. Apparently, by 1750 and 1752, Liechtenstein’s team did not dare to mess with the accepted dimensions of the 24–pdr construction in use since the mid to late 17–hundreds. Just its metal strength was reduced by a few parts of the calibre, as a result of a reduced gun–powder charge. While the more solid old pattern guns would be charged with gun-powder half the weight of its shot, the new heavy battery guns had a charge of only around 1/3 the weight of its shot. The 1752 table records 7 Vienna Pfund gun–powder charge. Note, the 24-pound shot is the Nuremberg weight unit. Expressed in Vienna figures the shot had a weight of around 19.5 Vienna Pfund. The Nuremberg 12-pdr calibre is a 10-pdr gun expressed in Vienna figures, really.

References

Primary sources:

  • An original 1752 Regulation found at: Liechtenstein Princely Collections, House Archive, Vienna, Austria
  • Various drafts and tables found at: Österreichisches Staatsarchiv, dept. Kriegsarchiv – BKA - KA (ÖSTA Kriegsarchiv)
  • The pre 1750 "Rubli manuscript" drafts: KA Memoires XIII/463-465; Franz Rubli (ÖSTA Kriegsarchiv)
  • Artillery drafts and tables of the 1750 & 1752 Austrian Regulation Ordnance found at: Württembergische Landesbibliothek, Nicolai Collection, Stuttgart, Germany
  • Original barrels on display at the Vienna Heeresgeschitliches Museum (HGM), Austria
  • Gribeauval, Jean-Baptiste Vaquette de: a description of the Austrian artillery in a report to the French Ministre of War, March 1762 found in Favé, Études sur le passé et l’avenier de l’Artillerie…etc, Paris 1863

Printed primary sources:

  • Reglement für das Kaiserlich Königliche gesamte Feld–Artilleriecorps. [sic.], publ. Vienna March 1757.
  • Waffenlehre; part 1 of Anleitung zum Selbst-Studium der militärischen Dienstwissenschaft. Für die Officiere der k. k. österreichischen Armee. Vienna 1807
  • Miethen or Mieth, Michael, Neue curieuse Beschreibung der ganzen Artillerie…etc., edition Dresden & Leipzig 1736 (first published 1683)

Secondary sources:

  • Kriegsgeschichtliche Abteilung des K. & K. Kriegs-Archivs; Oesterreichischer Erbfolge-Krieg 1740—1748; Nach den Feld-Acten und anderen authentischen Quellen bearbeitet; vol 1, part 1, Vienna 1896; pp. 430 ff.
  • Beiträge zur Geschichte des österreichischen Heerwesens. Erstes Heft: Der Zeitraum von 1757—1814. Organization, Supply, & Tactics, Vienna 1872.
  • Cogswell, Neil, Lobositz to Leuthen. Horace St Paul and the Campaigns of the Austrian Army in the Seven Years War 1756-57, HELION & Company, 2020
  • Dolleczek, Anton; Geschichte der Österreichischen Artillerie von den frühesten Zeiten bis zur Gegenwart, Vienna, 1887
  • Duffy, Christopher; Instrument of War: The Austrian Army in the Seven Years War, Emperor's Press, Chicago, 2000
  • Grosser Generalstab Kriegsgeschichtliche Abteilung II: Die Kriege Friedrichs des Grossen, Part 3 Der siebenjährige Krieg 1756-1763, Vol. 1 Pirna und Lobositz, Berlin, 1901, pp. 141-142
  • MacLennan, Ken‚ Liechtenstein and Gribeauval: 'Artillery Revolution' in Political and Cultural Context. Journal article ’War in History‘ series, vol. 10, No. 3 (July 2003), pp. 249-264
  • Wrede, Alphons Freiherr von; Geschichte der K. U. K. Wehrmacht; Vienna and Leipzig, 1911

Acknowledgments

Christian Rogge for the present version of this article and Digby Smith for the former version