Origin and History
The regiment was raised on March 3 1672.
During the War of the Polish Succession, the regiment served in Italy from 1733 to 1736 when it returned to France.
During the War of the Austrian Succession, the regiment initially served in Bavaria in 1741 and 1742. In 1743, it was stationed in Alsace; in 1745 at Maubeuge. From 1746 to 1748, it took part in the campaigns of Flanders.
In 1750, the regiment was stationed at Schlestadt; in 1751 at Joinville; in 1752 at Cambrai; in 1753 at Aimeries; in 1754 at Avesnes; and in 1755 at Étain.
In 1756, the regiment counted two squadrons.
|The title of Duc de Chartres|
|From 1674, the title of Duc de Chartres is given to the eldest child of the House of Maison d'Orléans.
In 1758 Louis Philippe d'Orléans (1725-1785), is Duc d'Orléans since 1752, he is prince of the blood, his son Louis Philippe Joseph d’Orléans (1747-1793), is Duc de Chartres since 1752 and would become Duc d'Orléans in 1785 on the death of his father.
En 1758 the Marquis de Bellefonds was promoted maréchal de camp, this promotion forced him to get rid of his cavalry regiment (only foreign general officers: Swiss, German, were allowed to keep their regiment when promoted). On May 7 1758, the king gave this regiment to his parent the Duc de Chartres, and by this same ordonnance the king departed from the usual seniority rule by promoting Bellefonds Cavalerie from the 48th rank to the 21st rank, just after Orléans Cavalerie, by doing so he also shifted the rank of all regiments following the new Chartres Cavalerie.
- « His Majesty has ordered and orders that the said regiment (de Chartres) will march in the future immediately after the one of Orléans and before the one of Condé, notwithstanding what is carried by the ordonnance of March 1st 1699, which had fixed the rank of this regiment, then Imécourt, after the one of Clermont, nowadays Toustain, and from which His Majesty has departed and departs in this regard only. »
During the Seven Years' War, the regiment was commanded by:
- since September 10 1744: Marquis de Bellefonds
- from May 7 1758 to 1785: Louis Philippe Joseph d’Orléans, Duc de Chartres (effective command assumed by the Mestre de camp lieutenant Vicomte de Durfort-Clermont until November 25 1766)
When the French cavalry was reorganised on December 1 1761, the regiment was amalgamated with Trasseigny Cavalerie to form a new regiment: Chartres Cavalerie. Effective incorporation seems to have taken place only on April 1 1763 at Saint-Omer.
Service during the War
In 1757, the regiment joined the Lower Rhine Army commanded by maréchal d'Estrées for the planned invasion of Hanover. At the end of June, it was at the camp of Bielefeld with d'Estrées' main corps. On July 26, the regiment took part to the battle of Hastenbeck where it was among the cavalry of the right wing. After the victory, it encamped at Grosselsen near Hameln with the main body of the Lower Rhine Army from July 31 to August 2. After the Convention of Kloster-Zeven, it followed the main body, led by the maréchal de Richelieu, who encamped at Halberstadt from September 28 to November 5. The regiment was placed on the right wing of the second line. At the end of the year, it took its winter quarters in Sellingen in Ostfriese, in the fourth line of the French Army.
In April 1758, when the comte de Clermont redeployed his army along the Rhine, the regiment was stationed at Kleve, Donsbrüggen, Nütterden, Zyfflich and Niel; between Kleve and the German-Dutch border. On May 7, the regiment was renamed "Chartres". After the successful crossing of the Rhine by the Allied army of Ferdinand of Brunswick during the night of June 1 to 2, a detachment of the regiment was attacked by Allied hussars and volunteers, loosing a pair of kettle-drums and a standard. The regiment then retired towards Rheinberg where it joined Clermont's army on June 2. It remained in this camp until June 12 and was placed on the right wing of the first line. On June 23, the regiment took part in the battle of Krefeld where it was placed on the left wing of the first line, under Fitzjames. In Mid August, after Ferdinand's retreat to the east bank of the Rhine, the regiment, as part of the army of the Lower Rhine now under the marquis de Contades, recrossed the Rhine to follow the Allied army. On August 20, it was encamped near Wesel where it was placed on the left wing of the first line. At the beginning of October, the regiment was attached to Chevert's corps which was sent to reinforce the army of the prince de Soubise in Hesse. On October 10, it was at the battle of Lutterberg where it was part of Chevert's corps which won the day by turning the Allied left flank.
To do: campaigns from 1759 to 1762
|Headgear||black tricorne (reinforced with an iron skullcap for combat) laced silver, with a black cockade on the left side fastened with a black silk strap and a small pewter button|
|Coat||grey white lined red with 4 pewter buttons under the right lapel and a pewter button on each side at the small of the back
|Waistcoat||buff leather jerkin with pewter buttons|
|Greatcoat||grey white lined red|
Troopers were armed with a carbine, two pistols and a sabre. They were also supposed to wear a breastplate under their coat during battle but this regulation was not always followed.
Evolution of the uniform during the war
Throughout the war the French cavalry uniform seems to have evolved significantly. Our only primary source for the uniform at the start of the conflict is the Etat Général des Troupes Françoises of 1753. The first primary pictorial evidence comes from Raspe in 1761. Here we present various interpretations of the evolution of the uniform.
Raspe's illustration depicting the uniform towards the end of 1760 shows the following evolutions:
- white rosette on the tricorne
- coat, cuffs and turnbacks edged with the regimental braid (violet woollen braid with yellow chain link stitches)
- grey white waistcoat edged with the regimental braid (violet woollen braid with yellow chain link stitches)
- only 3 buttons on each cuff and on each pocket
- grey white breeches
Lienhart and Humbert, a secondary source, show the following differences for the uniform of 1757 (more probably around 1748):
- a white rosette on the tricorne
- only 3 buttons on each cuff
- red saddle cloth and housings bordered with a red braid
Officers wore uniforms similar to those of the troopers with the following distinctions:
- no shoulder strap
- no turnbacks
- no lace on the coat and waistcoat
- Maréchal des logis: silver laced tricorne, housing bordered with a 2,7 cm silver lace
- brigadier: double silver lace on the cuffs
no information available yet
Standards (in 1753)
Regimental standards (4 silken standards): red field embroidered and fringed in gold
- obverse: centre device consisting of a golden royal sun surmounted by a scroll bearing the royal motto “Nec Pluribus Impar”
- reverse: motto “Bello felicitas”
N.B.: the regiment probably changed colours when it became Chartres Cavalerie in 1758.
The article incorporates texts from the following books which are now in the public domain:
- Pajol, Charles P. V., Les Guerres sous Louis XV, vol. VII, Paris, 1891, p. 353-354
Funcken, L. and F., Les uniformes de la guerre en dentelle
Lienhart, docteur and René Humbert, Les uniformes des armées françaises”, Leipzig
Menguy, Patrice, Les Sujets du Bien Aimé
Raspe, Gabriel Nicolas, Recueil de toutes les troupes qui forment les armées françoises, Nuremberg 1761
Rogge, Christian; The French & Allied Armies in Germany during the Seven Years War, Frankfurt, 2006
N.B.: the section Service during the War is mostly derived from our articles depicting the various campaigns, battles and sieges.
Jean-Louis Vial for the additional information on the transfer of the regiment to the Duc de Chartres