Difference between revisions of "Bock Dragoons"

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(Identification of a location by Boris Brink)
(Added info from Wissel's work)
 
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==Origin and History==
 
==Origin and History==
The regiment was raised in 1701.  
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The regiment was raised in the spring of 1701 by Brigadier Alexander von der Schulenburg in Göttingen. He was seconded by Lieutenant-General von Zerssen and Major von Grothe. Recruitment proceeded speedily and by the end of summer, the regiment was mustered at Rotenkirch. It comprised six companies organized in three squadrons.
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In 1702, during the War of the Spanish Succession (1701-13), the regiment took part in the invasion of the Duchy of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel; in 1703, in the capture of Bonn, in the Battle of Ekeren, in the Combat of Speyerbach; in 1704, in Marlborough's march to the Danube, in the Battle of Schellenberg, in the Battle of Blenheim and in the siege and capture of Landau; in 1705, in the passage of the French lines at Elixheim; in 1706, in the Battle of Ramillies; in 1708, in the Battle of Oudenarde, in the siege of Lille and in the engagement of Wijnendale; in 1709, in the Battle of Malplaquet where its “Leibeskadron”, which was part of the vanguard, suffered heavy losses (approx. 50%). In this sanguinary battle, the regiment lost Ensign Harling killed; Captain Haacke, Captain-Lieutenant Harling, Lieutenants Schmidt and Zimmerman wounded. The regiment took up its winter-quarters in Maastricht.
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In 1714, the regiment returned to the district of Hameln in Hanover. In 1715, it transferred its quarters to Wunstorf.
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In 1731, the regiment received two additional companies to bring its total strength to four squadrons like all other Hanoverian dragoon regiments. To do so, each company of all horse and dragoon regiments contributed two men with all their equipment.
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In 1733, at the outbreak of the War of the Polish Succession (1733-35), the regiment formed part of the 6,000 men strong Hanoverian corps sent to the Rhine to join the ''Reichsarmee'' at Bruchsal. The regiment also took part in the campaigns of 1734. In 1735, it fought in the Battle of Klausen.
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In 1736, the regiment returned to Hanover.
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In 1741, during the [[War of the Austrian Succession]] (1740-48), the regiment joined the Observation Corps in the camp of Hameln. In 1742, it formed part of the 16,000 men strong Hanoverian Contingent which marched to Brabant. In 1743, it was at the Battle of Dettingen but was not engaged. In 1744, it campaigned in Brabant and Flanders; and in 1745, in Wetterau. In 1746, the regiment took part in the Battle of Rocoux; and in 1747, three of its squadrons fought in the Battle of Lauffeld.
  
 
The successive regimental ''Inhabers'' were:  
 
The successive regimental ''Inhabers'' were:  
*since 1715: du Pontpietin
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*from 1715: Colonel Jacques du Pontpietin (appointed general-in-chief of the cavalry in 1741, died in Hanover on December 4, 1756 at the age of 88)
*from 1757 till 1766: Joh. Bock von Wülfingen
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*from 1757 till April 6, 1766: Colonel Johann Friederich von Bock von Wülfingen (promoted to major-general in 1758 and to lieutenant-general in 1760, died on April 6, 1766)
  
 
==Service during the War==
 
==Service during the War==
On July 26 1757, during the [[1757 - French invasion of Hanover|French invasion of Hanover]], the regiment took part in the [[1757-07-26 - Battle of Hastenbeck|Battle of Hastenbeck]] where it was detached to scout along the Weser along with [[Luckner Hussars]] (1 sqn) and [[Bückeburg Carabiniers]] (1 sqn).
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On April 23, 1757, the regiment joined the force encamped at Hameln. Colonel von Bock was detached towards Paderborn for forage. After his return, the regiment as part of Zastrow’s Corps marched to Paderborn and joined the Observation Army in the camp of Bielefeld. On July 26, during the [[1757 - French invasion of Hanover|French invasion of Hanover]], the regiment took part in the [[1757-07-26 - Battle of Hastenbeck|Battle of Hastenbeck]] where it was detached to scout along the Weser along with [[Luckner Hussars]] (1 sqn) and [[Bückeburg Carabiniers]] (1 sqn). After this defeat, the regiment retreated towards Verden. It was then detached under Lieutenant-General von Oberg to occupy Burgdamm on the Wümme. After the capitulation of the Allied army at Kloster Zeven, on September 10, the regiment was posted at Kirchosten on the Oste. In the last days of November, after the repudiation of the Convention of Kloster Zeven, the regiment joined the Allied army assembled under [[Ferdinand of Brunswick]]. In December, it took part in the [[1757 - Allied counter-offensive in Hanover|Allied counter-offensive in Hanover]]. By December 25, it was at the camp of Altenhagen.
  
On May 26 1758, the regiment was with [[Ferdinand of Brunswick]]'s main force in the camp of Nottuln. On May 27, it was transferred to Wangenheim's Corps at Dorsten. On May 31, this corps accompanied Ferdinand in his [[1758 - Allied campaign on the west bank of the Rhine|offensive on the west bank of the Rhine]]. The same day, after the capture of Kaiserwerth, Wangenheim garrisoned the town with light troops, some foot and Bock Dragoons, placing this garrison under the command of Lieutenant-Colonel Walthausen. On June 18, the regiment was part of Wangenheim's Corps who passed the Rhine at Duisburg. On June 23, the regiment took part in the [[1758-06-23 - Battle of Krefeld|Battle of Krefeld]] where he was deployed on the right wing under the command of the [[Karl Wilhelm Ferdinand|''Erbprinz'' (Hereditary Prince) of Brunswick]]. On October 10, the regiment was present at the [[1758-10-10 - Battle of Lutterberg|Battle of Lutterberg]] where it was placed in the first line of the left wing.  
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On January 1, 1758, the regiment took up cantonment in Altenburg on the Elbe. On February 13, it came out of Altenburg to join the Allied army for its [[1758 - Allied winter offensive in Western Germany|winter offensive in Western Germany]]. On February 25, the regiment passed the Aller at Ritthagen. At the beginning of March, it took part in the siege and capture of Minden. It then took up cantonments at Eickhorst and later joined the main army in the Bishopric of Münster and took up cantonments at Klaholz and Freckenhorst. On May 23, it set off from its cantonments to join the Allied army. On May 26, the regiment was with [[Ferdinand of Brunswick]]'s main force in the camp of Nottuln. On May 27, it was transferred to Wangenheim's Corps at Dorsten. On May 31, this corps accompanied Ferdinand in his [[1758 - Allied campaign on the west bank of the Rhine|offensive on the west bank of the Rhine]]. The same day, after the capture of Kaiserwerth, Wangenheim garrisoned the town with light troops, some foot and Bock Dragoons, placing this garrison under the command of Lieutenant-Colonel Walthausen. On June 18, the regiment was part of Wangenheim's Corps who passed the Rhine at Duisburg. On June 21, Wangenheim’s Corps effected a junction with the main army near Kempen. On June 23, the regiment took part in the [[1758-06-23 - Battle of Krefeld|Battle of Krefeld]] where he was deployed on the right wing under the command of the [[Karl Wilhelm Ferdinand|''Erbprinz'' (Hereditary Prince) of Brunswick]]. On June 24, it march by Oesterad to Neuss. Two of its squadrons were detached to take part in the siege of Düsseldorf which capitulated on July 12. Meanwhile, the two other squadrons remained at Neuss. On July 19, Wangenheim’s Corps effected a junction with the main army. On July 26, the regiment marched to Mille. On July 27, it took position at Linnisch and Ränderath to cover the left flank of the army. On July 30, it rejoined the main army. On July 31, it was part of the force led by the Hereditary Prince who forced the passage of the Niers at Wachtendonk. On October 10, the regiment was present at the [[1758-10-10 - Battle of Lutterberg|Battle of Lutterberg]] where it was placed in the first line of the left wing. In this battle, the regiment lost one standard. After the defeat, it formed part of the rearguard. On October 16, it effected a junction with the main army and took position at Hovestadt on the Lippe under the Hereditary Prince. By November, it was encamped near Coesfeld.
  
In June 1759, the regiment was part of the Allied Main Army under the command of Duke Ferdinand of Brunswick. On July 27 in the afternoon, the Hereditary Prince set off from Petershagen, near Minden, with 6 bns and 8 dragoon sqns (including this regiment), totalling some 6,000 men, and marched south-westward on Lübbecke to threaten the French left flank and the supply line between Minden and Paderborn. On August 1, the regiment was part of the right wing of the Corps of the Hereditary Prince who attacked and defeated Brissac's French Corps at the [[1759-08-01 - Engagement of Gohfeld|engagement of Gohfeld]]. On November 28, the regiment was part of the force under the Hereditary Prince destined to dislodge the Würtemberger Contingent from Fulda and then to reinforce [[Frederick II]] in Saxony. This force set out from Marburg and marched to Kirtorf. On November 29, the force marched to Angersbach and Lauterbach. On Friday November 30, this force launched an [[1759-11-30 – Attack on Fulda|attack on Fulda]], forcing the Würtemberger Contingent to retreat precipitously southwards on Bruckenau in the general direction of Franconia and Württemberg. In this action, the regiment was attached to the Hereditary Prince's Column. On December 18, the Hereditary Prince at the head of his corps arrived at Erfurt. On December 25, the Hereditary Prince formed a junction with Frederick at Leipzig in Saxony.
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On February 10, 1759, the regiment marched to Bramsche near Osnabrück to take up its winter-quarters where it remained till May. On May 10, it joined other regiments at Roxel near Münster. On May 22, it was at Lette. By June, the regiment was part of the Allied main army under the command of Duke Ferdinand of Brunswick posted on the Lippe. On June 7, the regiment was attached to [[Spörcken, August Friedrich von|Spörcken]]’s Corps which encamped near Lünen. On June 8, it encamped near Hamm. On June 15, the regiment, now part of the corps of the Hereditary Prince, effected a junction with the main army near Bühren. On June 18, it repassed the Lippe at Lippstadt. By July 17, it was at Petershagen. On July 27 in the afternoon, the Hereditary Prince set off from Petershagen, near Minden, with 6 bns and 8 dragoon sqns (including this regiment), totalling some 6,000 men, and marched south-westward on Lübbecke to threaten the French left flank and the supply line between Minden and Paderborn. On July 30, the Hereditary Prince drove a French corps out of Bühne and encamped at Quernheim. On August 1, the regiment was part of the right wing of the Corps of the Hereditary Prince who attacked and defeated Brissac's French Corps at the [[1759-08-01 - Engagement of Gohfeld|engagement of Gohfeld]]. On August 3, the corps of the Hereditary Prince marched by Vlotho and Rinteln to Hameln. On August 5, it skirmished with the light troops of the French rearguard and the regiment was posted under the guns of Hameln. On August 17, it effected a junction with Wangenheim’s Corps at Wolfhagen. On September 19, the regiment encamped at Crofdorf. On November 28, the regiment was part of the force under the Hereditary Prince destined to dislodge the Würtemberger Contingent from Fulda and then to reinforce [[Frederick II]] in Saxony. This force set out from Marburg and marched to Kirtorf. On November 29, the force marched to Angersbach and Lauterbach. On Friday November 30, this force launched an [[1759-11-30 – Attack on Fulda|attack on Fulda]], forcing the Würtemberger Contingent to retreat precipitously southwards on Bruckenau in the general direction of Franconia and Württemberg. In this action, the regiment was attached to the Hereditary Prince's Column. On December 18, the Hereditary Prince at the head of his corps arrived at Erfurt. On December 25, the Hereditary Prince formed a junction with Frederick at Leipzig in Saxony.
  
On July 31 1760, during the [[1760 - French campaign in West Germany|campaign of 1760]], the regiment took part in the [[1760-07-31 - Battle of Warburg|Battle of Warburg]] where it was deployed in the third line of the centre between Ossendorf and Menne. During the night of September 5 to 6, the regiment was part of an Allied detachment who passed the Diemel near Warburg. This Allied detachment made a junction with Bülow's light troops at the village of Witzen (''unidentified location''), about 5 km on the other side of the Diemel. The plan called for Bülow to turn the town of Zierenberg and to take post between this town and Dierenberg (probably the village of Dörnberg or the height of Dörenberg). The Allied force was guided by townsmen as well as deserters who manage to avoid outposts. The regiment along with 2 grenadier battalions and [[Block Infantry]] were posted between Malsburg and Zierenberg. At about 2:00 a.m. on September 6, the Allied column was detected when it had almost reached the town. The Allied grenadiers, drove back the detachment of [[Volontaires du Dauphiné]] guarding the Warburg Gate and entered into the town while two other gates were masked by Allied dragoons and 2 Hessian battalions. The Allies surprised several French soldiers before they had time to come out of the houses and assembled in the churchyard. Meanwhile, the 2 dragoon regiments masking the other gates made an attempt against the Duremberg Gate but were repulsed by 400 French grenadiers. These dragoons made another unsuccessful attempt against another gate before managing to enter the town through a breach. At 3:00 a.m., the Hereditary Prince, fearing the arrival of reinforcements from the nearby French army, ordered retreat. By 8:00 a.m., the victorious Allied column was back to Warburg. On October 16, the regiment was at the [[1760-10-16 - Battle of Clostercamp|Battle of Clostercamp]] but did not take part in the action, being attached to a containing force under Major-General von Bock posted north of Rheinberg.
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On January 7, 1760, the regiment came out of its cantonments to take part in an expedition against the Austrian General Riedt, who was posted with 1,000 men at Marienburg on the Bohemian border. Riedt retired in time, losing only 17 Grenzer light troops. The Allied contingent then returned to its cantonments. On February 6, the contingent took the road by Zeiz, Naumburg and Tenstedt on its way back to Western Germany. On arrival, each regiment returned to its own winter-quarters, the present regiment going ot Brilon where it arrived on March 1. On June 1, the regiment came out of its winter-quarters and took up cantonment at Ahmecke. On June 5, it joined the corps assembling under Lieutenant-General von Hardenberg in a camp near Hamm. By July 27, the regiment was encamped near Heckershausen. On July 31, during the [[1760 - French campaign in West Germany|campaign of 1760]], the regiment took part in the [[1760-07-31 - Battle of Warburg|Battle of Warburg]] where it was deployed in the third line of the centre between Ossendorf and Menne. During the night of September 5 to 6, the regiment was part of an Allied detachment who passed the Diemel near Warburg. This Allied detachment made a junction with Bülow's light troops at the village of Witzen (''unidentified location''), about 5 km on the other side of the Diemel. The plan called for Bülow to turn the town of Zierenberg and to take post between this town and Dierenberg (probably the village of Dörnberg or the height of Dörenberg). The Allied force was guided by townsmen as well as deserters who manage to avoid outposts. The regiment along with 2 grenadier battalions and [[Block Infantry]] were posted between Malsburg and Zierenberg. At about 2:00 a.m. on September 6, the Allied column was detected when it had almost reached the town. The Allied grenadiers, drove back the detachment of [[Volontaires du Dauphiné]] guarding the Warburg Gate and entered into the town while two other gates were masked by Allied dragoons and 2 Hessian battalions. The Allies surprised several French soldiers before they had time to come out of the houses and assembled in the churchyard. Meanwhile, the 2 dragoon regiments masking the other gates made an attempt against the Duremberg Gate but were repulsed by 400 French grenadiers. These dragoons made another unsuccessful attempt against another gate before managing to enter the town through a breach. At 3:00 a.m., the Hereditary Prince, fearing the arrival of reinforcements from the nearby French army, ordered retreat. By 8:00 a.m., the victorious Allied column was back to Warburg. On September 12, the regiment took part in an engagement near Dreckmünden where Major Langen was wounded. On September 15, it returned to Warburg. On September 19, it was attached to the corps of the Hereditary Prince who marched against Wesel, hoping to capture the fortress. On October 16, the regiment was at the [[1760-10-16 - Battle of Clostercamp|Battle of Clostercamp]] but did not take part in the action, being attached to a containing force under Major-General von Bock posted north of Rheinberg. On December 23, it took up its winter-quarters in and around Rhüden.
  
On July 16 1761, the regiment took part in the [[1761-07-16 - Battle of Vellinghausen|Battle of Vellinghausen]] where it was deployed on the right wing under the Hereditary Prince.
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At the beginning of February 1761, for the [[1761 - Allied campaign in Hesse|campaign in Hesse]], the regiment was attached to a corps of 10 battalions and 10 squadrons placed under the command of Lieutenant-General Karl von Breidenbach. On February 10, this corps marched by Fürstenberg, Frankenberg and Rosenthal against Marburg. On February 14, Breidenbach launched an unsuccessful surprise attack on Marburg and was killed in the attempt. His corps retreated towards Wettern under Major-General von Halberstadt. On February 18, the regiment took part in a rearguard action between Sachsenberg and Neukirchen. It then took up cantonments on the Ohm. It later took up quarters on the Lippe at Untrup and Heintrup. On May 5, it went to Freckenhorst and on May 6 to Bösensell. On June 1, it joined a corps under the Hereditary Prince at Schapdetten. On June 28, this corps marched to Lünen. On July 16, the regiment took part in the [[1761-07-16 - Battle of Vellinghausen|Battle of Vellinghausen]] where it was deployed on the right wing under the Hereditary Prince. On October 18, as part of Bock’s detachment, the regiment set off from Blomberg and marched towards the Lippe. On November 2, it passed the river at Lippstadt. On December 3, it repassed the Lippe. On December 12, it took up its winter-quarters in Greven near Münster.
  
By May 23 1762, for the [[1762 - French campaign in Western Germany|incoming campaign]], the regiment was attached to the Corps of the Hereditary Prince operating in Westphalia. During the night of June 24 to 25, the Hereditary Prince advanced up to Buer with 4 sqns (detachments of [[Brunswick Dragoons|Brunswick Carabiniers]], [[Hessian Leib Cavalry|Hessian Gens d'Armes]], Bock Dragoons and [[Grothaus Cavalry|Jung-Bremer Cavalry]]) and fell into an ambush drawn in a wood near Recklinghausen by the [[Chasseurs de Fischer|Dragons Chasseurs de Conflans]]. The Hereditary Prince was himself captured by 2 French hussars before being delivered by 20 troopers of Bock Dragoons. In this action, the Allies lost 20 men killed and 200 troopers taken prisoners; the French a few men killed and about 15 wounded. On July 23, the regiment took part in the [[1762-07-23 - Combat of Lutterberg (2nd)|second combat of Lutterberg]] where it was deployed with the cavalry protecting the flank at Winterbühren. On September 21, the regiment was at the [[1762-09-21 - Combat of Amöneburg|Combat of Amöneburg]] where it was attached to Zastrow's Corps occupying the ground immediately before the Brücker Mühle.
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On April 12, 1762, the regiment joined the corps of the Hereditary Prince assembling for an expedition against the Castle of Arensberg which was bombarded on April 19. The Allies took the 300 men of the garrison prisoners. The regiment then returned to its quarters. At the end of April, it took part in an expedition against Elberfeld. From May 18 to June 16, it was encamped at Schafderren in preparation for the [[1762 - French campaign in Western Germany|incoming campaign]] during which it was attached to the Corps of the Hereditary Prince operating in Westphalia. During the night of June 24 to 25, the Hereditary Prince advanced up to Buer with 4 sqns (detachments of [[Brunswick Dragoons|Brunswick Carabiniers]], [[Hessian Leib Cavalry|Hessian Gens d'Armes]], Bock Dragoons and [[Grothaus Cavalry|Jung-Bremer Cavalry]]) and fell into an ambush drawn in a wood near Recklinghausen by the [[Chasseurs de Fischer|Dragons Chasseurs de Conflans]]. The Hereditary Prince was himself captured by 2 French hussars before being delivered by 20 troopers of Bock Dragoons. In this action, the Allies lost 20 men killed and 200 troopers taken prisoners; the French a few men killed and about 15 wounded. On June 27, the regiment was detached along with three battalions to reinforce the main Allied army. On July 16, this detachment effected a junction with Zastrow’s Corps. On July 23, the regiment took part in the [[1762-07-23 - Combat of Lutterberg (2nd)|second combat of Lutterberg]] where it was deployed with the cavalry protecting the flank at Winterbühren. On August 21, the regiment joined part of [[Granby, John Manners, Marquess of|Granby]]’s Corps at Allendorf. On August 22, it fought in an engagement near Berenfeld. On September 21, the regiment was at the [[1762-09-21 - Combat of Amöneburg|Combat of Amöneburg]] where it was attached to Zastrow's Corps occupying the ground immediately before the Brücker Mühle. In October, the regiment was part of the force covering the siege of Kassel.
  
 
==Uniform==
 
==Uniform==
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|}
 
|}
 
|-
 
|-
|'''Waistcoat'''||light buff edged crimson
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|'''Waistcoat'''||light buff edged crimson (crimson before 1763 according to Wissel)
 
|-
 
|-
 
|'''Breeches'''||light buff
 
|'''Breeches'''||light buff
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===Musicians===
 
===Musicians===
Musicians were dressed in reverse colours and probably wore shoulder laces. The staff kettle-drummer probably carried NCO distinctive. His kettle-drums were made of brass (they had been captured at Blenheim on August 13 1704) and had a red apron fringed gold carrying a device consisting of the Arms of England supported by a Lion and a Unicorn within the Garter; the motto “DIEU ET MON DROIT” underneath.
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Musicians were dressed in reverse colours and probably wore shoulder laces. The staff kettle-drummer probably carried NCO distinctive. His kettle-drums were made of brass (they had been captured at Blenheim on August 13, 1704) and had a red apron fringed gold carrying a device consisting of the Arms of England supported by a Lion and a Unicorn within the Garter; the motto “DIEU ET MON DROIT” underneath.
  
 
As dragoons, the musicians were drummers. The likely drum pattern would have been similar to the foot with hoops in alternating facing colour and red diagonal stripes, white drum cords over a brass drum with the Arms of Hanover in the centre.
 
As dragoons, the musicians were drummers. The likely drum pattern would have been similar to the foot with hoops in alternating facing colour and red diagonal stripes, white drum cords over a brass drum with the Arms of Hanover in the centre.
  
 
==Standards==
 
==Standards==
The first squadron carried the ''Leibstandarte'' while the 3 remaining squadrons carried an ''Eskadronstandarte''which could vary from one squadron to the other.
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The first squadron carried the ''Leibstandarte'' while the 3 remaining squadrons carried an ''Eskadronstandarte''which could vary from one squadron to the other. In 1757, when Colonel Bock became chief of the regiment, it received the new standards described below.
  
 
'''Colonel Standard''' (''Leibstandarte''): white damask standard with gold fringe
 
'''Colonel Standard''' (''Leibstandarte''): white damask standard with gold fringe
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==References==
 
==References==
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This article incorporates texts from the following books which are now in the public domain:
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*Wissel, Friedrich v. and Georg von Wissel: [https://books.google.com/books?id=sT1YAAAAcAAJ Geschichte der Errichtung sämmtlicher Chur-Braunschweig-Lüneburgischen Truppen, sammt ihren Fahnen, Standarten und Pauken-Devisen ...], Zelle, 1786, pp. 231-287
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'''Other sources'''
 +
 
Biles, Bill: ''The Hanoverian Army in the 18th Century'', Seven Years War Association Journal Vol. VI No. 3
 
Biles, Bill: ''The Hanoverian Army in the 18th Century'', Seven Years War Association Journal Vol. VI No. 3
  
Line 138: Line 155:
 
Knötel, Richard: ''Die Uniformen des Hannoverschen Heeres 1763 und 1770''. Kurze Stammliste. 1617 bis 1803, in: Mitteilungen zur Geschichte der militärischen Tracht, vol. XVI, no. 6-11 (1909), page 22-42
 
Knötel, Richard: ''Die Uniformen des Hannoverschen Heeres 1763 und 1770''. Kurze Stammliste. 1617 bis 1803, in: Mitteilungen zur Geschichte der militärischen Tracht, vol. XVI, no. 6-11 (1909), page 22-42
  
Lawson, Cecil C. P., ''A History of the Uniforms of the British Army - from the Beginnings to 1760'', vol. II
+
Lawson, Cecil C. P.: ''A History of the Uniforms of the British Army - from the Beginnings to 1760'', vol. II
  
 
Niemeyer, Joachim and Georg Ortenburg: ''The Hanoverian Army during the Seven Years War''; Deutsche Gesellschaft für Heereskunde
 
Niemeyer, Joachim and Georg Ortenburg: ''The Hanoverian Army during the Seven Years War''; Deutsche Gesellschaft für Heereskunde
  
Pengel, R.D, Hurt G.R.: ''German States in the Seven Years War 1740 to 1762'', Imperial Press
+
Pengel, R.D, and G. R. Hurt: ''German States in the Seven Years War 1740 to 1762'', Imperial Press
  
Pengel, R.D, Hurt G.R.: ''Seven Years War. Brunswick-Luneburg (Hanover). Hessen Cassel. Brunswick-Wolfenbuttel. Schaumburg Lippe''. Supplement, Birmingham 1984
+
Pengel, R.D, and G. R. Hurt:: ''Seven Years War. Brunswick-Luneburg (Hanover). Hessen Cassel. Brunswick-Wolfenbuttel. Schaumburg Lippe''. Supplement, Birmingham 1984
  
 
Schirmer, Friedrich: ''Die Heere der kriegführenden Staaten 1756-1763'', hrsg. von der KLIO-Landesgruppe Baden-Württemberg, überarb. u. aktual. Neuauflage 1989
 
Schirmer, Friedrich: ''Die Heere der kriegführenden Staaten 1756-1763'', hrsg. von der KLIO-Landesgruppe Baden-Württemberg, überarb. u. aktual. Neuauflage 1989

Latest revision as of 05:27, 7 April 2019

Hierarchical Path: Seven Years War (Main Page) >> Armies >> Hanoverian Army >> Bock Dragoons

Origin and History

The regiment was raised in the spring of 1701 by Brigadier Alexander von der Schulenburg in Göttingen. He was seconded by Lieutenant-General von Zerssen and Major von Grothe. Recruitment proceeded speedily and by the end of summer, the regiment was mustered at Rotenkirch. It comprised six companies organized in three squadrons.

In 1702, during the War of the Spanish Succession (1701-13), the regiment took part in the invasion of the Duchy of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel; in 1703, in the capture of Bonn, in the Battle of Ekeren, in the Combat of Speyerbach; in 1704, in Marlborough's march to the Danube, in the Battle of Schellenberg, in the Battle of Blenheim and in the siege and capture of Landau; in 1705, in the passage of the French lines at Elixheim; in 1706, in the Battle of Ramillies; in 1708, in the Battle of Oudenarde, in the siege of Lille and in the engagement of Wijnendale; in 1709, in the Battle of Malplaquet where its “Leibeskadron”, which was part of the vanguard, suffered heavy losses (approx. 50%). In this sanguinary battle, the regiment lost Ensign Harling killed; Captain Haacke, Captain-Lieutenant Harling, Lieutenants Schmidt and Zimmerman wounded. The regiment took up its winter-quarters in Maastricht.

In 1714, the regiment returned to the district of Hameln in Hanover. In 1715, it transferred its quarters to Wunstorf.

In 1731, the regiment received two additional companies to bring its total strength to four squadrons like all other Hanoverian dragoon regiments. To do so, each company of all horse and dragoon regiments contributed two men with all their equipment.

In 1733, at the outbreak of the War of the Polish Succession (1733-35), the regiment formed part of the 6,000 men strong Hanoverian corps sent to the Rhine to join the Reichsarmee at Bruchsal. The regiment also took part in the campaigns of 1734. In 1735, it fought in the Battle of Klausen.

In 1736, the regiment returned to Hanover.

In 1741, during the War of the Austrian Succession (1740-48), the regiment joined the Observation Corps in the camp of Hameln. In 1742, it formed part of the 16,000 men strong Hanoverian Contingent which marched to Brabant. In 1743, it was at the Battle of Dettingen but was not engaged. In 1744, it campaigned in Brabant and Flanders; and in 1745, in Wetterau. In 1746, the regiment took part in the Battle of Rocoux; and in 1747, three of its squadrons fought in the Battle of Lauffeld.

The successive regimental Inhabers were:

  • from 1715: Colonel Jacques du Pontpietin (appointed general-in-chief of the cavalry in 1741, died in Hanover on December 4, 1756 at the age of 88)
  • from 1757 till April 6, 1766: Colonel Johann Friederich von Bock von Wülfingen (promoted to major-general in 1758 and to lieutenant-general in 1760, died on April 6, 1766)

Service during the War

On April 23, 1757, the regiment joined the force encamped at Hameln. Colonel von Bock was detached towards Paderborn for forage. After his return, the regiment as part of Zastrow’s Corps marched to Paderborn and joined the Observation Army in the camp of Bielefeld. On July 26, during the French invasion of Hanover, the regiment took part in the Battle of Hastenbeck where it was detached to scout along the Weser along with Luckner Hussars (1 sqn) and Bückeburg Carabiniers (1 sqn). After this defeat, the regiment retreated towards Verden. It was then detached under Lieutenant-General von Oberg to occupy Burgdamm on the Wümme. After the capitulation of the Allied army at Kloster Zeven, on September 10, the regiment was posted at Kirchosten on the Oste. In the last days of November, after the repudiation of the Convention of Kloster Zeven, the regiment joined the Allied army assembled under Ferdinand of Brunswick. In December, it took part in the Allied counter-offensive in Hanover. By December 25, it was at the camp of Altenhagen.

On January 1, 1758, the regiment took up cantonment in Altenburg on the Elbe. On February 13, it came out of Altenburg to join the Allied army for its winter offensive in Western Germany. On February 25, the regiment passed the Aller at Ritthagen. At the beginning of March, it took part in the siege and capture of Minden. It then took up cantonments at Eickhorst and later joined the main army in the Bishopric of Münster and took up cantonments at Klaholz and Freckenhorst. On May 23, it set off from its cantonments to join the Allied army. On May 26, the regiment was with Ferdinand of Brunswick's main force in the camp of Nottuln. On May 27, it was transferred to Wangenheim's Corps at Dorsten. On May 31, this corps accompanied Ferdinand in his offensive on the west bank of the Rhine. The same day, after the capture of Kaiserwerth, Wangenheim garrisoned the town with light troops, some foot and Bock Dragoons, placing this garrison under the command of Lieutenant-Colonel Walthausen. On June 18, the regiment was part of Wangenheim's Corps who passed the Rhine at Duisburg. On June 21, Wangenheim’s Corps effected a junction with the main army near Kempen. On June 23, the regiment took part in the Battle of Krefeld where he was deployed on the right wing under the command of the Erbprinz (Hereditary Prince) of Brunswick. On June 24, it march by Oesterad to Neuss. Two of its squadrons were detached to take part in the siege of Düsseldorf which capitulated on July 12. Meanwhile, the two other squadrons remained at Neuss. On July 19, Wangenheim’s Corps effected a junction with the main army. On July 26, the regiment marched to Mille. On July 27, it took position at Linnisch and Ränderath to cover the left flank of the army. On July 30, it rejoined the main army. On July 31, it was part of the force led by the Hereditary Prince who forced the passage of the Niers at Wachtendonk. On October 10, the regiment was present at the Battle of Lutterberg where it was placed in the first line of the left wing. In this battle, the regiment lost one standard. After the defeat, it formed part of the rearguard. On October 16, it effected a junction with the main army and took position at Hovestadt on the Lippe under the Hereditary Prince. By November, it was encamped near Coesfeld.

On February 10, 1759, the regiment marched to Bramsche near Osnabrück to take up its winter-quarters where it remained till May. On May 10, it joined other regiments at Roxel near Münster. On May 22, it was at Lette. By June, the regiment was part of the Allied main army under the command of Duke Ferdinand of Brunswick posted on the Lippe. On June 7, the regiment was attached to Spörcken’s Corps which encamped near Lünen. On June 8, it encamped near Hamm. On June 15, the regiment, now part of the corps of the Hereditary Prince, effected a junction with the main army near Bühren. On June 18, it repassed the Lippe at Lippstadt. By July 17, it was at Petershagen. On July 27 in the afternoon, the Hereditary Prince set off from Petershagen, near Minden, with 6 bns and 8 dragoon sqns (including this regiment), totalling some 6,000 men, and marched south-westward on Lübbecke to threaten the French left flank and the supply line between Minden and Paderborn. On July 30, the Hereditary Prince drove a French corps out of Bühne and encamped at Quernheim. On August 1, the regiment was part of the right wing of the Corps of the Hereditary Prince who attacked and defeated Brissac's French Corps at the engagement of Gohfeld. On August 3, the corps of the Hereditary Prince marched by Vlotho and Rinteln to Hameln. On August 5, it skirmished with the light troops of the French rearguard and the regiment was posted under the guns of Hameln. On August 17, it effected a junction with Wangenheim’s Corps at Wolfhagen. On September 19, the regiment encamped at Crofdorf. On November 28, the regiment was part of the force under the Hereditary Prince destined to dislodge the Würtemberger Contingent from Fulda and then to reinforce Frederick II in Saxony. This force set out from Marburg and marched to Kirtorf. On November 29, the force marched to Angersbach and Lauterbach. On Friday November 30, this force launched an attack on Fulda, forcing the Würtemberger Contingent to retreat precipitously southwards on Bruckenau in the general direction of Franconia and Württemberg. In this action, the regiment was attached to the Hereditary Prince's Column. On December 18, the Hereditary Prince at the head of his corps arrived at Erfurt. On December 25, the Hereditary Prince formed a junction with Frederick at Leipzig in Saxony.

On January 7, 1760, the regiment came out of its cantonments to take part in an expedition against the Austrian General Riedt, who was posted with 1,000 men at Marienburg on the Bohemian border. Riedt retired in time, losing only 17 Grenzer light troops. The Allied contingent then returned to its cantonments. On February 6, the contingent took the road by Zeiz, Naumburg and Tenstedt on its way back to Western Germany. On arrival, each regiment returned to its own winter-quarters, the present regiment going ot Brilon where it arrived on March 1. On June 1, the regiment came out of its winter-quarters and took up cantonment at Ahmecke. On June 5, it joined the corps assembling under Lieutenant-General von Hardenberg in a camp near Hamm. By July 27, the regiment was encamped near Heckershausen. On July 31, during the campaign of 1760, the regiment took part in the Battle of Warburg where it was deployed in the third line of the centre between Ossendorf and Menne. During the night of September 5 to 6, the regiment was part of an Allied detachment who passed the Diemel near Warburg. This Allied detachment made a junction with Bülow's light troops at the village of Witzen (unidentified location), about 5 km on the other side of the Diemel. The plan called for Bülow to turn the town of Zierenberg and to take post between this town and Dierenberg (probably the village of Dörnberg or the height of Dörenberg). The Allied force was guided by townsmen as well as deserters who manage to avoid outposts. The regiment along with 2 grenadier battalions and Block Infantry were posted between Malsburg and Zierenberg. At about 2:00 a.m. on September 6, the Allied column was detected when it had almost reached the town. The Allied grenadiers, drove back the detachment of Volontaires du Dauphiné guarding the Warburg Gate and entered into the town while two other gates were masked by Allied dragoons and 2 Hessian battalions. The Allies surprised several French soldiers before they had time to come out of the houses and assembled in the churchyard. Meanwhile, the 2 dragoon regiments masking the other gates made an attempt against the Duremberg Gate but were repulsed by 400 French grenadiers. These dragoons made another unsuccessful attempt against another gate before managing to enter the town through a breach. At 3:00 a.m., the Hereditary Prince, fearing the arrival of reinforcements from the nearby French army, ordered retreat. By 8:00 a.m., the victorious Allied column was back to Warburg. On September 12, the regiment took part in an engagement near Dreckmünden where Major Langen was wounded. On September 15, it returned to Warburg. On September 19, it was attached to the corps of the Hereditary Prince who marched against Wesel, hoping to capture the fortress. On October 16, the regiment was at the Battle of Clostercamp but did not take part in the action, being attached to a containing force under Major-General von Bock posted north of Rheinberg. On December 23, it took up its winter-quarters in and around Rhüden.

At the beginning of February 1761, for the campaign in Hesse, the regiment was attached to a corps of 10 battalions and 10 squadrons placed under the command of Lieutenant-General Karl von Breidenbach. On February 10, this corps marched by Fürstenberg, Frankenberg and Rosenthal against Marburg. On February 14, Breidenbach launched an unsuccessful surprise attack on Marburg and was killed in the attempt. His corps retreated towards Wettern under Major-General von Halberstadt. On February 18, the regiment took part in a rearguard action between Sachsenberg and Neukirchen. It then took up cantonments on the Ohm. It later took up quarters on the Lippe at Untrup and Heintrup. On May 5, it went to Freckenhorst and on May 6 to Bösensell. On June 1, it joined a corps under the Hereditary Prince at Schapdetten. On June 28, this corps marched to Lünen. On July 16, the regiment took part in the Battle of Vellinghausen where it was deployed on the right wing under the Hereditary Prince. On October 18, as part of Bock’s detachment, the regiment set off from Blomberg and marched towards the Lippe. On November 2, it passed the river at Lippstadt. On December 3, it repassed the Lippe. On December 12, it took up its winter-quarters in Greven near Münster.

On April 12, 1762, the regiment joined the corps of the Hereditary Prince assembling for an expedition against the Castle of Arensberg which was bombarded on April 19. The Allies took the 300 men of the garrison prisoners. The regiment then returned to its quarters. At the end of April, it took part in an expedition against Elberfeld. From May 18 to June 16, it was encamped at Schafderren in preparation for the incoming campaign during which it was attached to the Corps of the Hereditary Prince operating in Westphalia. During the night of June 24 to 25, the Hereditary Prince advanced up to Buer with 4 sqns (detachments of Brunswick Carabiniers, Hessian Gens d'Armes, Bock Dragoons and Jung-Bremer Cavalry) and fell into an ambush drawn in a wood near Recklinghausen by the Dragons Chasseurs de Conflans. The Hereditary Prince was himself captured by 2 French hussars before being delivered by 20 troopers of Bock Dragoons. In this action, the Allies lost 20 men killed and 200 troopers taken prisoners; the French a few men killed and about 15 wounded. On June 27, the regiment was detached along with three battalions to reinforce the main Allied army. On July 16, this detachment effected a junction with Zastrow’s Corps. On July 23, the regiment took part in the second combat of Lutterberg where it was deployed with the cavalry protecting the flank at Winterbühren. On August 21, the regiment joined part of Granby’s Corps at Allendorf. On August 22, it fought in an engagement near Berenfeld. On September 21, the regiment was at the Combat of Amöneburg where it was attached to Zastrow's Corps occupying the ground immediately before the Brücker Mühle. In October, the regiment was part of the force covering the siege of Kassel.

Uniform

Accurate Vorstellung der saemtlichen Churfürstl. hannöverischen Armee zur eigentlichen Kentniß der Uniform von jedem Regimente nebst beygefügter Geschichte, worinne von der Stiftung, denen Chefs, der Staercke und den wichtigsten Thaten jedes Regiments Nachricht gegeben wird Nürnberg: Raspe 1763 (Universitäts- und Landesbibliothek Sachsen-Anhalt)

Privates

Uniform in 1757 -
Source: Richard Couture from a template by Hannoverdidi
Uniform Details
Headgear
Trooper black tricorne laced gold with oak leaves as a field sign and a black cockade
Grenadier Prussian-style mitre-cap; crimson front decorated with the Springing White Horse on a red ground within the Garter surmounted by a crown; golden scroll work; small white flap decorated with a golden grenade and golden scroll work; white bag; crimson headband; red and gold pompom
Neck stock black
Coat white without lace with 1 golden buttons on each side in the small of the back
Collar none
Shoulder-knot red and gold aiguillette on the right shoulder
Lapels crimson, each with 9 golden buttons (arranged 1-2-2-2-2)
Pockets horizontal pockets, each with 3 golden buttons
Cuffs crimson Swedish cuffs, each with 3 golden buttons
Turnbacks crimson
Waistcoat light buff edged crimson (crimson before 1763 according to Wissel)
Breeches light buff
Leather Equipment
Cross-belt buff
Waist-belt buff
Cartridge Box black
Ammunition pouch (grenadiers): straw decorated with a brass shield carrying the crowned initials “GR” and with a brass flaming grenade in each corner
Scabbard black
Foot-gear black boots with white knee-covers
Horse Furniture
Saddle-cloth basic colour crimson; border, from the inner edge out, black line white zigzag, crimson line, line of white rectangles with diamonds superimposed on one another in order crimson, yellow, black, white, crimson line, black line white zigzag, crimson line; emblem, white horse on red ground over green turf, blue garter white lettering, above is a crown gold with red interior

N.B.: during wartime, saddle-cloth and holster-caps probably used a simpler pattern based on the distinctive colour of the regiment edged yellow

Sabretache see saddle-cloth
Blanket roll crimson


Troopers were armed with a Pallasch straight steel hilted sword, two pistols, a musket and a bayonet.

Officers

Officers wore a yellow silken sash across the right shoulder; a silver gorget, a silver porte-epee; and gold lace on the tricorne. They did not carry a bandoleer.

NCOs

NCO had gold laces on the cuffs, pockets, lapels and waistcoat. They did not carry a bandoleer.

Musicians

Musicians were dressed in reverse colours and probably wore shoulder laces. The staff kettle-drummer probably carried NCO distinctive. His kettle-drums were made of brass (they had been captured at Blenheim on August 13, 1704) and had a red apron fringed gold carrying a device consisting of the Arms of England supported by a Lion and a Unicorn within the Garter; the motto “DIEU ET MON DROIT” underneath.

As dragoons, the musicians were drummers. The likely drum pattern would have been similar to the foot with hoops in alternating facing colour and red diagonal stripes, white drum cords over a brass drum with the Arms of Hanover in the centre.

Standards

The first squadron carried the Leibstandarte while the 3 remaining squadrons carried an Eskadronstandartewhich could vary from one squadron to the other. In 1757, when Colonel Bock became chief of the regiment, it received the new standards described below.

Colonel Standard (Leibstandarte): white damask standard with gold fringe

  • obverse: centre device consisting of the Arms of England within the Garter supported by a crowned lion and a unicorn; the motto “DIEU ET MON DROIT” underneath
  • reverse: centre device consisting of the Springing White Horse; the motto “QO FAS ET GLORIA DUCUNT” above
Leibstandarte – Source: rf-figuren

'2nd Squadron Standard (Eskadronstandarte): crimson damask standard with gold fringe

  • obverse: centre device consisting of a bare arm holding a sword issuing from a blue and silver cloud; the motto “DEXTRA DEI HOSTES OPPRIMIT” above
  • reverse: centre device consisting of the Springing White Horse on a red ground within the Garter supported by the Lion and the Unicorn; the motto “NEC ASPERA TERRENT” underneath
2nd Eskadronstandarte – Source: rf-figuren

'3rd Squadron Standard (Eskadronstandarte): crimson damask standard with golden embroideries; gold fringe

  • obverse: centre device depicting a large golden sun with a black eagle flying towards it; the motto “EXEMPLO MAJORUM” above
  • reverse: centre device consisting of the White Horse on a red ground within the Garter supported by the Lion and the Unicorn; the motto “NEC ASPERA TERRENT” underneath
3rd Eskadronstandarte – Source: rf-figuren

'4th Squadron Standard (Eskadronstandarte): crimson damask standard with golden embroideries; gold fringe

  • obverse: centre device depicting a Raging Golden Lion; the motto “PERICULA NON METUIT” underneath
  • reverse: centre device consisting of the White Horse on a red ground within the Garter supported by the Lion and the Unicorn; the motto “NEC ASPERA TERRENT” underneath
4th Eskadronstandarte – Source: rf-figuren

References

This article incorporates texts from the following books which are now in the public domain:

Other sources

Biles, Bill: The Hanoverian Army in the 18th Century, Seven Years War Association Journal Vol. VI No. 3

Knötel, Richard: Die Uniformen des Hannoverschen Heeres 1763 und 1770. Part I : Das Heer von 1763, in: Mitteilungen zur Geschichte der militärischen Tracht, vol. XVI, no. 1-4 (1909), page 3-15

Knötel, Richard: Die Uniformen des Hannoverschen Heeres 1763 und 1770. Part II: Das Heer von 1770, in: Mitteilungen zur Geschichte der militärischen Tracht, vol. XVI, no. 4-5 (1909), page 15-20

Knötel, Richard: Die Uniformen des Hannoverschen Heeres 1763 und 1770. Kurze Stammliste. 1617 bis 1803, in: Mitteilungen zur Geschichte der militärischen Tracht, vol. XVI, no. 6-11 (1909), page 22-42

Lawson, Cecil C. P.: A History of the Uniforms of the British Army - from the Beginnings to 1760, vol. II

Niemeyer, Joachim and Georg Ortenburg: The Hanoverian Army during the Seven Years War; Deutsche Gesellschaft für Heereskunde

Pengel, R.D, and G. R. Hurt: German States in the Seven Years War 1740 to 1762, Imperial Press

Pengel, R.D, and G. R. Hurt:: Seven Years War. Brunswick-Luneburg (Hanover). Hessen Cassel. Brunswick-Wolfenbuttel. Schaumburg Lippe. Supplement, Birmingham 1984

Schirmer, Friedrich: Die Heere der kriegführenden Staaten 1756-1763, hrsg. von der KLIO-Landesgruppe Baden-Württemberg, überarb. u. aktual. Neuauflage 1989

Schirmer, Friedrich: Nec Aspera Terrent: Eine Heereskunde der hannoverschen Armee von 1631 bis 1803, Niedersächische Hausbücherei, Bd. 3, Hannover 1929