British Army

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The modern British Army was created in 1660, after the Restoration. Initially, there were English, Royal Scots and Irish armies, respectively financed by the parliaments of these countries. By 1685, the English Army counted only 7,500 men in marching regiments and 1,400 men in permanent garrisons. In 1689, during the Nine Years’ War (1688-97), Parliament established control on these armies. The same year, the English Army was expanded to 74,000 men and, in 1694, to 94,000 men. In 1697, it was reduced to a cadre of 7,000 men.

In 1707, with the Acts of Union, the English Army and the Scottish Army were combined under one operational command.

At the beginning of the Seven Years' War, the British army had been reduced to about 18,000 men besides the garrisons of Minorca and Gibraltar and 6 or 7 independent companies in the American colonies.


General Officers (in 1755)


Household Cavalry

Life Guards

Royal Horse Guards or The Blues

Foot Guard

1st Regiment of Foot Guards
2nd Coldstream Regiment of Foot Guards
3rd Scots Regiment of Foot Guards

Line Infantry

Generalities about the uniforms
Generalities about weapons and equipment
Generalities about drill (as per the "Exercise for the Foot", 1757)
Generalities about the colours

Regiments of Foot

  1st Royal

  2nd Queen's Royal
  3rd Buffs
  4th King's Own
  5th Bentinck, 1759 Hodgson
  6th Guise
  7th Royal Fusiliers
  8th King's
  9th Yorke
10th Pole
11th Bocland
12th Napier
13th Pulteney
14th Jeffries
15th Amherst
16th Handasyd
17th Forbes, 1759 Monckton
18th Royal Irish
19th Lord Beauclerk
20th Kingsley
21st Royal North British Fusileers
22nd Whitmore, 1762 Gage
23rd Royal Welsh Fusiliers
24th Cornwallis
25th Edinburgh
26th Anstruther
27th Inniskilling
28th Bragg, 1759 Townshend
29th Boscawen
30th Earl of Loudoun
31st Holmes
32nd Leighton
33rd Lord Hay
34th Earl of Effingham
35th Otway
36th Lord Robert Manners
37th Stuart
38th Ross, Watson

39th Adlercron

40th Hopson
41st Royal Invalids (Parsons)
42nd Royal Highland (Murray)
43rd Kennedy, 1761 Talbot
44th Abercromby
45th Robinson, 1761 Boscawen
46th Murray
47th Lascelles
48th Dunbar
49th Walsh, Stanwix
50th Abercromby, 1756 Hodgson, 1759 Griffin
51st Napier, Brudenel
52nd Lambton
53rd Whitmore, 1759 Toovey
54th Campbell, 1757 Gray, 1759 Parslow
55th Perry, 1757 Howe, 1758 Prideaux, 1759 Oughton, 1762 Gansell
56th Lord Charles Manners, 1762 Keppel
57th Arabin, 1757 Cunningham
58th Anstruther
59th Montagu, 1760 Owen
60th Royal American (1757 Abercromby, 1758 Amherst)
61st Elliott, 1759 Gray
62nd Strode
63rd Watson
64th Barrington, 1759 Townshend, Cary
65th Armiger
66th Sandford, 1758 La Faussille
67th Wolfe, 1757 Lord Cavendish, Erskine, 1761 Hamilton, Lambert
68th Lambton
69th Colville
70th Glasgow Lowland (Praslow, Trapaud)
71st Petitot
72nd Duke of Richmond
73rd Browne
74th Talbot, 1761 Irwin
75th Boscawen, 1762 Mariscoe Frederick
76th Lord Forbes

77th Montgomery's Highlanders

78th Fraser's Highlanders
79th Draper
80th (see light infantry)
81st Invalids Lord Lindores
82nd Invalids, Parker
83rd Sebright, 1760 Armstrong
84th Coote
85th Crauford's Volunteers
86th Worge
87th Keith's Highlanders
88th Campbell's Highlanders
89th Morris's Highlanders
90th Morgan, 1762 F. Grant
91st Lord Blayney
92nd Gore
93rd Bagshawe
94th Vaughan, 1760 Dundas
95th Burton
96th Monson
97th James Stewart, 1762 Forrester
98th Grey
99th Byng
100th Campbell's Highlanders
101st Johnston's Highlanders
102nd Queen's Royal Volunteers (Wedderburn)
103rd Volunteer Hunters (Oswald)
104th Tonyn
105th Graeme's Highlanders
106th Barré
107th Beauclerk
108th M'Doual, 1762 Scott
109th Nairn
110th Deaken
111th Ogle
112th Markham
113th Hamilton
114th McLean
115th Crawford

N.B.: Other units were also raised but never received a number:

New England Provincial Infantry Regiments

Generalities about the uniform

Connecticut Provincials
Delaware Provincials (aka Lower Counties Provincials)
Georgia Provincials (aka Georgia Rangers)
Maryland Provincials
Massachusetts Provincials
New Hampshire Provincials
New Jersey Provincials
North Carolina Provincials
New York Provincials
Pennsylvania Provincials
Rhode Island Provincials
South Carolina Provincials
Virginia Provincials

East India Company Infantry

Government of Madras

Madras European Regiment
Madras Sepoy Battalions

Government of Bombay

Bombay European Regiment
Bombay Sepoy Battalions

Government of Bengal

Bengal European Regiment
Bengal Sepoy Battalions


British militias
Colonial militias

Regiments of Horse

Generalities about the uniforms
Generalities about the colours

1st (The King's) Regiment of Dragoon Guards
2nd (The Queen's) Regiment of Dragoon Guards
3rd Regiment of Dragoon Guards
1st Regiment of Horse, or The Blue Horse
2nd Regiment of Horse, or The Green Horse
3rd Regiment of Horse (Carabiniers)
4th Regiment of Horse, or The Black Horse

East India Company Cavalry

Madras European Cavalry


Generalities about the uniforms
Generalities about the colours

1st (Royal)

2nd (Royal North British)
3rd (King's Own)
5th (Royal Irish)

6th (Inniskilling)

7th (Queen's Own)
10th Mordaunt

11th Ancram

12th Whiteford
Regiment of Dragoons at the Havannah

Light Dragoons

Generalities about the guidons

15th or Eliott's Light Horse
16th or Burgoyne's Light Horse
17th or Aberdour's Light Horse
18th or Hale's Light Horse
19th or The Drogheda Light Horse
20th Inniskilling or Caldwell's Light Horse
21st Royal Foresters


Equipment - Guns, Mortars, Carriages

Logistic - Train, Arsenals

Field Artillery in North America

Royal Regiment of Artillery
Royal Irish Artillery

New England Artillery

Charleston Artillery

East India Company Artillery

Madras European Artillery
Bombay European Artillery
Bengal European Artillery


Corps of Engineers
Royal Military Artificers and Labourers

Light Troops

Generalities about the uniforms

British Light Infantry Regiments

80th Gage

New England Rangers

Brewer's Rangers
Danks' Rangers
Dunn's Rangers
Gardiner's Rangers
Gorham's Rangers
Hazen's Rangers
James Rogers' Rangers
Robert Rogers' Rangers
Stark's Rangers





  • Barnes, R. Money: A History of the Regiments and the Uniforms of the British Army, London 1951
  • Barnes, R. Money; C. Kennedy Allen: The Uniforms and History of the Scottish Regiments, London 1956
  • Bowling, A.H.: British Infantry Regiments, London 1970
  • Bowling, A.H.: Scottish Regiments and Uniforms 1660-1914, London 1971
  • Blackmore, David: British Cavalry in the Mid-18th Century, Nottingham 2008
  • Britain’s Soldiers. Rethinking War and Society, 1715-1815, edited by Kevin Linch and Matthew McCormack. Liverpool: Liverpool University Press.
  • Carman, W.Y.: British Military Uniforms from Contemporary Pictures, Henry VII to the Present Day, London 1957
  • Edwards, T.J.: Standards, Guidons and Colours of the Commonwealth Forces, Aldershot 1953
  • Fortescue, J. W.: A History of the British Army Vol. II, MacMillan, London, 1899
  • Funcken, Liliane and Fred: Les uniformes de la guerre en dentelle
  • Großer Generalstab, Kriegsgeschichtliche Abteilung II (Publisher). Die Kriege Friedrichs des Großen. Dritter Teil: Der Siebenjährige Krieg 1756–1763. Vol. 8 Zorndorf unf Hochkirch, Berlin 1910, page 409-419 and appendix: supplement 19, page 38
  • Haswell Miller, A.E.; Dawnay, N.P.: Military Drawings and Paintings in the Royal Collection, Volume I: Plates, London 1966
  • Haswell Miller, A.E.; Dawnay, N.P.: Military Drawings and Paintings in the Royal Collection, Volume II: Text, London 1970
  • Hill, J. Michael: Killiecrankie and the Evolution of Highland Warfare, War in History 1, no. 2 (1994): 125-139.
  • Holmes, Richard: Redcoat, Harper Collins, London, 2001
  • Hurl-Eamon, Jennine: Marriage and the British Army in the Long Eighteenth Century: ‘The Girl I Left Behind Me’. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2014.
  • Katcher, Philip R. N.: King Georg's Army, Reading 1973
  • Knowles, L.: Minden and the Seven Year's War, Simpkin, Marshall, Hamilton & Co. Ltd, London, 1914
  • Lawson, Cecil C.P.: A History of the Uniforms of the British Army, From the Beginnings to 1760, Volume I, London 1940
  • Lawson, Cecil C.P.: A History of the Uniforms of the British Army, From the Beginnings to 1760, Volume II, London 1941
  • Lemonofides, Dino: British Infantry Colours, London 1970
  • Lemonofides, Dino: British Cavalry Standards, London 1970
  • McCormack, Matthew: Embodying the Militia in Georgian England. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2015
  • Mollo, John; McGregor, Malcolm: Uniforms of the Seven Years War 1756-63, Blandford Press 1977
  • North, René: Military Uniforms 1686-1918, New York 1970
  • Parkman, Francis: Montcalm and Wolfe, Collier Books, New York, 1884
  • Rogers, H.C.B.: The British Army of the Eighteenth Century, London 1977
  • Stuart, Reid; Chappell, Paul: King George's Army 1740-93 (1) Infantry, Men-At-Arms Series 285, Osprey Publishing 1995
  • Stuart, Reid; Chappell, Paul: King George's Army 1740-93 (2), Men-At-Arms Series 289, Osprey Publishing 1995
  • Stuart, Reid; Chappell, Paul: King George's Army 1740-93 (3), Men-At-Arms Series 292, Osprey Publishing 1996
  • Summer, Ian, Hook, Richard: British Colours & Standards 1747-1881 (1) Cavalry, Elite Series 77, Osprey Publishing 2001
  • Summer, Ian, Hook, Richard: British Colours & Standards 1747-1881 (2) Infantry, Elite Series 81, Osprey Publishing 2001
  • Way, Peter Way: Class and the Common Soldier in the Seven Years’ War. Labor History 44, no. 4. (2003): 455-481.
  • Way, Peter: Militarizing the Atlantic World: Army Discipline, Coerced Labor, and Britain’s Commercial Empire. Atlantic Studies: Global Currents 13, no. 3 (2016): 345-369.
  • Way, Peter: ‘Rebellion of the Regulars: Working Soldiers and the Mutiny of 1763-1764. William and Mary Quarterly 57, no. 4. (2000): 761-92.
  • Way, Peter: Venus and Mars: Women and the British Army in America during the Seven Years’ War. In Britain and America Go to War: The Impact of War and Warfare in Anglo-America, 1754-1815, edited by Julie Flavell and Stephen Conway, 41-68. Gainesville / FL: Florida University Press, 2004.
  • Wickes, H.L.: Regiments of Foot, Reading 1974

Manuscripts and working papers:

  • Schirmer, Friedrich: Die Heere der kriegführenden Staaten 1756 - 1763. Edited and published by KLIO-Landesgruppe Baden-Württemberg e.V., Magstadt, 1989
  • Sapherson, Alan: A Basic Guide to Armies & Uniforms of the Seven Years War, 1. The British, Active Service Press 1988

Contemporary documents, paintings and copper engraving series:

  • A representaion of the CLOATHING of His Majesty's Household, and of all the Forces upon the Establishments of GREAT BRITAIN AND IRELAND. 1742
  • Morier, David: paintings in the Royal Collection, 1748-1751
  • The Royal Clothing Warrant, 1751
  • Etat nouveau. De l'Armée Angloise, ou de la Grande Bretagne, comme elle se trouve effectivement l'anée 1758. Jacques Andre Frederic, Augsbourg
  • Exercise for the Foot, with the differences to be observed in the dragoon exercise For 1757, 1757.



Michael Zahn and Dr. Sascha Möbius for suggesting additional books to add to the present section