Busche Dragoons

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Origin and History

The regiment was raised in 1688.

During the Seven Years' War the successive Inhabers of the regiment were:

  • since 1733: E. A. von der Busche
  • from 1761: von Müller

Service during the War

In July 1757, during the French invasion of Hanover, the regiment took part in the Battle of Hastenbeck where it fought in the second line of the right wing under the command of Dachenhausen.

On May 26 1758, the regiment was with Ferdinand's main force in the camp of Nottuln. When Ferdinand crossed the Rhine to undertake a campaign on its west bank during the night of May 31, the regiment remained at Brünen as part of Lieutenant-General von Imhoff's detachment charged to watch Wesel. On August 5, the regiment took part in the Combat of Mehr where Imhoff's force repulsed the French attempt directed against the Allied bridgehead at Rees. On October 10, the regiment took part in the Battle of Lutterberg where it was placed in the second line of the right wing.

In June 1759, the regiment was part of the Allied main army under the command of Duke Ferdinand of Brunswick. On July 27 in the afternoon, the Hereditary Prince set off from Petershagen, near Minden, with 6 bns and 8 dragoon sqns (including this regiment), totalling some 6,000 men, and marched south-westwards towards Lübbecke to threaten the French left flank and the supply line between Minden and Paderborn. On August 1, the regiment was part of the left wing of the corps of the Hereditary Prince who attacked and defeated Brissac's French corps in the engagement of Gohfeld.

On July 10 1760, the regiment was part of Lieutenant-General Waldegrave's Reserve at the Combat of Corbach. This reserve did not take part in the engagement.

On July 16 1761, the regiment was present at the Battle of Vellinghausen where it formed part of the cavalry right wing under the Hereditary Prince of Brunswick.

In 1762, the regiment once more took part in a campaign in Western Germany, By May 23, it was attached to the Corps of the Hereditary Prince operating in Westphalia. On August 30, it fought in the Combat of Nauheim where it was initially part of Lieutenant-General Oheimb's column before being sent as reinforcements to Luckner. On September 21, the regiment took part in the Combat of Amöneburg where it was attached to Zastrow's Corps occupying the ground immediately before the Brücker Mühle.

Uniform

Accurate Vorstellung der saemtlichen Churfürstl. hannöverischen Armee zur eigentlichen Kentniß der Uniform von jedem Regimente nebst beygefügter Geschichte, worinne von der Stiftung, denen Chefs, der Staercke und den wichtigsten Thaten jedes Regiments Nachricht gegeben wird Nürnberg: Raspe 1763 (Universitäts- und Landesbibliothek Sachsen-Anhalt)

Privates

Uniform in 1759 -
Source: Richard Couture as per a template by Hannoverdidi
Uniform Details
Headgear
Trooper black tricorne laced gold with oak leaves as a field sign and a black cockade
Grenadier Prussian-style mitre; blue front decorated with the Springing White Horse on a red field within the Garter within a gold chain the whole surmounted by a golden crown with red cushions and an ermine headband; small front flap decorated with a silver bomb and gold scroll work; white bag piped gold; blue headband; red and blue pompom
Neck stock red
Coat white without lace with 3 golden buttons under each lapel
Collar none
Shoulderknot aiguillette on the right shoulder
Lapels blue, each with 7 brass buttons (arranged 1-2-2-2)
Cuffs blue Swedish cuffs, each with 2 brass buttons
Turnbacks blue
Waistcoat light buff
Breeches light buff
Leather Equipment
Crossbelt buff
Waistbelt buff
Cartridge Box black

Grenadiers carried straw coloured ammunition pouch decorated with a brass plate carrying the “GR” initials within the Garter; and with a brass flaming grenade in each corner

Scabbard black
Footgear black boots with white knee-covers
Horse Furniture
Saddlecloth basic colour dark blue; border from the inner edge out, yellow line, red line, white spiral pattern superimposed, yellow-blue-yellow line, white line with blue zig-zag, yellow line; emblem of a white horse on red ground over green turf in a white floral wreath surmounted by a gold crown with red interior

N.B.: during wartime, saddle-cloth and holster-caps probably used a simpler pattern based on the distinctive colour of the regiment edged yellow

Holster-caps see saddlecloth
Blanket roll dark blue


Troopers were armed with a Pallasch' straight steel hilted sword, two pistols, a musket and a bayonet.

Officers

Officers wore a yellow silken sash across the right shoulder; a silver gorget, a silver porte-epee; and gold lace on the tricorne. They did not carry a bandoleer.

NCOs

NCO had gold laces on the cuffs, pockets, lapels and waistcoat. They did not carry a bandoleer.

Musicians

Musicians were dressed in reverse colours and probably wore shoulder laces. The staff kettle-drummer probably carried NCO distinctives. His kettle-drums were made of copper and had a blue apron fringed gold carrying a device consisting of the Springing White Horse on a red ground surmounted by an Electoral crown; the motto “NEC ASPERA TERRENT” underneath

As dragoons, musicians were drummers. The likely drum pattern would have been similar to the foot with hoops in alternating facing colour and red diagonal stripes, white drum cords over a brass drum with the Arms of Hanover in the centre.

Colours

The first squadron carried the Leibstandarte while the 3 remaining squadrons carried an Eskadronstandartewhich could vary from one squadron to the other.

Colonel Standard (Leibstandarte): white field with gold fringe

  • obverse: centre device consisting of the White Horse of Hanover on a red ground within the Garter; surmounted by a crown; the motto “NEC ASPERA TERRENT” underneath; corner devices consisting of the reversed and entwined “GR” cipher
  • reverse: centre device consisting of an illustration of the double-headed Janus; trophies of arms on both sides; the motto “DECET ET ORNAT” above
Leibstandarte – Source: rf-figuren

2nd Squadron Standard (Eskadronstandarte): blue field with gold fringe

  • obverse: centre device depicting the God Mars above a trophy of arms, holding a sword in one hand and a laurel branch in the other; the motto “POST BELLUM NOMEN” underneath
  • reverse: centre device depicting St. George fighting the dragon; the motto “VIRTUS ANIMI SUPERAT OMNIA” above
2nd Eskadronstandarte – Source: rf-figuren

3rd Squadron Standard (Eskadronstandarte): blue field with gold fringe

  • obverse: centre device consisting of the initials “GR” surmounted by a crown within the Garter supported by a Lion and a Unicorn; the motto “DIEU ET MON DROIT” underneath
  • reverse: centre device depicting a golden oriole holding a ring in its beak; the motto “FELICI AUSPICIO” underneath
3rd Eskadronstandarte – Source: rf-figuren

4th Squadron Standard (Eskadronstandarte): blue field with golden embroideries; gold fringe

  • obverse: centre device depicting an eagle and an eaglet flying towards the sun; the motto “PROSPEROS FAVET” underneath
  • reverse: centre device consisting of a shield with 4 crowns guarded by an armed Lion; corner devices consisting of “GR” ciphers
4th Eskadronstandarte – Source: rf-figuren

References

Biles, Bill: The Hanoverian Army in the 18th Century, Seven Years War Association Journal Vol. VI No. 3

Knötel, Richard: Die Uniformen des Hannoverschen Heeres 1763 und 1770. Part I : Das Heer von 1763, in: Mitteilungen zur Geschichte der militärischen Tracht, vol. XVI, no. 1-4 (1909), page 3-15

Knötel, Richard: Die Uniformen des Hannoverschen Heeres 1763 und 1770. Part II: Das Heer von 1770, in: Mitteilungen zur Geschichte der militärischen Tracht, vol. XVI, no. 4-5 (1909), page 15-20

Knötel, Richard: Die Uniformen des Hannoverschen Heeres 1763 und 1770. Kurze Stammliste. 1617 bis 1803, in: Mitteilungen zur Geschichte der militärischen Tracht, vol. XVI, no. 6-11 (1909), page 22-42

Lawson, Cecil C. P., A History of the Uniforms of the British Army - from the Beginnings to 1760, vol. II

Niemeyer, Joachim and Georg Ortenburg: The Hanoverian Army during the Seven Years War; Deutsche Gesellschaft für Heereskunde

Pengel, R.D, Hurt G.R.: German States in the Seven Years War 1740 to 1762, Imperial Press

Pengel, R.D, Hurt G.R.: Seven Years War. Brunswick-Luneburg (Hanover). Hessen Cassel. Brunswick-Wolfenbuttel. Schaumburg Lippe. Supplement, Birmingham 1984

Schirmer, Friedrich: Die Heere der kriegführenden Staaten 1756-1763, hrsg. von der KLIO-Landesgruppe Baden-Württemberg, überarb. u. aktual. Neuauflage 1989

Schirmer, Friedrich: Nec Aspera Terrent: Eine Heereskunde der hannoverschen Armee von 1631 bis 1803, Niedersächische Hausbücherei, Bd. 3, Hannover 1929