De Vienne Cavalerie
Origin and History
The regiment was created in 1646 after the failure in front Lerida. On January 6 1647, it was placed under the command of the Viceroy of Catalonia.
During the War of the Polish Succession, the regiment served on the Rhine in 1733.
During the War of the Austrian Succession, the regiment initially served in Westphalia in 1741. In 1742, it took part in the invasion of Bohemia. In 1743, it was back on the Rhine. From 1744, it campaigned in Flanders, taking part in the victorious battles of Fontenoy (May 15, 1745), Rocoux (October 11, 1746) and Lauffeld (July 2, 1747) and in the siege of Maastricht (April-May, 1748).
In 1750, the regiment was stationed at Bouchain; in 1751 at Luxeuil; in 1753 at Landau; and in 1754 at Plobsheim.
In 1756, the regiment counted two squadrons.
During the Seven Years' War, the regiment was commanded by:
- since February 1 1749: Comte de Vienne
- from January 1 1762 to February 24 1774: Marquis de Damas
When the French Cavalry was reorganised on December 1 1761, the regiment was amalgamated with Moustiers Cavalerie to form a new regiment: Royal-Navarre Cavalerie. Effective amalgamation seems to have taken place only on April 11 1763 in Languedoc.
Service during the War
At the outbreak of the war, in 1756, the regiment was stationed at Thionville.
In 1757, the regiment joined the Army of the Lower Rhine commanded by the Maréchal d'Estrées and took part in the invasion of Hanover. At the end of June, it was at the camp of Bielefeld with d'Estrées' main corps. At the end of the year, it took its winter-quarters near Werl in Westphalia, in the fourth line of the French army.
In April 1758, when the Comte de Clermont redeployed his army along the Rhine, the regiment was placed in the second line at Issum and Kerken. After the successful crossing of the Rhine by an Allied army under Ferdinand of Brunswick on May 31, the regiment retired towards Rheinberg where it joined Clermont's Army on June 2. It remained in this camp until June 12 and was placed on the right wing of the first line. On June 23, the regiment took part in the Battle of Krefeld where it was placed on the right wing of the first line, under Armentières. In mid August, after Ferdinand's retreat to the east bank of the Rhine, the regiment, as part of the Army of the Lower Rhine now under the Marquis de Contades, recrossed the Rhine to follow the Allies. On August 20, it was encamped near Wesel where it was placed on the right wing of the first line.
On April 13 1759, the regiment took part in the Battle of Bergen where it formed part of the second line of the cavalry centre deployed behind the Wartberg under the command of the Comte de Beaupréau. On October 19, the regiment was part of the force sent by Contades to reinforce d'Armentières on the Lower Rhine.
By May 23 1760, the regiment was part of the second line of Broglie's Army, placed under the command of the Prince de Croy. On July 10, the regiment might have been attached to Prince Camille's Cavalry Corps who arrived too late to take part in the Combat of Corbach. By December 30, the regiment had taken its winter-quarters in Montabaur and surroundings.
N.B.: from May 1759 some sources identified the regiment as Damas Cavalerie even though the Marquis de Damas became owner of the regiment only in 1762...
To do: campaigns from 1761 to 1762
|Headgear||black tricorne (reinforced with an iron skullcap for combat) laced silver, with a black cockade on the left side fastened with a black silk strap and a small pewter button|
|Neck stock||black cravate|
|Coat||grey white lined red with 4 pewter buttons under the right lapel and a pewter button on each side at the small of the back
|Waistcoat||buff leather jerkin with pewter buttons|
|Greatcoat||grey white lined red|
Troopers were armed with a carbine, two pistols and a sabre. They were also supposed to wear a breastplate under their coat during battle but this regulation was not always followed.
Evolution of the uniform during the war
Throughout the war the French cavalry uniform seems to have evolved significantly. Our only primary source for the uniform at the start of the conflict is the Etat Général des Troupes Françoises of 1753. The first primary pictorial evidence comes from Raspe in 1761. Here we present various interpretations of the evolution of the uniform.
Raspe's illustration depicting the uniform towards the end of 1760 shows the following evolutions:
- a white rosette on the tricorne
- coat, cuffs, lapels and turnbacks edged with the regimental braid (white woollen braid with red chain link stitches)
- grey white waistcoat edged with the regimental braid (white woollen braid with red chain link stitches)
- grey white breeches
- only 3 buttons on each cuff and on each pocket
Lienhart and Humbert, a secondary source, show the following differences for the uniform of 1757 (more probably depicting the uniform of 1748):
- a white cockade on the tricorne
- a grey white shoulder strap on the left shoulder
- only 3 buttons on each cuff
- red saddle cloth and housings bordered with a red braid
Officers wore uniforms similar to those of the troopers with the following distinctions:
- no shoulder strap
- no turnbacks
- no lace on the coat and waistcoat
- Maréchal des logis: silver laced tricorne, housing bordered with a 2,7 cm silver lace
- brigadier: double silver lace on the cuffs
no information available yet
Standards (in 1753)
Regimental standards (4 silken standards): red field embroidered and fringed in gold; centre device consisting of a golden royal sun surmounted by a scroll bearing the royal motto “Nec Pluribus Impar”.
The article incorporates texts from the following books which are now in the public domain:
- Pajol, Charles P. V.: Les Guerres sous Louis XV, vol. VII, Paris, 1891, p. 339
Funcken, L. and F.: Les uniformes de la guerre en dentelle
Lienhart, Docteur and René Humbert: Les uniformes des armées françaises”, Leipzig
Menguy, Patrice: Les Sujets du Bien Aimé (a website who has unfortunately disappeared from the web)
Raspe, Gabriel Nicolas: Recueil de toutes les troupes qui forment les armées françoises, Nuremberg 1761
Rogge, Christian: The French & Allied Armies in Germany during the Seven Years War, Frankfurt, 2006
N.B.: the section Service during the War is mostly derived from our articles depicting the various campaigns, battles and sieges.