Effern Infantry

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Hierarchical Path: Seven Years War (Main Page) >> Armies >> Palatine Army >> Effern Infantry

Origin and History

This regiment was raised in 1682 in the County of Jülich, his first chef was Colonel Heinrich Ferdinand von Bernsau.

Between 1694 and 1700, the regiment was in Imperial pay and fought in Italy and against Turks in Hungary.

At the outbreak of the Seven Years' War, the regiment was not at full strength, totalling only some 1,000 men. It consisted of two battalions. Theoretically, each of these battalions should count 1 grenadier company (100 men) and 5 musketeer companies (each of 140 musketeers). The regimental artillery consisted of one 4-pdr gun per battalion, served by 20 artillerymen detached from the Palatine Artillery.

During the Seven Years' War, the chef of the regiment was:

  • from May 23, 1755 to August 17, 1769: Major-General Johann Wilhelm Count von Efferen (aka Effern)

During the Seven Years' War, the successive commanders of the regiment were:

  • from 1757: Colonel Wolfgang Gottfried Baron von Hanxleden
  • from 1758: Colonel Wilhelm Baron von Vischpach
  • from 1759 to 1769: von Hohenhausen

Service during the War

From 1757 to 1763, the regiment was among the two regiment contributed by the Elector of Palatinate to the Reichsarmee. The regiment now consisted of ten companies (two grenadier companies at 100 men each and eight fusilier companies at 137 men). Two fusilier companies (Lieutenant-Colonel Joseph von Jacquemin and Captain Kleesfuß), each of 174 men, were assigned to the Neuburg-Sulzbach contingent, forming part of Salzburg Infantry, a regiment of the Reichsarmee led by Colonel Joseph Count Orbea, which was contributed by the Bavarian District.

1757

Late in the autumn of 1757, the Lieutenant-General Prince de Soubise reported in his "Mémoire raisonné sur l'armée de l'empire," that he rated this regiment as "average".

Source: Brodrück, Karl: Quellenstücke und Studien über den Feldzug der Reichsarmee von 1757. Ein Beitrag zur Geschichte im 18. Jahrhundert, Leipzig: Dyck, 1858

By 1858, the original French "mémoire" could be found in the "Paris War Archive" (Carton 3433, No. 17).

On June 25, 1757, the regiment left Mannheim and marched by way of Mosbach, Boxberg and Weikersheim to Kitzingen, where it received the order to immediately proceed to the camp of Fürth-Burgfarrbach. On July 25, the regiment arrived at the camp of Fürth-Burgfarrbach. By that time, it numbered two battalions of 899 fusiliers and 154 grenadiers fit for service (75 men had remained in Mannheim, others were on leave or sick).

By August 5, the regiment counted 1,055 men fit for duty.

On August 23, the regiment (now 1,223 men) was assigned to the brigade of the Imperial Major-General Rosenfeld which formed part of the first column under the Count von Fürstenberg. This column advanced towards Erfurt. On the way, Field Marshal Hildburghausen changed his orders and redirected the army towards Eisenach, where it arrived on September 15.

In August, the Reichsarmee army combined with a French contingent under the Prince de Soubise for the planned reconquest of Saxony.

On September, 18, as all other Palatine infantry regiments, contributed its grenadier companies to form two converged grenadier battalions, which were sent, along with 20 French grenadier companies. and 21 squadrons Imperial and Palatine cavalry to reinforce Major-General Loudon at Mechterstädt.

On October 10, the main body of the Reichsarmee (including the present regiment) marched to Langensalza to make a junction with a French corps under the Duc de Broglie. The troops had to endure two days and nights in the camp without tents in the extreme cold. In mid-October, Hildburghausen decided to march to Saxony.

On October 19, the Reichsarmee arrived at Weimar. On October 22, it crossed the Saale River near Naumburg. On October 24, it encamped at Teuchern. On October 25, Hildburghausen's vanguard appeared before Leipzig.

After Frederick II had occupied Weißenfels with his army on October 31, Hildburghausen sent the present regiment with another regiment to Freyburg to secure the crossings over the Unstrutt. Hildburghausen then retreated to Mücheln.

On November 5, the entire regiment was present at the Battle of Rossbach, but was not involved in combat. It was posted with 6 other battalions and 12 grenadier companies near Klein-Jena, south of Freyburg. After the defeat, the regiment destroyed the bridges between Groß-Jena and Klein-Jena. The defeated army encamped on the other side of the Unstrutt and later retired to Eckartsberga. In this battle, the regiment lost 27 missing.

On November 10, the retreating army reached Saalfeld. The entire regiment was quartered in Buchbach and Friedersdorf. On November 15, Hildburghausen reached the Main River, and the regiment (now only 811 men fit for duty) was quartered in Uetzing and Staffelstein.

On November 23, the regiment took up its winter-quarters in Meiningen.

By the end of December, the regiment numbered 840 fusiliers and 191 grenadiers.

1758

On January 9, 1758, the regiment left its winter-quarters and marched to Upper Palatinate.

On March 29, the entire regiment, now led by Colonel von Vischpach after the death Colonel Hanxleben, was in Weiden and Sulzbach.

On April 19, the Reichsarmee left its winter-quarters and assembled in the camp of Alt-Bayreuth.

By May 3, the regiment had 1,601 men fit for service, and 195 unfit. On May 15, the Reichsarmee marched to Eger (present-day Cheb/CZ) and later to Saaz (present-day Žatec/CZ), where the entire regiment remained until July.

In July, the regiment was assigned to the corps of G.d.C. Hadik.

By August 27, Hadik's Corps had made a junction with the Reichsarmee, which was encamped near Struppen. In the order of battle, the regiment was in the centre of the first line.

On September 8, the Austro-Imperial army (Reichsarmee and Austrians) encamped between Pirna and Krieschwitz, in preparation for an attack on the Prussian corps of Prince Heinrich. The attack was to take place in six columns, the regiment forming part of the first column, led by G.d.C. Hadik. However Frederick II rushed to his brother's aid, and Field Marshal Daun shied away from the attack. On September 11, the disappointed troops returned to their starting positions.

On September 26, Hadik's Corps arrived at Freiberg. The regiment was attached to Kleefeld's Brigade.

On October 14, on the day of the Battle of Hockirch and in the following days, Hadik harassed Prussian troops and occupied Freiberg. On October 22, Hadik occupied Dippoldiswalde, which had been evacuated by Hülsen's Corps on October 19.

On November 8, Hadik reached Waldheim. On November 15, his corps (including the present regiment) was attacked by Wedel's Prussian corps near Eilenburg. The regiment lost one of its gun during the combat. Hadik then retreated towards Penig and Chemnitz. By November 23, the regiment was at Kunersdorf. On November 24, it joined the Reichsarmee.

At the beginning of December, the regiment marched to its winter-quarters. On December 7, it arrived at Eschenbach and Sulzbach. The two companies (Lieutenant-Colonel von Leoprechting and Captain Kleefuß), which had served during the entire campaign with Salzburg Infantry rejoined the regiment and took up quarters in their old barracks in Amberg.

1759

At the beginning of May 1759, during the Austro-Imperial campaign in Saxony, the regiment was with the Reichsarmee between Stadt-Steinach, Kupferberg and Kulmbach. On May 11, this army marched to Kasendorf. On May 14, when the Reichsarmee retreated to Höchstadt. General Efferen secured the magazines in Höchstadt with 6 battalions (including the present regiment), 8 grenadier companies and 9 squadrons. On May 18, the regiment reached the camp of the main army at Schweinau.

On May 31, the Reichsarmee encamped at Forchheim, where it would remain until June 13. The regiment was deployed in the first line.

In mid-June, the regiment accompanied the Reichsarmee, which crossed the Main River and encamped at Ebelsbach.

By mid-July, the regiment (728 fusiliers and 143 grenadiers) formed part of St. André's Corps. On July 26, St. André reached Saalfeld and send the regiment as vanguard to Jena.

On August 9, the regiment was sent to Eilenburg to reinforce General Kleefeld. On August 10, Kleefeld undertook the blockade of the Fortress of Torgau, which surrendered on August 14. On August 19, when the Reichsarmee encamped near Eutritzsch, the regiment numbered 668 fusiliers and 146 grenadiers. On August 24, the regiment was part of the corps sent to lay siege to Dresden, which surrendered on September 8.

On September 14, when the Reichsarmee encamped on the "Plauenscher Grund", the regiment was posted in the first line of the left wing.

On September 21, the regiment took part in the Combat of Korbitz. It initially advanced to Ullendorf and Riemsdorf. FML Count Maquire with his troops occupied Batzdorf. The regiment drove the Prussians out of the forest but lost 11 wounded and 3 missing. On September 27, when the Reichsarmee marched to Dresden, the regiment was posted in the first line of the left wing between Cotta and Brießnitz.

On November 20, the regiment reinforced Stolberg's Brigade after the Battle of Maxen. On November 25, the regiment encamped at Liebstadt.

In mid-December, one battalion along with the grenadiers took up its winter-quarters in Ludwigstadt, while the other went to Leutenberg.

1760

By May 12, 1760, Palatine troops were concentrated in a camp at Ebensfeld south of Staffelstein.

On June 9, the regiment (now 964 men) advanced with the Reichsarmee by way of Kulmbach and Münchberg to Hof, reaching Zwickau on June 15.

In mid-July, the Reichsarmee marched to Groß-Sedlitz and Burkhardtswalde, near Dresden.

On August 20, the regiment took part in Combat of Strehla, where it was deployed in the main body of the army

On September 27, the regiment took part on capture of Torgau. On October 2, it fought in the Combat of Wittenberg and then took part in the Siege of Wittenberg.


At the end of October, the regiment accompanied the Reichsarmee in its march towards Leipzig. At the beginning of November, the army retreated to Colditz. The bad weather forced the Reichsarmee to march to Chemnitz. The regiment was then quartered in Hohenstein, Ernstthal and Wüstenbrand.

At the beginning of December, Prince Stolberg established a chain of outposts to cover the winter-quarters of the Reichsarmee. The second battalion of the regiment was posted at Tanna, and the first at Saalfeld, Gräfenthal and surroundings.

1761

On February 15, 1761, the regiment was sent by way of Arnstadt to Erfurt to reinforce Würzburg's Corps, but it came too late.

The regiment took part in the campaign in Saxony. It still consisted of 2 battalions and 2 grenadier companies.

By March 23, one battalion of the regiment was attached to the corps of G.d.C. Count Hadik posted near Fladungen, the other was posted between Fladungen and Meiningen.

On June 4, the regiment (678 men) reached the camp at Coburg and marched towards Hof, where it arrived on June 11. It was attached to Varell's Corps.

On July 2, Prince Stolberg left Reichenbach with all the infantry of the Reichsarmee. On July 22, he made a junction with the Austro-Imperial army assembling at Ronneburg.

On November 19, Field Marshal Serbelloni, who commanded the army, sent his troops to cantonments. The regiment went to Neundorf.

On December 14 and 15, the Reichsarmee took up its winter-quarters. The regiment (now 787 men, but only 597 fit for service) took its quarters in Ohdruf.

1762

In mid-March 1762, the Palatine infantry assembled in Weimar in preparation to join Stolberg's Reichsarmee.

On April 28, the Palatine infantry marched by way of Jena and Penig towards Chemnitz. On May 13, it made a junction with Stolberg's Army at Zschoppau.

On June 15, when Stolberg retreated towards Zwickau, the regiment encamped at Lichtentanne. The Reichsarmee resumed its retreat, reaching Chemnitz on June 22 and Münchberg on June 24.

On July 15, Stolberg marched by way of Oelsnitz to Lengenfeld. On July 17, Count Efferen was sent with 7 battalions (incl. the present regiment) and 6 squadrons to Oelsnitz to secure the country against the Prussian troops of Lieutenant-General Seydlitz. On July 22, this corps was joined by the entire Reichsarmee. In the night of July 23, the whole army retreated from Oelsnitz and marched by way of Hof and Münchenberg towards Bayreuth.

Did you know that...
In August 1762, the regiment had to march from Hof (in the Margravate of Brandenburg-Bayreuth) to Plauen (Saxony). When leaving Hof, "this regiment has en passant broken almost all the windows in the local suburb in front of the lower gate with stones, so that the sleeping people in the rooms have had such glass debris falling on their bodies and faces, which has also affected those from the headquarters who were lodged there. The Electoral Palatinate troops distinguished themselves from all others in Bayreuth [territory] with the excesses they had committed“ as the Bayreuth commissary of marches (Marschkommissar) Rößler remarked.

(Bavarian state archives Nuremberg, Franconian Diet, Nuremberg series vol. 299).

Acknowledgement: Klaus Roider for this interesting anecdote

On September 27, Count Efferen got the order to march to Eger with his infantry. On October 3, he advanced to Schneeberg.

On October 24, Count Efferen marched with his infantry by way of Augustusburg to Oederan. On October 29, this corps did not take part in the Battle of Freiberg. When Count Efferen was informed of this defeat, he retired with his infantry to Marienberg.

On November 18, the regiment marched by way of Marktleuthen to Hof. On November 21, it reached Erbendorf in Upper Palatinate and, on December 8, Bayreuth. On December 11, Efferen's Corps went by Kulmbach to Lichtenfels.

1763

At the beginning of February 1763, after the conclusion of a treaty of neutrality between the Elector of Palatinate and Prussia, Palatine troops returned to their home land. On March 23, the regiment reached its final garrison in Mannheim, after a long sojourn in Heidelberg.

Uniform

Privates

Uniform in 1757 - Copyright Kronoskaf
Uniform in 1757
Headgear
Musketeer black tricorne scalloped white with blue within white pompoms
Grenadier
Effern Infantry Grenadier Mitre Cap - Copyright Kronoskaf
Austrian style bearskin with brass shield and a white bag laced blue with a blue tassel
Neckstock black
Coat blue coat with 3 brass buttons under the lapels and 1 in the small of the back

N.B.: during summer, a linen smock was worn instead of the coat

Collar none
Shoulder Straps white with 1 brass button (left shoulder)
Lapels white with 7 brass buttons arranged 1,2,2,2
Pockets horizontal pockets, each with 4 brass buttons
Cuffs white with 3 brass buttons
Turnbacks red fastened with a small brass button
Waistcoat white with 15 brass buttons
Breeches white
Gaiters black with 22 brass buttons
Leather Equipment
Crossbelt paille (straw) or white
Waistbelt white
Cartridge Box black with 4 little yellow grenades, grenadiers wore an additional little cartridge box at their waistbelt, it was black carrying one yellow grenade
Bayonet Scabbard natural leather
Scabbard natural leather with brass fittings only at the beginning of war, later none
Footgear black shoes


Privates were armed with a musket, a bayonet and a curved sword.

Other interpretations

Becher illustrates pewter buttons and white turnbacks.

NCOs

no information available yet

Officers

The officers wore the same uniform with the following exceptions:

  • scalloped tricorne with a black cockade and no pompoms
  • gold gorget (since 1755)
  • gold buttons and laces
  • white and blue striped sash (silver and blue for staff officers)
  • white and blue sword frog (silver and blue for staff officers)
  • buff gloves
  • black cane

Grenadier officers used a musket instead of a spontoon. Therefore, they wore a little cartouche (laced gold with a golden front plate) at the waistbelt.

Musicians

In his book "Armies of the Seven Years' War," Digby Smith mentions that the drummers of the regiment probably wore a reversed colours uniform, and that the hoops of their drums were edged with blue and white flames.

Colours

For more details on the various patterns of Palatine colours used during this period, please refer to our article on the Palatine Line Infantry Colours.

Warning: we are still working on the graphical representations of the colours and some details may change during the week of July 16 to 22.

Colours before 1760

Colonel flag (Leibfahne): white field; border consisting of with white and blue flames with golden decorations; centre device consisting of an image of the Madonna standing on a snake, surmounted by a red scroll carrying the motto “Sub Tuum Praesidium Virgo Gloriosa”; each corner monogram consisting of the crowned golden cypher of Karl IV Theodor and golden decorations.

Regimental flags (Kompaniefahnen): blue field decorated with golden floral patterns; centre device consisting of the golden cypher of Karl IV Theodor surmounted by a red and gold Electoral cap; each corner monogram consisting of the crowned golden cypher of Karl IV Theodor.

Leibfahne - Copyright: Kronoskaf
Kompaniefahne - Copyright: Kronoskaf

Colours from 1760

Each battalion carried 2 colours: the first battalion carried the Leibfahne and a 'Kompaniefahne, while the second battalion carried two 'Kompaniefahnen. A red and a yellow variants of the Kompaniefahne seem to have cohabitated.

Colonel flag (Leibfahne): white field; border consisting of with white and blue flames with golden decorations; centre device consisting of an image of the Madonna standing on a snake, surmounted by a red scroll carrying the motto “Sub Tuum Praesidium Virgo Gloriosa”; each corner monogram consisting of the crowned golden cypher of Karl IV Theodor and golden decorations.

Regimental flags (Kompaniefahnen)

  • red variant: red field bordered with a light blue and white lozenges pattern; centre device consisting of the crowned arms of the Elector of Palatinate within a rococo frame, flanked by a trophy of arms and a golden couchant lion, a collar of the Order of Saint Hubertus beneath, the whole resting on a white cloud the crowned golden cypher of Karl IV Theodor; each corner monogram consisting of the crowned golden cypher of Karl IV Theodor with a cross of Saint Hubertus beneath.
  • yellow variant: yellow field bordered by three rows of white and light blue lozenges; centre device consisting of the crowned arms of of Pfalz-Sulzbach within a rococo frame, flanked by a trophy of arms and a golden couchant lion, the Collar of the Order of St. Hubertus beneath, each corner monogram consisting of the crowned golden cypher of Karl IV Theodor with a cross of Saint Hubertus beneath.
Leibfahne - Copyright: Kronoskaf
Kompaniefahne (red variant) - Copyright: Kronoskaf
Kompaniefahne (yellow variant) - Copyright: Kronoskaf

References

Becher, Johann Christian: Wahrhaftige Nachricht derer Begebenheiten, so sich in dem Herzogthum Weimar by dem gewaltigen Kriege Friedrichs II., Königs von Preußen, mit der Königin von Ungarn, Marien Theresen, samt ihren Bundesgenossen zugetragen, Weimar, ca. 1757-1760

  • Original (Stiftung Weimarer Klassik - Herzogin Anna Amalia Bibliothek Weimar)
  • Copy (Bibliothèque nationale de France, De Ridder collection)

Bezzel, Oskar; Geschichte des Kurpfälzischen Heeres ..., Bayrisches Kriegsarchiv, V. File, part 1 and 2, Munich 1925

Grosser Generalstab Kriegsgeschichtliche Abteilung II: Die Kriege Friedrichs des Grossen, Part 3 Der siebenjährige Krieg 1756-1763, Vol. 7 Olmütz und Crefeld, Berlin, 1909, Appendix 2

Kessel, E.: Das Ende des Siebenjährigen Krieges 1760-1763, Hrgb. von T. Linder, Anhang 41, p. 553, Padeborn – München – Wien – Zürich 2007

Pengel, R.D. And G. R. Hurt: Bavaria, Saxony & the Palatinate Supplement: Uniforms and Flags of the Senen Years War, Hopewell: On Military Matters, 1981

Rogge, Christian: The French & Allied Armies in Germany during the Seven Years War, Frankfurt, 2006

Acknowledgments

rf-figuren for the initial version of this article.

Harald Skala for the translation and integration of Bezzel's work