Fijo de Oran Infantry
Origin and History
The first mentions of this tercio date from 1633 but its official date of creation is 1663. Until 1715, the tercio would be known by the name of its Maestre de Campo.
In 1663, during the Portuguese Restoration War (1640–1668), the tercio was sent to garrison Fuenterrabia. It then marched to Pasages and Badajoz where it formed part of the garrison. In 1664, it took part in the battle of Ameixial; in 1665, in the battle of Montes Claros. In 1666, it served in the Province of Extremadura.
At the beginning of June 1668, the tercio was sent to Flanders.
In 1674, during the Franco-Dutch War (1672–78), the tercio took part in the battle of Seneffe
In 1690, during the Nine Years' War (1688–97), the tercio took part in the relief of Mons; in 1692, in the defence of Charleroi which surrendered on 11 October; in 1693, in the battle of Landen; in 1695, in the defence of the lines between the Lys and the Scheldt, in the defence of Bruxelles and in the siege and capture of Namur.
In 1703, during the War of the Spanish Succession, the tercio served in the Franco-Spanish army in the Spanish Netherlands and took part in the Battle of Ekeren near Antwerp. In 1706, it participated in the attack on the lines between Menin and Courtrai and, in the defence Bruxelles and Dendermonde. In 1708, the two battalions of the tercio were sent to man the Lines of Ghent. They then reinforced the garrisons of Ghent and Bruges until their capitulations. On 28 September, they were at the Engagement of Wijnendale. In 1713, by royal orders, the tercio evacuated the Low Countries and marched to Catalonia to fight the insurgents, taking the tower of San Pol, routing the rebels at Manresa and Verdú, surprising the Castle of Biosca and relieving Berga. In 1714, the tercio protected the convoys destined to the army besieging Barcelona.
On 20 April 1715, the unit was renamed “Tercio de Cuenca” and stationed in Old Castile.
In 1718, the regiment was sent to Navarra where it garrisoned Pamplona.
In 1723, the regiment was sent to the coast of North Africa to defend Melilla and Peñon de Velez de la Gomera. In 1726, it returned to Spain where it was transferred to the District of Valencia.
In 1732, the regiment was sent to reconquer Oran from the Moors. In 1733, after the capture of the place, it assumed garrison duty in Oran and defended the place. The same year, the regiment was renamed “Regimiento Fijo de Orán”. From 1734 to 1744, it continued to defend Oran against the enterprises of the Moors.
During the Seven Years' War, the regiment was under the command of:
- no information available yet
Service during the War
The regiment did not take part in any action or campaign during the war. It was probably still stationed in Oran.
|Coat||white with white buttons on the right side
Armaments consisted of a musket, a bayonet and a sword (brass hilt).
N.B.: the conde de Clonard illustrates an officer with green turnbacks while Taccoli shows white turnbacks.
The colonel, lieutenant-colonel, sargentos mayores and officers carried a spontoon and an officer stick. They used to hang this stick at the second button of the coat. The type of handle of the officer stick was different for each rank:
- gold for the colonel
- silver for the lieutenant-colonel
- silver (but only one finger wide) for the Sargento Mayor and the captains
- ivory for assistants, lieutenants and for the chaplain
- wooden with a silver ring for sub-lieutenants
Sergeants carried a halberd instead of a spontoon. Furthemore, their officer stick had no handle.
no information available yet
The coronela (colonel flag) of the regiment was white with a red Burgundian cross terminated in each corner by a medallion carrying the arms of the regiment (unknown) surmounted by a golden crown. In the middle: the arms of Charles III surrounded by the necklace of the order of the Toison de Oro (Golden Fleece).
The batallonas (ordonnance flags) of the regiment were white with a red Burgundian cross terminated in each corner by a medallion carrying the arms of the regiment (unknown) surmounted by a golden crown.
This article is mostly made of abridged and adapted excerpts from the following books which are now in the public domain:
- Clonard, Conde de, Historia Orgánica de las Armas de Infantería y Caballería, vol. X, Madrid, 1851-62, pp. 5-32
Album de Taccoli, 1759
Clonard, Conde de, Álbum de la Infantería española, 1861
Juan José Torres and the Asociación Cultural de Modelismo Histórico Alabarda for the information and counselling provided for this article.