Difference between revisions of "Gendarmes d'Aquitaine"

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(Created page with "<small>Hierarchical Path: Seven Years War (Main Page) >> Armies >> French Army >> {{PAGENAME}}</small> ==Origin and History== This com...")
 
(Standardization of all articles on the French Army)
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==Origin and History==
 
==Origin and History==
This company was created from the remnants of two companies of cavalry on December 19 1669 for the first duc d'Anjou, second son of Louis XIV. The unit was reorganised in 1690 and given to the duc d'Anjou (future king of Spain) who died on July 9 1746.
+
This company was created from the remnants of two companies of cavalry on December 19 1669 for the first Duc d'Anjou, second son of King Louis XIV. The unit was reorganised in 1690 and given to the Duc d'Anjou (future King of Spain) who died on July 9 1746.
  
On September 10 1753, the company took the name of ''Gendarmes d'Aquitaine'' for a grandson of Louis XV.
+
On September 10 1753, the company took the name of ''Gendarmes d'Aquitaine'' for a grandson of [[Louis XV|King Louis XV]].
  
On March 23 1762, the company was given to the comte de Provence (the future Louis XVIII) and renamed ''Gendarmes de Provence''.
+
On March 23 1762, the company was given to the Comte de Provence (the future Louis XVIII) and renamed ''Gendarmes de Provence''.
  
 
For the organisation of this company, please refer to [[Gendarmerie de France Organisation]]. At war, it was the junior company of the third squadron of the Gendarmerie de France, paired with the [[Gendarmes Bourguignons]].
 
For the organisation of this company, please refer to [[Gendarmerie de France Organisation]]. At war, it was the junior company of the third squadron of the Gendarmerie de France, paired with the [[Gendarmes Bourguignons]].
  
Until 1763 the headquarters of the Gendarmerie de France were at Châlons-sur-Marne while the company was quartered in Nivernais and Limagne. Louis XV assigned the company to Lunéville to guard his father-in-law Stanislas Leczinski, duc of Lorraine and of Bar.
+
Until 1763 the headquarters of the Gendarmerie de France were at Châlons-sur-Marne while the company was quartered in Nivernais and Limagne. Louis XV assigned the company to Lunéville to guard his father-in-law Stanislas Leczinski, Duc of Lorraine and of Bar.
  
During the Seven Years' War, the company was under the nominal command of the duc d'Aquitaine while a captain-lieutenant assumed effective command:  
+
During the Seven Years' War, the company was under the nominal command of the Duc d'Aquitaine while a captain-lieutenant assumed effective command:  
*since January 1 1748: comte de Flavigny
+
*since January 1 1748: Comte de Flavigny
*from April 19 1760: marquis de Lyons  
+
*from April 19 1760: Marquis de Lyons  
*from 1762 to 1770: marquis de Houdetot
+
*from 1762 to 1770: Marquis de Houdetot
  
 
The company was disbanded in 1788.
 
The company was disbanded in 1788.
 
==Service during the War==
 
==Service during the War==
In 1757, the eight squadrons of the Gendarmerie de France, including this company, were sent to reinforce the Lower Rhine Army. They joined the main body in Hessen in August. At the end of the year, they took their winter quarters in the county of Hanau in Hessen.  
+
In 1757, the eight squadrons of the Gendarmerie de France, including this company, were sent to reinforce the Lower Rhine Army. They joined the main body in Hesse in August. At the end of the year, they took their winter-quarters in the Hessian County of Hanau.
  
By July 1758, all Gendarmerie squadrons had joined Soubise's army assembling near Friedberg in Hesse. On October 10, the Gendarmerie was present at the [[1758-10-10 - Battle of Lutterberg|battle of Lutterberg]] where it was placed on the left wing of the first line. It was not involved into any serious fighting during this battle.  
+
By July 1758, all Gendarmerie squadrons had joined [[Soubise, Charles de Rohan, prince de|Soubise]]'s Army assembling near Friedberg in Hesse. On October 10, the Gendarmerie was present at the [[1758-10-10 - Battle of Lutterberg|Battle of Lutterberg]] where it was placed on the left wing of the first line. It was not involved into any serious fighting during this battle.
  
In 1759, the Gendarmerie de France took part to the [[1759-08-01 - Battle of Minden|battle of Minden]] where it repeatedly charge the British and Hanoverian infantry, being repulsed each time and suffering heavy losses.
+
At the end of January 1759, hearing of a possible involvement of the Netherlands in the war, Belle-Isle prepared 20 bns, 4 dragoon sqns and 15 pieces for Dunkerque; and 15 bns, 20 sqns (including the "Maison du Roi") and 10 pieces for Gand ready to march on Anvers and Bruges if the Dutch entered the war. At the beginning of June, the Gendarmerie was at Cologne as part of the corps under the [[Poyanne, Charles Léonard de Baylenx, Marquis de|Marquis de Poyanne]]. By June 18, it had joined the [[1759 - French offensive in Western Germany|French offensive in Western Germany]] and was at Stadtberg (present-day Marsberg on the Diemel River). It was attached to the Cavalry Reserve. On July 4, it was part of a corps who took position in front of the village of Schildesche, 3 km north of Bielefeld. On August 1, the regiment took part in the [[1759-08-01 - Battle of Minden|Battle of Minden]] where it was deployed in the third line of the cavalry centre under the command of the Marquis de Poyanne. Along with the [[Royal-Carabiniers|Carabiniers]], they attempted a third attack upon the 9 battalions (mostly British) who had already repulsed 2 cavalry charges. Their charge was more successful and they broke through the first line of Allied infantry. However, the second line received them with deadly fire and forced them to retire with heavy losses. On August 30, when the French main army took position between Bauerbach and Amöneburg, the Gendarmerie formed part of the Reserve. The Gendarmerie was so depleted that each squadron counted only some 120 men.
  
In 1761, the company took the field with the army of Soubise. It was present at the battle of Vellinghausen on July 16 but was not engaged.  
+
By May 23 1760, the company was part of the Gardes and Gendarmerie Reserve of [[Broglie, Victor François, Duc de|Broglie]]'s Army, placed under the command of M. de Duras. By September 13, the Gendarmerie was posted at Lichtenau between the Fulda and the Werra. By October 1, part of the unit was attached to d'Auvet's Division which was instructed to march towards Hachenburg. On October 13, the unit arrived at Neuss with Castries. On October 16, the Gendarmerie de France, under the Marquis de Lugeac, fought in the [[1760-10-16 - Battle of Clostercamp|Battle of Clostercamp]] where it formed part of the Reserve deployed behind the left wing. On October 21, Castries sent the unit to Andernach. On November 1, the unit who had heavily suffered at Clostercamp, left Andernach and marched back to Thionville in France.
  
In 1762, the company formed part of Condé's Lower Rhine army. It was present at the action of Nauheim on August 30 but was not engaged.  
+
In 1761, the company took the field with Soubise's Army of. On July 16, it was present at the [[1761-07-16 - Battle of Vellinghausen|Battle of Vellinghausen]] but was not engaged.
  
To do: more details on the campaigns from 1759 to 1762
+
In 1762, the company formed part of Condé's Lower Rhine Army. On August 30, it was present at the [[1762-08-30 - Combat of Nauheim|Combat of Nauheim]] but was not engaged.
  
 
==Uniform==
 
==Uniform==
 
===Privates===
 
===Privates===
[[File:Gendarmes d'Aquitaine Uniform Plate.jpg|left|frame|Uniform in 1758 - Source: [http://www.europeanheraldry.org/ PMPdeL]]]
+
[[File:Gendarmes d'Aquitaine Uniform Plate.jpg|left|frame|Uniform in 1758 - Source: Frédéric Aubert]]
 
{| class="tblunout"
 
{| class="tblunout"
|+<big>'''Uniform Details as per<br/>the ''Etrennes Militaires'' of 1758 and ''Etat Militaire'' of 1761'''</big>
+
|+<big>'''Uniform Details as per<br>the ''Etrennes Militaires'' of 1758 and ''Etat Militaire'' of 1761'''</big><br>completed where necessary with information from Rousselot, Mouillard, Funcken, Marbot, Rigo, Lienhart & Humbert, Pengel & Hurt and Osprey
 
|-
 
|-
 
|'''Headgear'''||black tricorne laced silver, with a black cockade
 
|'''Headgear'''||black tricorne laced silver, with a black cockade
 
|-
 
|-
|'''Neckstock'''||black ''cravate''
+
|'''Neck&nbsp;stock'''||black ''cravate''
 
|-
 
|-
 
|'''Coat'''||scarlet lined scarlet, bordered with a silver braid, with silver buttons and silver buttonholes, and a silver braid on each sleeve
 
|'''Coat'''||scarlet lined scarlet, bordered with a silver braid, with silver buttons and silver buttonholes, and a silver braid on each sleeve
Line 50: Line 50:
 
|'''Lapels'''||''none''
 
|'''Lapels'''||''none''
 
|-
 
|-
|'''Pockets'''||horizontal pockets laced silver with 3 silver buttons and 3 silver buttonholes
+
|'''Pockets'''||horizontal pockets laced silver, each with 3 silver buttons and 3 silver buttonholes
 
|-
 
|-
|'''Cuffs'''||scarlet cuffs ''en botte'' laced silver with 3 silver buttons
+
|'''Cuffs'''||scarlet cuffs ''en botte'' laced silver, each with 3 silver buttons
 
|-
 
|-
 
|'''Turnbacks'''||''none''
 
|'''Turnbacks'''||''none''
Line 59: Line 59:
 
|'''Gloves'''||buff
 
|'''Gloves'''||buff
 
|-
 
|-
|'''Waistcoat'''||buff laced silver
+
|'''Waistcoat'''||buff leather jerkin fastened with hooks and eyes and edged with a silver braid
 
|-
 
|-
 
|'''Breeches'''||scarlet (probably buff at war)
 
|'''Breeches'''||scarlet (probably buff at war)
Line 66: Line 66:
 
{| class="tblunin"
 
{| class="tblunin"
 
|-
 
|-
|'''Crossbelt'''||buff bandoleer laced silver (carrying the green distinctive colour of the company since 1730)  
+
|'''Cross-belt'''||buff bandoleer laced silver (carrying the green distinctive colour of the company since 1730)  
 
|-
 
|-
|'''Waistbelt'''||green laced silver
+
|'''Waist-belt'''||green laced silver
 
|-
 
|-
 
|'''Cartridge Box'''||''n/a''
 
|'''Cartridge Box'''||''n/a''
 
|-
 
|-
|'''Scabbard'''||''n/a''
+
|'''Scabbard'''||black leather with a silver tip
 
|-
 
|-
 
|'''Footgear'''||black boots
 
|'''Footgear'''||black boots
Line 80: Line 80:
 
{| class="tblunin"
 
{| class="tblunin"
 
|-
 
|-
|'''Saddlecloth'''||scarlet laced silver  
+
|'''Saddlecloth'''||scarlet laced silver (contrarily to what is illustrated in our plate, saddlery was of black leather)
 
|-
 
|-
|'''Housings'''||[[File:Gendarmes d'Aquitaine Housing.jpg|right|Gendarmes d'Aquitaine Housing Device - Source: PMPdeL]]
+
|'''Housings'''||[[File:Gendarmes d'Aquitaine Housing.jpg|right|frame|Gendarmes d'Aquitaine Housing Device - Source: [http://www.europeanheraldry.org/ PMPdeL] ]]
 
scarlet laced silver with the crowned duke's cipher embroidered in silver
 
scarlet laced silver with the crowned duke's cipher embroidered in silver
 
|-
 
|-
Line 89: Line 89:
 
|}
 
|}
 
<br clear="all">
 
<br clear="all">
Troopers were armed with a sabre (silver handle and green cord), a pair of pistols and a rifle.
+
Troopers were armed with a sabre (silver handle and green cord), a pair of pistols and a rifle. Officially for combat they wore a blackened breast plate over their leather jerkin and they often removed their coat and folded it on the porte-manteau. In such an outfit, French cavalrymen looked quite the same as Prussian cuirassiers. In cold weather, the coat was worn over the breast plate.
  
 
The horses of the troopers were of various colours. A green rosette was knotted at their mane and tail.
 
The horses of the troopers were of various colours. A green rosette was knotted at their mane and tail.
<br clear="all"/>
+
<br clear="all">
 +
===NCOs===
 +
NCOs wore uniforms similar to those of the troopers.
 +
 
 +
They also wore a blackened breast plate over their leather jerkin for combat.
 
===Officers===
 
===Officers===
''No information available yet.''
+
Officers wore uniforms similar to those of the troopers with the following peculiarities:
 +
*silver braids on all seams of the coat
 +
*silver buttons
 +
*full cuirass worn over the coat
  
 
===Musicians===
 
===Musicians===
Line 102: Line 109:
  
 
The musicians were mounted on grey horses.
 
The musicians were mounted on grey horses.
<br clear="all"/>
+
<br clear="all">
==Colours==
+
==Standards==
 
[[File:Gendarmes d'Aquitaine Standard.jpg|right|frame|Gendarmes d'Aquitaine Standard – Source: Gilbert Noury]]
 
[[File:Gendarmes d'Aquitaine Standard.jpg|right|frame|Gendarmes d'Aquitaine Standard – Source: Gilbert Noury]]
The silken standard had a blue field heavily decorated with silver and gold embroideries, fringed in gold and silver and bearing a central scene depicting two trees in a plain and a golden star in the sky with the motto “Virtute auctorem refert”.
+
The silken standard (exceptionally called ''guidons'' in the Gendarmerie de France) had a blue field heavily decorated with silver and gold embroideries, fringed in gold and silver; centre device consisting of a scene depicting two trees in a plain and a golden star in the sky with the motto “VIRTUTE AUCTOREM REFERT”. As for all company standards of the ''Gendarmerie de France'', the obverse and reverse were identical.
 +
 
 +
Standards were carried on green tournament lances by troopers designated as ''porte-étendards'' (even though the standards of the Gendarmerie de France were called ''guidons'').
 
<br clear="all">
 
<br clear="all">
  
Line 111: Line 120:
 
This article incorporates texts from the following books which are now in the public domain:
 
This article incorporates texts from the following books which are now in the public domain:
 
*Pajol, Charles P. V., ''Les Guerres sous Louis XV'', vol. VII, Paris, 1891, pp. 20-21
 
*Pajol, Charles P. V., ''Les Guerres sous Louis XV'', vol. VII, Paris, 1891, pp. 20-21
 +
*Guignard, Pierre Claude de: ''L'école de Mars''; Paris: Simart 1725; p. 565
  
 
'''Other sources'''
 
'''Other sources'''
  
Funcken, L. and F., ''Les uniformes de la guerre en dentelle''  
+
Chartrand, René: ''Louis XV's Army (1) Cavalry and Dragoons''; London 1996
 +
 
 +
Funcken, L. and F.: ''Les uniformes de la guerre en dentelle''  
 +
 
 +
Lienhart & Humbert: ''Les uniformes de l'armée française 1690-1894''; Leipzig 1897-1906
 +
 
 +
Marbot, Alfred de: ''Les uniformes de l'armée française de 1439 à 1815''; Paris 1848
 +
 
 +
Menguy, Patrice: ''Les Sujets du Bien Aimé'' (a website who has unfortunately disappeared from the web)
 +
 
 +
Mouillard, Lucien: ''Les Régiments sous Louis XV''; Paris 1882
 +
 
 +
Pengel & Hurt: ''French Cavalry and Dragoons 1740-1762''; Birmingham 1981
 +
 
 +
Rigondeau (Rigo), Albert : Planches ''Le plumet – Série Ancien Régime''; Paris 1980
  
Menguy, Patrice, [http://patricemenguy.free.fr/sujetsdubienaime/Sommaire.html Les Sujets du Bien Aimé]
+
Rogge, Christian: ''The French & Allied Armies in Germany during the Seven Years War'', Frankfurt, 2006
  
Mouillard, Lucien; ''Les Régiments sous Louis XV''; Paris 1882
+
Rousselot, Lucien: ''L'Armée française, ses uniformes, son armement, son équipement''; Paris 1943-1971
  
Rogge, Christian; ''The French & Allied Armies in Germany during the Seven Years War'', Frankfurt, 2006
+
Vial J.-L.: [http://vial.jean.free.fr/new_npi/ Nec Pluribus Impar]
  
Vial J.-L., [http://vial.jean.free.fr/new_npi/ Nec Pluribus Impar]
+
N.B.: the section ''Service during the War'' is mostly derived from our articles depicting the various campaigns, battles and sieges.
  
 
[[Category:French Land Unit]]
 
[[Category:French Land Unit]]

Revision as of 05:29, 16 January 2015

Hierarchical Path: Seven Years War (Main Page) >> Armies >> French Army >> Gendarmes d'Aquitaine

Origin and History

This company was created from the remnants of two companies of cavalry on December 19 1669 for the first Duc d'Anjou, second son of King Louis XIV. The unit was reorganised in 1690 and given to the Duc d'Anjou (future King of Spain) who died on July 9 1746.

On September 10 1753, the company took the name of Gendarmes d'Aquitaine for a grandson of King Louis XV.

On March 23 1762, the company was given to the Comte de Provence (the future Louis XVIII) and renamed Gendarmes de Provence.

For the organisation of this company, please refer to Gendarmerie de France Organisation. At war, it was the junior company of the third squadron of the Gendarmerie de France, paired with the Gendarmes Bourguignons.

Until 1763 the headquarters of the Gendarmerie de France were at Châlons-sur-Marne while the company was quartered in Nivernais and Limagne. Louis XV assigned the company to Lunéville to guard his father-in-law Stanislas Leczinski, Duc of Lorraine and of Bar.

During the Seven Years' War, the company was under the nominal command of the Duc d'Aquitaine while a captain-lieutenant assumed effective command:

  • since January 1 1748: Comte de Flavigny
  • from April 19 1760: Marquis de Lyons
  • from 1762 to 1770: Marquis de Houdetot

The company was disbanded in 1788.

Service during the War

In 1757, the eight squadrons of the Gendarmerie de France, including this company, were sent to reinforce the Lower Rhine Army. They joined the main body in Hesse in August. At the end of the year, they took their winter-quarters in the Hessian County of Hanau.

By July 1758, all Gendarmerie squadrons had joined Soubise's Army assembling near Friedberg in Hesse. On October 10, the Gendarmerie was present at the Battle of Lutterberg where it was placed on the left wing of the first line. It was not involved into any serious fighting during this battle.

At the end of January 1759, hearing of a possible involvement of the Netherlands in the war, Belle-Isle prepared 20 bns, 4 dragoon sqns and 15 pieces for Dunkerque; and 15 bns, 20 sqns (including the "Maison du Roi") and 10 pieces for Gand ready to march on Anvers and Bruges if the Dutch entered the war. At the beginning of June, the Gendarmerie was at Cologne as part of the corps under the Marquis de Poyanne. By June 18, it had joined the French offensive in Western Germany and was at Stadtberg (present-day Marsberg on the Diemel River). It was attached to the Cavalry Reserve. On July 4, it was part of a corps who took position in front of the village of Schildesche, 3 km north of Bielefeld. On August 1, the regiment took part in the Battle of Minden where it was deployed in the third line of the cavalry centre under the command of the Marquis de Poyanne. Along with the Carabiniers, they attempted a third attack upon the 9 battalions (mostly British) who had already repulsed 2 cavalry charges. Their charge was more successful and they broke through the first line of Allied infantry. However, the second line received them with deadly fire and forced them to retire with heavy losses. On August 30, when the French main army took position between Bauerbach and Amöneburg, the Gendarmerie formed part of the Reserve. The Gendarmerie was so depleted that each squadron counted only some 120 men.

By May 23 1760, the company was part of the Gardes and Gendarmerie Reserve of Broglie's Army, placed under the command of M. de Duras. By September 13, the Gendarmerie was posted at Lichtenau between the Fulda and the Werra. By October 1, part of the unit was attached to d'Auvet's Division which was instructed to march towards Hachenburg. On October 13, the unit arrived at Neuss with Castries. On October 16, the Gendarmerie de France, under the Marquis de Lugeac, fought in the Battle of Clostercamp where it formed part of the Reserve deployed behind the left wing. On October 21, Castries sent the unit to Andernach. On November 1, the unit who had heavily suffered at Clostercamp, left Andernach and marched back to Thionville in France.

In 1761, the company took the field with Soubise's Army of. On July 16, it was present at the Battle of Vellinghausen but was not engaged.

In 1762, the company formed part of Condé's Lower Rhine Army. On August 30, it was present at the Combat of Nauheim but was not engaged.

Uniform

Privates

Uniform in 1758 - Source: Frédéric Aubert
Uniform Details as per
the Etrennes Militaires of 1758 and Etat Militaire of 1761

completed where necessary with information from Rousselot, Mouillard, Funcken, Marbot, Rigo, Lienhart & Humbert, Pengel & Hurt and Osprey
Headgear black tricorne laced silver, with a black cockade
Neck stock black cravate
Coat scarlet lined scarlet, bordered with a silver braid, with silver buttons and silver buttonholes, and a silver braid on each sleeve
Collar scarlet laced silver
Shoulder straps green laced silver fastened with a silver button
Lapels none
Pockets horizontal pockets laced silver, each with 3 silver buttons and 3 silver buttonholes
Cuffs scarlet cuffs en botte laced silver, each with 3 silver buttons
Turnbacks none
Gloves buff
Waistcoat buff leather jerkin fastened with hooks and eyes and edged with a silver braid
Breeches scarlet (probably buff at war)
Leather Equipment
Cross-belt buff bandoleer laced silver (carrying the green distinctive colour of the company since 1730)
Waist-belt green laced silver
Cartridge Box n/a
Scabbard black leather with a silver tip
Footgear black boots
Horse Furniture
Saddlecloth scarlet laced silver (contrarily to what is illustrated in our plate, saddlery was of black leather)
Housings
Gendarmes d'Aquitaine Housing Device - Source: PMPdeL

scarlet laced silver with the crowned duke's cipher embroidered in silver

Blanket roll n/a


Troopers were armed with a sabre (silver handle and green cord), a pair of pistols and a rifle. Officially for combat they wore a blackened breast plate over their leather jerkin and they often removed their coat and folded it on the porte-manteau. In such an outfit, French cavalrymen looked quite the same as Prussian cuirassiers. In cold weather, the coat was worn over the breast plate.

The horses of the troopers were of various colours. A green rosette was knotted at their mane and tail.

NCOs

NCOs wore uniforms similar to those of the troopers.

They also wore a blackened breast plate over their leather jerkin for combat.

Officers

Officers wore uniforms similar to those of the troopers with the following peculiarities:

  • silver braids on all seams of the coat
  • silver buttons
  • full cuirass worn over the coat

Musicians

No information yet on the uniforms worn by trumpets.

As the junior company of its squadron, the unit did not carry a kettle-drum.

The musicians were mounted on grey horses.

Standards

Gendarmes d'Aquitaine Standard – Source: Gilbert Noury

The silken standard (exceptionally called guidons in the Gendarmerie de France) had a blue field heavily decorated with silver and gold embroideries, fringed in gold and silver; centre device consisting of a scene depicting two trees in a plain and a golden star in the sky with the motto “VIRTUTE AUCTOREM REFERT”. As for all company standards of the Gendarmerie de France, the obverse and reverse were identical.

Standards were carried on green tournament lances by troopers designated as porte-étendards (even though the standards of the Gendarmerie de France were called guidons).

References

This article incorporates texts from the following books which are now in the public domain:

  • Pajol, Charles P. V., Les Guerres sous Louis XV, vol. VII, Paris, 1891, pp. 20-21
  • Guignard, Pierre Claude de: L'école de Mars; Paris: Simart 1725; p. 565

Other sources

Chartrand, René: Louis XV's Army (1) Cavalry and Dragoons; London 1996

Funcken, L. and F.: Les uniformes de la guerre en dentelle

Lienhart & Humbert: Les uniformes de l'armée française 1690-1894; Leipzig 1897-1906

Marbot, Alfred de: Les uniformes de l'armée française de 1439 à 1815; Paris 1848

Menguy, Patrice: Les Sujets du Bien Aimé (a website who has unfortunately disappeared from the web)

Mouillard, Lucien: Les Régiments sous Louis XV; Paris 1882

Pengel & Hurt: French Cavalry and Dragoons 1740-1762; Birmingham 1981

Rigondeau (Rigo), Albert : Planches Le plumet – Série Ancien Régime; Paris 1980

Rogge, Christian: The French & Allied Armies in Germany during the Seven Years War, Frankfurt, 2006

Rousselot, Lucien: L'Armée française, ses uniformes, son armement, son équipement; Paris 1943-1971

Vial J.-L.: Nec Pluribus Impar

N.B.: the section Service during the War is mostly derived from our articles depicting the various campaigns, battles and sieges.