Origin and History
|Did you know that...|
|Originally, the term “Hayducks” designated irregular troops raised by Hungarian aristocrats, serving against the Turks as garrison in various fortresses. From 1688, it became used more generally for infantry regiments raised in Hungary.
Acknowledgement: Harald Skala for this interesting anecdote
At the end of 1702, the Hofkriegsrat (Council of War) decided to raise three Hungarian, so-called “Hayducken” regiments and two Croatian Hayducken battalions. These regiments should be raised by the Hungarian Komitats. On October 31 1702, Colonel Paul Bagosy was appointed commander of one of these regiments. He would be seconded by Lieutenant-Colonel Stephan Ebecky and Major Jeremias Andrássy. Bagosy's regiment was raised in Upper-Hungary (present-day Slovakia) and Transylvania. Its staff was posted at Erlau (present-day Eger/HU). It counted 2,000 men and consisted of 10 companies of 200 men each.
In March 1703, Ebecky and Andrássy resigned their functions and were replaced by Franz Count Gyulai and Johann Rothanides. It proved to be difficult to bring the regiment to full strength. By April 17 1703, only 1,600 men had been enlisted when the regiment marched to Ofen.
During the War of the Spanish Succession, in March 1703, the newly formed regiment proceeded from Ofen to Italy. In 1704, it took part in the combat at Castelnuovo and in the defence of the Fortress of Ivrea where it was taken prisoners of war. In September 1705, the remaining troopers of the Hayduck regiments Bagosy, Andrássy and Batthyányi were amalgamated into a single regiment under Colonel Paul Bagosy. In 1706, a detachment of the regiment took part in the defence of Turin. On September 17, one battalion of the (new) regiment was deployed in Prince Eugène's Army during the victorious Battle of Turin. Towards the end of the year, the regiment fought at Alessandria and Modena. At the end of the year, Colonel Paul von Bagosy was sent end of 1706 to Hungary to raise new recruits. However, he deserted to the Hungarian rebels (the Hofkriegsrat would proscribe him in April 1707). In 1707, Lieutenant-Colonel Ladislaus von Bagosy assumed “ad interim” the charge of commander of the regiment. The same year, the regiment took part in the unsuccessful expedition against Toulon. On 20 December, Franz Count Gyulai received the decree appointing him as proprietor and commander of the regiment. In 1708, the regiment assumed garrison duties in Mantua.
After the signature of peace, the regiment remained in Italy. Its staff and its first battalion were stationed in Mantua; its second battalion in Commachio and Goito.
On May 7 1716, Franz Count Gyulai was promoted to general but remained commander of the regiment till the end of the year. In December, he left for Hungary and Lieutenant-Colonel Johann Suhajda assumed command. The regiment remained in Italy until 1719. In May of that year, it was allocated to Bonneval's Corps (9 battalions) and went to Sardinia and, in November, to Sicily.
From 1720 to 1731, the regiment was once more posted in Italy. In 1731, it took part in the campaign in Corsica.
From 1733 to 1735, during the War of the Polish Succession, the regiment campaigned in Italy. At the end of the war, it remained there.
In 1739, the regiment joined a corps under FM Count Wallis corps and took part in the campaign against the Turks in Hungary. After the war, it returned to Italy once more.
At the beginning of the War of the Austrian Succession, in 1741, the regiment was in Italy and counted 2,300 men (3 fusilier battalions and 2 grenadier companies). In November, it joined Königsegg's Corps. In 1742, the regiment fought against the Bavarians (Schärnding, January 17; Straubing, April; Kelheim, 10. April). From 1742, the regiment got its recruits from Transylvania. In 1744, it fought against the French on the Rhine. In October, it returned to Bohemia with the army of the Prince of Lorraine. At the end of the year, the regiment was in Northern Moravia and took up its winter-quarters around Olmütz (present-day Olomouc/CZ). On February 14 1745, one of its battalion took part in the Combat at Habelschwerdt. On June 4, the regiment fought in the Battle of Hohenfriedberg alongside Saxon troops on the left wing and lost 22 men killed; 6 officers and 104 men wounded; and 227 men taken prisoners of war. On September 30, in the Battle of Soor, the regiment was in the second line and lost 2 officers and 20 men killed; 9 officers and 130 men wounded; and 205 men taken prisoners of war or missing.
At the end of the war, the fourth battalion was sent to Klausenburg in Transylvania while the other battalions returned to Italy.
As per the Etat nouveau des Troupes de sa Majesté Impériale Royale comme elles se trouvent effectivement l'an 1759 and Etat général des Troupes qui servent sa Majesté Impériale et Royale Apostolique sur pié en 1760, the regiment counted 4 battalions (2 grenadier coys and 16 fusilier coys) for a total of 2,300 men. This was the administrative organisation of the regiment. However, the tactical organisation differed: 2 field fusilier battalions, each of 6 companies; 2 grenadier companies (usually converged with grenadiers from other battalions into an ad hoc unit); and 1 garrison battalion of 4 companies (see Austrian Line Infantry Organisation for more details).
During the Seven Years' War, the chefs of the regiment were:
- since May 1735 to 1758: Stephan Count von Gyulay (also spelled Guilay)
- From March 16 1759 until 1787: Franz Count Gyulay (elder son of Stephan Gyulay)
During the Seven Years' War, its colonel-commander was:
- from July 15 1753 until May 6 1757: Thomas Count Kálnoky de Köröspatak
- from August 8 1757 until March 1760: Adolf Johann Gernert (retired)
- from May 27 1760 until October 8 1766: Samuel Count Gyulay von Maros-Németh
Regimental numbers were introduced only in 1769 when this regiment was designated as "I.R. 51".
Service during the War
In 1756, the regiment garrisoned at Mantua. On September 7, it received the order to send one field battalion (696 men) and 2 grenadier companies to Bohemia. In December, this field battalion was posted around Jung-Bunzlau (present-day Mladá Boleslav/CZ).
|The map of the Grosser Generalstab illustrating the Combat of Moys (September 7) shows one field battalion of the regiment deployed in the first line of the infantry right division under the command of Lieutenant-General Wied. However, the regimental history mentions that, by this time, this battalion was in Lusatia with FZM Marschall.
However, most of the other infantry units forming Marschall's Corps were present at the Combat of Moys which tends to suggest that this corps had been detached to Lusatia after the action at Moys.
On April 21 1757, during the Prussian invasion of Bohemia, one field battalion and the grenadiers were part of Major-General von Würben's Brigade on the left wing of Count Königsegg's force at the Combat of Reichenberg. On May 6, this field battalion took part in the Battle of Prague where it was deployed in Count Würben's Brigade, in the first line of the left wing of infantry under Baron Kheul. The grenadier companies were part of the grenadier division (22 coys. led by Colonel Count Guasco). After the defeat, most of the Austrian army took refuge within the walls of Prague. Colonel Thomas Count Kálnoky lost his life at the gate named “Korntor”. His horse rose on its hind legs, Kálnoky fell down and was trampled to death by following horses. In addition to its colonel, the regiment lost 109 men. The surviving 561 fusiliers and 120 grenadiers took part in the defence of Prague where they were deployed on the Vyšehrad Hill. On August 8, Lieutenant-Colonel Johann Gernert was promoted to colonel and commander of the regiment; and Major Samuel Count Gyulai was promoted to lieutenant-colonel. Later on, the field battalion joined a corps (Gyulai, Salm, Marschall, Coloredo (Alt or Jung), Platz, Sincère and 6 cavalry rgts) under the command of FZM Marschall in Upper Lusatia to secure the country around Bautzen. It was not involved in further actions until October. Between October 11 and 23, Samuel Count Gyulai at the head of one field battalion took part in Hadik's raid on Berlin. During winter, the field battalion was part of the cordon formed by FZM Marschall's Corps near Teplitz (present-day Teplice/CZ). In December, the second battalion marched from Mantua to join the army in Bohemia. Lieutenant-Colonel Samuel Count Gyulai replaced Colonel Gernert at the head of the third (garrison) battalion in Klausenburg in Transylvania.
In May 1758, the entire regiment (2 field battalions and the grenadiers for a total of 1,048 men) was with the army in a camp near Laun (present-day Louny/CZ) under the command of FML Maquire. On June 5 and 6, the regiment took part in FML Hadik's unsuccessful attempt against the Fortress of Sonnenstein and Pirna. During the Austrian invasion of Saxony, Hadik's Corps occupied Zwickau and Chemnitz. However, it retreated to Waltersdorf in front of superior Prussian forces. On September 20, Hadik occupied Freiberg. On November 15 the regiment took part in the engagement of Eulenburg near Torgau, putting up a strong resistance and repulsing three Prussian attacks. However, the Prussian mounted troops managed to cross the river and deployed to attack the Austrian positions. General Hadik then decided to retire to Grimma. The regiment took up its winter-quarters at Hof and Plauen.
In 1759, the regiment was part of the Austrian corps who joined the Reichsarmee commanded by the FM Duke of Zweibrücken between Hof and Bamberg. The regiment then consisted of 2 battalions and 2 grenadier companies for a total of 1,069 men). In April, the regiment was part of the corps of FML Maquire near Eger (present-day Cheb/CZ). On May 8, one battalion took part in the combat at Asch (present-day Aš/CZ) where it lost 8 men killed and 2 wounded. On May 20 at Erlangen, GdC. Hadik took command of the Austrian troops (incl. the regiment) supporting the Reichsarmee. On May 27, he marched to Forchheim. In June, most Austrian troops were sent back to Bohemia under the command of Hadik. On July 8, the regiment (then counting 1,439 men) arrived at Aussig (present-day Ústí n. Labem/CZ) where it was allocated to the brigade of Major-General Elrichshausen. On July 22, the regiment arrived at Großhennersdorf in Saxony and was deployed in the Corps de Reserve of FML Campitelli. Hadik's Corps escorted Loudon's Corps through Upper-Lusatia. Loudon had been instructed to support the Russians. On August 1, Hadik arrived at Guben but soon returned to Spremberg, followed by superior Prussian forces. During this retreat, the regiment lost 76 men who were taken prisoners of war. After the Austro-Russian victory at Kunersdorf, in which his corps was not involved, Hadik changed several times his positions in Brandenburg before marching to Plauen where he effected a junction with the Reichsarmee for a campaign in Saxony. On September 21, the regiment took part in the Combat of Korbitz where it was deployed in the centre of Hadik's Corps under Major-General Lamberg. At the most critical moment of the fight, Lamberg got the order to defend his position with Gyulay Infantry and Marschall Infantry against the attack of 7,000 Prussians. With the support of Major-General Duke Lobkowitz's Cavalry, Lamberg finally managed to drive the Prussians back. In this combat, the regiment captured 4 Prussian guns, but lost 7 men killed; and 2 officers and 32 men wounded. After the combat, the Prince von Zweibrücken praised the regiment in his relation. On October 19, the regiment was later allocated to the Corps de Reserve at Belgern. On October 29, the regiment fought in the combat of Pretzsch where 3 officers and 66 men were taken prisoners of war, and the regiment lost all its baggage (its guides got lost in the forest). On November 4, the Corps de Reserve effected a junction with Daun's main army at Oschatz. The regiment (now counting only 761 men) remained in the Corps de Reserve now led by FZM Baron Sincére. On November 20, the two field battalions of the regiment took part in the Battle of Maxen where they were deployed in the second line of the first column of Sincère's Corps under the command of Lieutenant-General Aynse. The grenadiers of the regiment were in the avant-garde. The regiment took up its winter-quarters around Dippoldiswalde.
On January 10 1760, the regiment was sent to Altenburg and from there to Lauenstein and Löwenhayn. On May 27, Samuel Count Gyulai was promoted to colonel and commander of the regiment; and de Uketjevics, to lieutenant-colonel and commander of the third (garrison) battalion. In June the Austrian army concentrated. The regiment came to Plauen, one battalion was in the so -called “Wilsdruffer Redoute”. From there, the army marched to Silesia, arriving at Ottendorf on August 8. The regiment (now 1,270 men) was at Naumburg. On August 11, realising that Frederick II intended to lay siege to Dresden, FM Daun sent a corps (incl. the present regiment) led by GdC. Buccow to Görlitz. From there. Buccow's Corps marched to Bautzen and Bischofswerda where it arrived on July 16. On July 18, Buccow effected a junction with the main army near Weißig. On July 19, Daun attacked the Prussians who had laid siege to Dresden and pushed them back behind the Elbe thus re-establishing communication between Dresden and the relief army. Frederick II retired to Meissen followed by Daun's army. The regiment was once more attached to the Corps de Reserve led by GdC. Duke Liechtenstein. On September 17, the regiment was involved in a combat near Kunzendorf but no information could be found about its position and actions during this combat. The grenadiers lost 18 men killed and 23 men wounded; the fusiliers had Major Diego de Rochas and 8 men taken prisoner of war. On September 27, the regiment was at Seitendorf with 975 men fit for service. At the beginning of October, Frederick II advanced into Saxony, followed by Daun's Army. The regiment, as part of the Corps de Reserve of Duke Löwenstein, marched through Freiburg, Lauterbach and, on October 23, crossed the Elbe at Torgau. On November 3, after several movements in Saxony, the regiment took part in the Battle of Torgau. It was not directly involved in fighting but was charged to secure the bridges south of Torgau. Only the grenadiers fought in the battle and lost nearly all officers and 4 men killed, 4 wounded and 19 taken prisoners of war. At the end of the month the army took up to its winter-quarters, the regiment around Radebeul and Kaditz near Dresden. By that time, the regiment counted 1,529 men.
Until March 1761, the regiment remained in its winter quarter. In May, FZM Sincère concentrated his infantry corps (Gyulai, Erzherzog Ferdinand, Botta, Kinsky, Harrach, Sincère and Leopold Daun). On May 10, Sincère moved to Hartha in Saxony. On May 12, he was replaced by GdC. Count O´Donell” The corps marched to Zittau and Herrnhut. From there, one detachment (Gyulai, Erzherzog Ferdinand, Botta, Liechtenstein Dragoons and Pálffy Hussars) was sent, under the command of FML Argenteau to reinforce Loudon's Corps at Dittersbach. Argenteau's detachment effected a junction with Loudon's Corps at the end of May. On October 1, one battalion of the regiment took part in the storming of Schweidnitz where it was attached to the first column under the command of Colonel Count Wallis and Major Count O’Donell who attacked the Galgenfort. In this action, the battalion lost 6 men killed; the grenadiers 1 man killed, 13 wounded, and 8 missing. On October 19, part of Loundon's Corps (besides Gyulai, 8 other infantry regiments, 8 cavalry regiments and 2,290 “Grenzer”), under FML Buttler, was sent to Saxony. On October 31, Buttler arrived at Bischofswerda. On December 4, one battalion was sent to support Major-General von Zedtwitz at Nossen,while the other battalion and the grenadiers were sent to Frankenberg near Chemnitz. The regiment spent the winter at these places.
On January 6 1762, the regiment was allocated to Serbelloni's Corps, its grenadiers and its “Oberst-Bataillon” joined the brigade of Major-General Duke Schulenburg; while its “Leibbataillon” was attached to the brigade of Major-General Count Zedtwitz. By January 17, the “Leibbataillon” was posted near Sermitz. The patrol with 2 regimental guns was placed in a redoubt which was surprised by the Prussians. The support of the whole “Leib-Kompanie” arrived too late, the guns were captured, the detachment lost 3 men killed and 5 taken prisoners of war. On January 21, both battalions effected a junction Mittweida. On January 26, the “Oberst-Bataillon” rejoined Major-General Zedtwitz at Ziegra. On January 31, the regimental staff along with the “Oberst-Bataillon” and the grenadiers were posted at Mittweida. On February 3, the two battalions assembled again at Frankenberg. In mid-April the regiment was sent to Wilsdruff. On May 9, FML Stampa marched with Gyulay Infantry and Carl Lothringen Infantry and 3 cavalry regiments to Bautzen, Hartha and Hirschberg (present day Jelenia Gora/PL). Here, orders were changed and Stampa returned to Plauen in Saxony. On June 1, the regiment took part in the Combat of Grumbach near Braunsdorf. The grenadiers drove the Prussians out of Braunsdorf and Grumbach and then retired to the hills above Kesselsdorf. After this action, the regiment returned to the camp of Plauen. On July 6, FML Plunquet marched to Bohemia with a small corps (including Gyulay Infantry). On July 9, he arrived at Dux (present-day Duchcov/CZ). On July 18, Kleist's Prussians attacked the detachment of Major Alleman at Einsiedel (present-day Poustevna/CZ). After heavy fighting, Alleman retired to Hundorf (present-day Hudcov, part of Teplice/CZ) and later to Teplitz. In this action, the regiment lost 4 men killed, 5 taken prisoners of war and 104 men missing. On August 2, the two field battalions and the grenadiers of the regiment took part in the Combat of Teplitz where they distinguished themselves and were praised by GdC Duke Löwenstein in his relation of the combat. The Duke Löwenstein then sent Colonel Samuel Count Gyulay to FM Serbelloni at Dresden with the message about the victory. In this action, the regiment lost 2 officers and 89 men killed; 8 officers and 186 men wounded; and none missing. The regiment remained with Löwenstein's troops near Teplitz. On September 25, Löwenstein's Corps marched to Ober-Leutersdorf in Saxony and drove Kleist's and Seydlitz's troop back behind the Freiberger Mulde River. On September 30, the corps was at Hartmannsdorf. On October 3, the Duke Löwenstein got the order to send Gyulay Infantry, Salm Infantry, Mainz Infantry (aka Lamberg), 2 battalions of Grenzer light troops and 5 cavalry regiments to Plauen to support FZM Prince von Stolberg. These troops (10,956 men in total) were under the command of FML Campitelli. On October 14 and 15, the regiment fought in the combat of Freiberg against Major-General Belling's troops and drove them back to Öderan. Later on, Campitelli attacked the redoubts in front of Brand. During this attack colonel Gyulai was wounded but remained with his regiment. The regiment captured 3 flags and 2 guns. At the end of the combat Colonel Gyulai fell unconscious and his soldiers had to carry him to the surgeon. FML Campitelli himself led the regiment in another attack. Finally, after 5 ½ hours the Prussians fled behind Freiberg. On October 29, after several movements of both armies, the second Battle of Freiberg broke out.. There are no records about actions of the regiment, but it suffered heavy losses from several Prussian cavalry attacks towards the end of the battle. Its grenadiers lost 1 officer killed; 9 men wounded and 83 men taken prisoners of war. Its fusiliers lost 70 men killed; 1 officer and 19 men wounded; and 798 men taken prisoners of war (!). The regiment also lost 3 colours and 3 guns. The remaining 369 men marched to Dresden. During this last battle, Colonel Samuel Count Gyulay had been at the spa at Teplitz to recover from his wound. At the end of the year, the regiment took up its winter-quarters around Aussig (present-day Ústí nad Labem/CZ).
In 1763, after the signature of the Treaty of Hubertusburg (February 15), the regiment (now only 693 men) remained in its winter-quarters until April 5 and then marched to Krems in Austria. From there, it was transported by boats on the Danube to Pest. The staff, the “Oberst-Bataillon” and the third battalion remained in Ofen; the “Leib-Bataillon” went to Arad; and the fourth battalion remained in Klausenburg (present-day Cluj/RO) where it had spent the entire war. In June, the ranks of the regiment had been replenished and it counted 1,842 men On November 19, Colonel Samuel Count Gyulay was among the ninth promotion to receive the military Maria-Theresia-Order.
Until recently we had a very vague description of the uniform at the outbreak of the Seven Years' War. Thanks to the kind authorisation of the Heeresgeschichtliches Museum in Vienna, Dal Gavan, a member of our group, has had access to the Delacre Bilderhandschrift, a rare contemporaneous manuscript depicting the uniforms of the entire K. K. Army around 1756-57. For this reason, we present the uniforms of privates circa 1757 and in 1762.
|Neck stock||one red and one black (for parades the regimental commanders agreed before on the colour of the neckstocks)|
|Coat||white lined dark blue without buttons nor buttonholes
|Waistcoat||dark blue dolman edged red with red brandebourgs|
|Trousers||dark blue Hungarian trousers decorated with red knots|
Troopers were armed with a musket (Model 1745 for fusiliers, Model 1754 for grenadiers), a bayonet and a sabre.
|Neckstock||one red and one black (for parades the regimental commanders agreed before on the colour of the neckstocks)|
|Coat||white lined dark blue with 6 red laced buttonholes with red tassels arranged 1-2-3, on each side; 6 yellow buttons on the right side
|Waistcoat||dark blue dolman edged red with 3 rows of small yellow buttons linked with red brandebourgs|
|Trousers||dark blue Hungarian trousers decorated with red laces|
Troopers were armed with a musket (Model 1745 for fusiliers, Model 1754 for grenadiers), a bayonet and a sabre.
Donath illustrates the following differences :
- dark blue tassels in the lateral cornes of the tricorne
- standard dark blue cuffs edged gold without buttons
Sergeants and corporals carried a short musket and a bayonet.
As per the Bautzener Bilderhandschrift, the officers wore a different uniform in 1762:
- tricorne laced gold with a white and green cockade
- black neckstock
- dark blue waistcoat edged in gold with golden brandebourgs
- brandebourgs only on the left side of the coat
- no turnbacks
- vertical pockets with 3 yellow buttons
- white waistbelt
- dark blue trousers decorated with a golden lace
- yellow Hungarian boots
Senior officers carried sticks identifying their rank:
- lieutenant: bamboo stick without knob
- captain: long rush stick with a bone knob
- major: long rush stick with a silver knob and a small silver chain
- lieutenant-colonel: long rush stick with a larger silver knob without chain
- colonel: long rush stick with a golden knob
As per a regulation of 1755, musicians were now distinguished from troopers only by dark blue swallow nests on the shoulders.
The drum had a brass barrel decorated with black flames at the bottom and with a black double headed Eagle on a yellow field. Rims were decorated with red and white diagonal stripes. The bandolier was white.
All Hungarian infantry regiments were supposed to carry the same colours as the German infantry regiments: a white Leibfahne (colonel) and yellow Regimentsfahne. The colours were made of silk. The flagpoles had golden finial and were decorated with black and yellow spirals of cloth.
The colonel colour was carried by the first battalion.
Colonel flag (Leibfahne):
- field: white
- border: alternating white and yellow outer waved triangles pointing inwards, red and black inner waved triangles pointing outwards
- obverse (right): the Immaculate Mother of God (which had been declared the patroness of the army by kaiser Ferdinand III) on a cloud, crushing a snake under her foot and surrounded by rays
- reverse (left): crowned and armed Imperial double-eagle with the "Lothringen-Toscanian" arms on a shield and the initials of the Emperor CF on the left wing and JM on the right
Regimental flags (Regimentsfahne):
- field: yellow
- border: alternating white and yellow outer waved triangles pointing inwards, red and black inner waved triangles pointing outwards
- obverse (right): crowned and armed Imperial double-eagle with the "Lothringen-Toscanian" arms on a shield and the initials of the Emperor CF on the left wing and JM on the right
- reverse (left): unarmed and crowned Imperial double-eagle with the arms of Hungaria and Bohemia on a shield and the initials M on the left wing and T on the right
In fact, the situation on the field was slightly more complex than this, since colours were usually replaced only when worn out. It is fairly possible that some regiment who had been issued colours of the 1743 pattern were still carrying them at the beginning of the Seven Years' War. For more details, see Austrian Line Infantry Colours.
This article contains texts from the following sources, which are now in the public domain:
- Maendl, M.: Geschite des K. und K. Infanterie_Regiments Nr. 51, vol. I., Klausenburg 1897
- Gräffer, August: Geschichte der kaiserl. Königl. Regimenter, Corps, Bataillons und anderer Militär-Branchen seit ihrer Errichtung biz zu Ende des Feldzuges 1799, Vol. 1, Vienna, 1804, pp. 220-224
- Seyfart, Kurzgefaßte Geschichte aller kaiserlich-königlichen Regimenter zu Pferde und zu Fuß, Frankfurth and Leipzig, 1762, p. 24
Dihm, Dr. Hermann; Oesterreichische Standarten und Fahnen zur Zeit des 7 jährigen Krieges, Die Zinnfigur, Klio
Donath, Rudolf; Die Kaiserliche und Kaiserlich-Königliche Österreichische Armee 1618-1918, 2. Aufl., Simbach/Inn 1979
Etat nouveau des Troupes de sa Majesté Impériale Royale comme elles se trouvent effectivement l'an 1759
Etat général des Troupes qui servent sa Majesté Impériale et Royale Apostolique sur pié en 1760
Funcken, Liliane and Fred; Les uniformes de la guerre en dentelle
Hausmann, Friedrich, Die Feldzeichen der Truppen Maria Theresias, Schriften des Heeresgeschichtlichen Museums, vol. 3, Vienna: 1967
Knötel, Herbert d.J.; Brauer, Hans M.: Heer und Tradition / Heeres-Uniformbogen (so-called “Brauer-Bogen”), Berlin 1926-1962, Österreich-Ungarn – 1756-63
Muhsfeldt, Th.; Abzeichenfarben der K. und K. Regimenter zu Fuss im Jahre 1757 und früher, in Mitteilungen zur Geschichte des militärischen Tracht, No. 12, 1904
Schirmer, Friedrich, Die Heere der kriegführenden Staaten 1756-1763, hrsg. von der KLIO-Landesgruppe Baden-Württemberg, überarb. u. aktual. Neuauflage 1989
Seidel, Paul; Nochmals österreichische Standarten und Fahnen zur Zeit des 7 jährigen Krieges, Die Zinnfigur, Clio
Thümmler, L.-H., Die Österreichiches Armee im Siebenjährigen Krieg: Die Bautzener Bilderhandschrift aus dem Jahre 1762, Berlin 1993
N.B.: the section Service during the War is mostly derived from our articles depicting the various campaigns, battles and sieges.
Harald Skala for the translation and integration of Maendl's work in the present article
Michael Zahn for gathering most of the information about the uniforms of tis regiment