Haudring Infantry

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Hierarchical Path: Seven Years War (Main Page) >> Armies >> Hesse-Kassel Army >> Haudring Infantry

Origin and History

The regiment was raised in 1683 as the "Prinz Philipp zu Hessen Regiment of Foot" and saw considerable service in its early years.

During the War of the Austrian Succession, it served on the Rhine as Kreis Regiment No. 7 in the Reichsarmee.

In the reforms of 1760, the regiment became a fusilier regiment along with Gilsa Infantry. Tricornes were exchanged for fusilier caps at this point.

During the Seven Years' War, the successive Chefs of the regiment were:

  • since 1751: Colonel Haudring (died from his wounds at the Battle of Hastenbeck)
  • from 1757: Colonel Capellan
  • from 1758: Colonel Baron von Toll
  • from 1760 to 1770: Colonel von Bartheld

From 1760, the successive Kommandeure assuming effective command of the regiment were:

  • since 1760: Colonel Faust
  • from 1762 to 1765: Colonel von Pappenheim

During the American Revolution, the regiment was sent to North America where it fought at Fort Washington and was captured at Trenton. Exchanged in 1778, the regiment was sent to Canada.

In 1789, the regiment was integrated into Grenadier Regiment I.

Service during the War

By May 20 1757, the regiment occupied Paderborn. On July 26, it fought in the first line of the centre at the Battle of Hastenbeck.

On May 26 1758, the regiment was with Ferdinand's main force in the camp of Nottuln. During the night of May 31, when the Allied army of Ferdinand crossed the Rhine, the regiment remained at Brünen as part of Lieutenant-General von Imhoff's detachment charged to watch Wesel. On August 5 at the Combat of Mehr, the regiment was part of Imhoff's force who repulsed the French attempt directed against the Allied bridgehead at Rees. On October 10, the regiment took part in the Battle of Lutterberg where it was placed in the first line of the centre.

On April 2 1759, the regiment took part in the combat of Schmalkalden. In June, the regiment was part of Imhoff's Corps operating in Hesse. On August 1, it fought in the Battle of Minden where it was deployed in the first line of the 6th column under Major-General von Toll.

On July 25 1760, the regiment took part in a rearguard action at Wolfhagen. On July 31, it took part in the Battle of Warburg where it was deployed in the first line of the centre between Ossendorf and Menne.

On March 6 1761, the regiment took part in a combat near Florstadt and Wickstadt. On July 4, it fought in the combat of Unna. Then, on July 15 and 16, it was at the Battle of Vellinghausen where it was deployed on the right wing under the Hereditary Prince of Brunswick.

On April 19 1762, the regiment took part in the capture of the Castle of Arnsberg.

Uniform

Pre-1760 Uniform

Hessian troops wore a uniform in the Prussian style including the grenadier and fusilier hats. Until 1750 the trousers were dark blue. The stock was red for the other ranks and white for officers.

It seems that, like the uniforms of the Hanoverian army, those of the Hessen-Kassel got simpler during the war. Therefore, we illustrate (according to Morier and Knötel) the uniform in 1757, at the beginning of the conflict, with a white lace around lapels and cuffs; and the new uniform issued in 1760 without these white laces.

Privates

Uniform in 1757
- Source: Frédéric Aubert
Uniform Details
Headgear
Musketeer black tricorne laced white and orange pompoms
Grenadier Prussian style mitre with a brass front plate, a brass headband decorated with a flaming grenade, an orange sack and an orange pompom
Neck stock red
Coat dark blue with 3 brass buttons on each side to fasten the skirts forming the turnbacks
Collar orange
Shoulder Straps none (perhaps an orange one for grenadiers)
Lapels orange laced white, each with 6 brass buttons grouped 2 by 2
Pockets horizontal, each with 2 brass buttons
Cuffs orange in the Prussian style, each with 2 yellow buttons and a white lace on the sleeve above each cuff
Turnbacks red
Waistcoat white
Breeches white
Gaiters black for campaigning and during winter, white for parades and during summer
Leather Equipment
Crossbelt white
Waistbelt white
Cartridge Box black with a brass plate
Bayonet Scabbard black
Scabbard black
Footgear black


Troopers were armed with a sword (brass hilt) and a musket which was fitted with a leather carry strap.

Officers

Officers wore a white stock and, as a sign of their commissioned rank, a gorget, in button colour, and sash. The sash was of silver silk shot with red flecks.

NCO's carried the Prussian style partizan.

The standard staff was black.

Musicians

By the Seven Years War the convention of wearing reversed colours had disappeared. Drummers now wore the same dark blue coat with white and red livery lace placed along the coat seams in seven inverted chevrons along the sleeves and around the 'swallows nests' on the shoulder. Very much a copy of the Prussian style.

Drum barrels were of polished brass and were decorated with the Hessian lion surrounded by a laurel wreath with a crown above. The Hessian lion was striped red and white with a red tongue on a royal blue background. The drum cords were white and, for this regiment, the rim was a pattern of alternating orange and white diagonal stripes. Within the white stripe was a thin blue stripe.

1760 Uniform

Privates

Uniform in 1760
- Source: Frédéric Aubert
Uniform Details
Headgear
Fusilier Prussian fusilier helm with a brass plate, a brass headband, an orange sack laced in yellow
Grenadier Prussian style mitre with a brass frontplate, an orange sack, yellow lace, orange base. The brass plate and base contained a flaming grenade, the Hessian lion above the letters “FL” and a background stand of arms.
Neck stock black
Coat dark blue with 2 brass buttons under the lapel on the right side and 3 brass buttons on each side to fasten the skirts forming the turnbacks
Collar orange
Shoulder Straps none (perhaps an orange one for grenadiers)
Lapels orange, each with 6 brass buttons grouped two by two
Pockets horizontal, each with 2 brass button
Cuffs orange in the Prussian style, each with 2 brass buttons above each cuff
Turnbacks red fastened with 2 small brass buttons
Waistcoat white
Breeches white
Gaiters black for campaigning and during winter, white for parades and during summer
Leather Equipment
Crossbelt white
Waistbelt white
Cartridge Box black with a brass plate
Bayonet Scabbard black
Scabbard black
Footgear black


Troopers were armed with a sword (brass hilt) and a musket which was fitted with a leather carry strap.

Other interpretations

The Mondierungsreglement of 1761 describes orange turnbacks; light blue button loops tinged with white at the waist, on the sleeves and at the small of the back; a red neckstock and a green pompom.

Colours

To the present day, a definitive reconstruction of the Hesse-Cassel colours during the Seven Years' War is non-existant. All existing publications are mostly speculative. The Leib (colonel) colour was probably white and the regimental colour assumed orange.

Here follows a tentative reconstruction of these flags used till 1767. The flag poles were white.

Leib Colour - Source: Frédéric Aubert
Regimental Colour - Source: Frédéric Aubert

References

Bleckwenn, Hans: Europa kämpft in Flandern... Die Morier-Bilder in Windsor Castle, Teil IV: Hessen-Kassel 1748, in: Zeitschrift für Heereskunde, XXX Jg. (1960), Nr. 207, S. 122-125 and Nr. 208, S. 166-168

Böhm, Uwe Peter: Hessisches Militär: Die Truppen der Landgrafschaft Hessen-Kassel 1672-1806, Herausgegeben im Auftrag der Deutschen Gesellschaft für Heereskunde e.V., Beckum 1986

Großer Generalstab, Kriegsgeschichtliche Abteilung II (Publisher): Die Kriege Friedrichs des Großen. Dritter Teil: Der Siebenjährige Krieg 1756–1763. Band 5 Hastenbeck und Roßbach, Berlin 1903

Henry, Mark: Hessian Army of the 7 Years War, Seven Years War Association Journal Vol. VII No. 3

Manley, S.: Uniforms of the Danish and German States armies 1739-1748, Potsdam Publications

Mohr, Kurt: Einiges über die Hessen-Kasselsche Infanterie 1760, in: Artikel für KA7-Sammler aus alten "Zinnfigur" Heften (1924-1944), KLIO-Arbeitsgruppe 7jähriger Krieg, Manuskript, Köln 1980, S. 106-107

Noeske, Rolf: Die Heere der kriegführenden Staaten 1756-1763, 1. Ergänzung Hessen-Kassel, KLIO-Landesgruppe Baden-Württemberg e.V., Magstadt 1989

Ortenburg, Georg: Das Militär der Landgrafschaft Hessen-Kassel zwischen 1783 und 1789, Herausgegeben im Auftrag der Deutschen Gesellschaft für Heereskunde e.V., Potsdam 1999

Pengel & Hurt: German States in the Seven Years War 1740 to 1762, Imperial Press

Renouard, Carl: "Geschichte des Krieges in Hannover, Hessen und Westfalen von 1757 bis 1763", 3 Bände, Cassel, 1863-64

Rogge, Christian: The French & Allied Armies in Germany during the Seven Years War, Frankfurt, 2006

Schirmer, Friedrich: Die Heere der kriegführenden Staaten 1756 - 1763. KLIO-Landesgruppe Baden-Württemberg e.V., Magstadt, 1989

Schirmer, Friedrich: Die Infanterie des Landgrafentums Hessen-Kassel während des Siebenjährigen Krieges, in: Artikel für KA7-Sammler aus alten "Zinnfigur" Heften (1924-1944), KLIO-Arbeitsgruppe 7jähriger Krieg, Manuskript, Köln 1980, S. 104-106

Trenkle, Karl: Nix wie weg ... die Hesse komme - Hessen-Kasseler Uniformen 1730 - 1789, Marburg 2000

Witzel, Rudolf: Hessen Kassels Regimenter in der Allierten Armee 1762, bearb. u. hrsg. von Ingo Kroll, Norderstedt 2007

Zahn, Michael: Stammliste und Gefechtskalender der Regimenter der Landgrafschaft Hessen-Kassel im Siebenjährigen Krieg (1756-1763) - Teil 1: Infanterie, Metzingen, 2009