Herzog Clemenz Infantry
Origin and History
The regiment consisted of 2 battalions. Each of these battalions counted 4 fusilier companies (140 men each) and 1 grenadier company (100 men). Furthermore, each battalion had 2 light 4-pdr battalion guns.
Since June 20 1756, the garrison place of the regiment was Straubing. In July 1757, it recruited in Landshut. In May 1758, it recruited in Straubing.
During the Seven Years' War, the regiment Inhaber was:
- since May 23 1738: Duke Clemenz of Bavaria
- from August 12 1770: Lieutenant-general Ludwig Count Holnstein aus Bayern
During the Seven Years' War, the regiment was under the command of:
- since 1736: Colonel Franz Emanuel Baron von Lerchenfeld
- from 1756 to 1758: Colonel Joseph Gerhard Count von Rambaldi
- from 1758 to 1763: Colonel Franz Martin de la Colonie
- in 1763: Colonel Ernst von Schober
On September 29 1764, the regiment was transferred to Ingolstadt to assume garrison duty.
Service during the War
In April 1757, the first battalion of the regiment was assigned to the Auxiliary Corps which was being assembled to serve with the Austrian Army on the basis of a subsidy contract settled with France on March 29. In July, its second battalion also joined this Auxiliary Corps which was assigned to the Austrian corps under the command of Count Nádasdy. In October, the regiment took part to the siege and capture of Schweidnitz. On November 22, both battalions were at the battle of Breslau where they formed part of the corps of Count Seyssel d’Aix on the right wing of the second line. A few weeks later, on December 5 at the battle of Leuthen, the regiment was part of Nádasdy's corps on the left wing. It was deployed in the center of this corps in the first line between the Leibregiment (on the left) and Preysing Infantry (on the right) near the Württemberger contingent whose fate they shared, being routed by the Prussian troops who attacked the flank of the left wing.
In April 1758, each Bavarian regiment contributed 1 company of fusiliers and 1 company of grenadiers to a converged regiment placed under the command of Colonel de la Rosée. During the siege of Olmütz, this converged regiment distinguished itself against the Prussian besiegers but it lost more than 100 men in these combats. In July, the various companies forming this converged regiment rejoined their respective units. In August, the Herzog Clemenz regiment took part to the siege of Neisse. After the withdrawal of the Prussians, the regiment counted only some 1,000 men.
In January 1759, the regiment returned to Straubing, its garrison place while one of its companies of grenadiers assumed garrison duty in Stadtamthof. The regiment remained in Bavaria till the end of the war.
|Austrian style blue coat with 3 yellow buttons under the lapel and 1 yellow button in the small of the back
Gilardone, Schleich and Schirmer illustrate yellow (ocher for H. Knötel) distinctives, yellow waistcoat, blue breeches, white buttons and tricorne's lace. Perhaps the uniform during the War of Austrian Succession.
The officers were distinguished by a gold lace on the tricorne which was also decorated with a black cockade fastened with a gold lace, and a gold gorget decorated with golden arms of Bavaria.
Junior officers were to carry a thin, hollow "spanish reed", with which to discipline soldiers.
Senior officers were to carry a cane that was to taper from at most the width of a thumb to at most the width of a finger.
The horses of the mounted officers had a red shabraques and red pistol covers, all trimmed in yellow.
NCO's were distinguished from the privates by the wearing of a "broadsword". On deployment, the sergeants were to carry the Kurzgewehr, whereas the corpoals carried a musket, bayonet, and cartridge pouch.
Beyond that, all NCO's carried a wooden cane for discpline, of suitable thickness for discpline, but without mauling the soldiers (infantry regulations, page 14). This was to be thinner than the cane used by officers.
Drummers wore the uniform of the troopers with the following distinctions:
- white/blue woollen chevrons on the sleeves
- white/blue laced swallow nest at the shoulders
- white/blue laced cuffs
White bandolier edged white/blue.
The white drum barrel was decorated with blue flames and with the crowned arms of Bavaria. The hoops were decorated with white and blue stripes.
About the colours of the Bavarian infantry regiments , we know some models in use during the first part of the 18th century, before 1740; we know 4 models of flags which were in use between 1742 and 1745 and we also know the two models created in 1786 after the reunification of the bavarian and palatinate armies. So, between 1745 and 1786, information are unfortunately very scarce. The following descriptions represent an "educated guess" based on these few sources.
For this regiment, we think the old Max Emanuel pattern could have been taken out the arsenal and carried again. Please note that, as Ordinarfahne, the 1742-1745 pattern Type "2 (or even type "4") could have been carried, but without the double-head imperial eagle.
During the 1750s most Bavarian line infantry units adopted a new set of colours.
For more details on the various patterns of Bavarian colours used during this period, please refer to our article on the Bavarian Line Infantry Colours.
N.B.: From circa 1748, the Inhaber of the regiments had the possibility to influence the design of the Leibfahne after their wish, using individual images of the Madonna.
Boehm, E.; Rottgardt, D., Die Reichsarmee 1757-63. I. Teil: Zusammensetzung und Organisation, KLIO-Arbeitsgruppe 7jähriger Krieg, Friderzianische Epoche, Manuskript, o.J
Boehm, E.; Rottgardt, D.; Weirich, W.-D., Die Reichsarmee 1757-63. II. Teil: Die einzelnen Einheiten, ihre Stärke, Zusammensetzung, Uniform und Feldzeichen, KLIO-Arbeitsgruppe 7jähriger Krieg, Friderzianische Epoche, Manuskript, o.J.
Funken, Liliane and Fred, Historische Uniformen, Vol. 2
Schirmer, Friedrich: Die Heere der kriegführenden Staaten 1756-1763, hrsg. von der KLIO-Landesgruppe Baden-Württemberg, überarb. u. aktual. Neuauflage 1989
Staudinger, Karl, Geschichte des kurbayerischen Heeres unter Kurfürst Karl Albrecht - Kaiser Karl VII. - und Max III. Joseph 1726 - 1777, (Geschichte des bayerischen Heeres 3), J. Lindauer, Munich, 1909
rf-figuren for the initial version of this article