Difference between revisions of "Hesse-Kassel Line Infantry Organisation"

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==Description==
 
==Description==
At the beginning of the Seven Years' War, there were effectively 12 field battalions. Each regiment consisted of a single battalion.  Of the 12, 8 were initially shipped to England in 1757 to protect it against a potential French invasion.
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At the beginning of the Seven Years' War, there were effectively 12 field battalions. Each regiment consisted of a single battalion.  Of the 12, 8 formed part of the  [[1756 - Allied reinforcement of Great Britain|Allied reinforcement of Great Britain]] shipped to England in May 1756 to protect it against a potential French invasion.  
  
 
According to the 1754 Hesse-Cassel ''Reglement'' for the infantry, each regiment formed in a single battalion with 10 companies including a grenadier corps of 8 men within each company. A grenadier company was to be formed when on campaign.  
 
According to the 1754 Hesse-Cassel ''Reglement'' for the infantry, each regiment formed in a single battalion with 10 companies including a grenadier corps of 8 men within each company. A grenadier company was to be formed when on campaign.  
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Total force was 809 men including regimental staff with 26 non-combatants in 1757. Force was augmented during the course of the Seven Years' War amounting to about 950 men book strength by 1759.  
 
Total force was 809 men including regimental staff with 26 non-combatants in 1757. Force was augmented during the course of the Seven Years' War amounting to about 950 men book strength by 1759.  
  
Each battalion carried two colours and was organised in 4 divisions and 8 platoons for combat, excluding the grenadiers. For battle, the battalion formed in 3 ranks, different to the 1757 Hanoverian infantry, which still formed in 4 ranks up to the battle of Hastenbeck. The grenadiers were usually combined to form ad hoc grenadier battalions, however, a regular establishment of grenadier battalions with the Allied Army was introduced only in June 1759 on [[Ferdinand of Brunswick]]'s order. Beforehand, size and number of battalions depended on circumstance. Up to the campaign of 1760 it was usually 2 battalions formed of 5 to 6 companies each.
+
Each battalion carried two colours and was organised in 4 divisions and 8 platoons for combat, excluding the grenadiers. For battle, the battalion formed in 3 ranks, different to the 1757 Hanoverian infantry, which still formed in 4 ranks up to the battle of Hastenbeck. The grenadiers were usually combined to form ad hoc grenadier battalions, however, a regular establishment of grenadier battalions with the Allied army was introduced only in June 1759 on [[Ferdinand of Brunswick]]'s order. Beforehand, size and number of battalions depended on circumstance. Up to the campaign of 1760 it was usually 2 battalions formed of 5 to 6 companies each.
 
   
 
   
In January 1760, at the death of Wilhelm VIII, the new landgrave Friedrich II changed the organization of the army. Friedrich already was a general in the Prussian service, owned the Prussian ''Infanterie Regiment Nr. 45'' and was a fervent admirer of the Prussian military machine. Therefore, he completely reorganised the Hessian army along the lines of the Prussian one, even changing the uniforms. He raised a new ''[[Hessian 1. Garde|Leibgarde'' battalion]] (also known as 1st Garde) and a new ''Garde du Corps'' squadron from picked troopers of his army. However, these two new units did not take the field. Furthermore, the 12 existing infantry regiments, each consisting of 950 men in 10 coys (book strength), were increased by 200 men each and reorganised into two smaller battalions. Thus, each infantry regiment now consisted of two battalions. Each of these battalions counted 4 fusilier companies and 1 grenadier company. As in the Prussian army, the grenadiers were converged into 6 battalions of 4 companies each. Thus, the Hessian line infantry now counted 30 battalions (12 regiments @ 2 bns each + 6 converged grenadier battalions). Finally, as of June 24 1760, the former [[Hessian Grenadier-Regiment|Leib-Grenadiers]], [[Hessian Garde|Leibgarde]], and [[Hessian Erbprinz Infantry|Erbprinz Friedrich]] regiments were respectively renamed 2nd, 3rd, and 4th Gardes.
+
In January 1760, at the death of [[Wilhelm VIII]], the new Landgrave Friedrich II changed the organization of the army. Friedrich already was a general in the Prussian service, owning the Prussian ''Dossow Fusiliers|Infanterie Regiment Nr. 45]]'', and was a fervent admirer of the Prussian military machine. Therefore, he completely reorganised the Hessian army along the lines of the Prussian one, even changing the uniforms. He raised a new ''[[Hessian 1. Garde|Leibgarde'' battalion]] (also known as 1st Garde) and a new ''[[Hessian Garde du Corps|Garde du Corps]]'' squadron from picked troopers of his army. However, these two new units did not take the field. Furthermore, the 12 existing infantry regiments, each consisting of 950 men in 10 coys (book strength), were each increased by 200 men and reorganised into two smaller battalions. Thus, each infantry regiment now consisted of two battalions. Each of these battalions counted 4 fusilier companies and 1 grenadier company. As in the Prussian army, the grenadiers were converged into 6 battalions of 4 companies each. Thus, the Hessian line infantry now counted 30 battalions (12 regiments @ 2 bns each + 6 converged grenadier battalions). Each battalion had 2 light guns. Finally, as of June 24 1760, the former [[Hessian Grenadier-Regiment|Leib-Grenadiers]], [[Hessian Garde|Leibgarde]], and [[Hessian Erbprinz Infantry|Erbprinz Friedrich]] regiments were respectively renamed 2nd, 3rd, and 4th Gardes.
 
==References==
 
==References==
 
*Anonymous: ''A Complete History of the Present War, from its Commencement in 1756, to the End of the Campaign, 1760'', London, 1761
 
*Anonymous: ''A Complete History of the Present War, from its Commencement in 1756, to the End of the Campaign, 1760'', London, 1761

Latest revision as of 10:57, 13 January 2018

Hierarchical Path: Seven Years War (Main Page) >> Armies >> Hesse-Kassel Army >> Hesse-Kassel Line Infantry Organisation

Description

At the beginning of the Seven Years' War, there were effectively 12 field battalions. Each regiment consisted of a single battalion. Of the 12, 8 formed part of the Allied reinforcement of Great Britain shipped to England in May 1756 to protect it against a potential French invasion.

According to the 1754 Hesse-Cassel Reglement for the infantry, each regiment formed in a single battalion with 10 companies including a grenadier corps of 8 men within each company. A grenadier company was to be formed when on campaign.

Total force was 809 men including regimental staff with 26 non-combatants in 1757. Force was augmented during the course of the Seven Years' War amounting to about 950 men book strength by 1759.

Each battalion carried two colours and was organised in 4 divisions and 8 platoons for combat, excluding the grenadiers. For battle, the battalion formed in 3 ranks, different to the 1757 Hanoverian infantry, which still formed in 4 ranks up to the battle of Hastenbeck. The grenadiers were usually combined to form ad hoc grenadier battalions, however, a regular establishment of grenadier battalions with the Allied army was introduced only in June 1759 on Ferdinand of Brunswick's order. Beforehand, size and number of battalions depended on circumstance. Up to the campaign of 1760 it was usually 2 battalions formed of 5 to 6 companies each.

In January 1760, at the death of Wilhelm VIII, the new Landgrave Friedrich II changed the organization of the army. Friedrich already was a general in the Prussian service, owning the Prussian Dossow Fusiliers|Infanterie Regiment Nr. 45]], and was a fervent admirer of the Prussian military machine. Therefore, he completely reorganised the Hessian army along the lines of the Prussian one, even changing the uniforms. He raised a new Leibgarde battalion (also known as 1st Garde) and a new Garde du Corps squadron from picked troopers of his army. However, these two new units did not take the field. Furthermore, the 12 existing infantry regiments, each consisting of 950 men in 10 coys (book strength), were each increased by 200 men and reorganised into two smaller battalions. Thus, each infantry regiment now consisted of two battalions. Each of these battalions counted 4 fusilier companies and 1 grenadier company. As in the Prussian army, the grenadiers were converged into 6 battalions of 4 companies each. Thus, the Hessian line infantry now counted 30 battalions (12 regiments @ 2 bns each + 6 converged grenadier battalions). Each battalion had 2 light guns. Finally, as of June 24 1760, the former Leib-Grenadiers, Leibgarde, and Erbprinz Friedrich regiments were respectively renamed 2nd, 3rd, and 4th Gardes.

References

  • Anonymous: A Complete History of the Present War, from its Commencement in 1756, to the End of the Campaign, 1760, London, 1761
  • Bleckwenn, Hans: Europa kämpft in Flandern... Die Morier-Bilder in Windsor Castle, Teil IV: Hessen-Kassel 1748, in: Zeitschrift für Heereskunde, vol. XXX (1960), no. 207, page 122-125 and no. 208, page 166-168
  • Böhm, Uwe Peter: Hessisches Militär: Die Truppen der Landgrafschaft Hessen-Kassel 1672-1806, Herausgegeben im Auftrag der Deutschen Gesellschaft für Heereskunde e.V., Beckum 1986
  • Dieterich, Fritz: Hessen-Kasselsche Infanterie-Fahnen im Siebenjährigen Kriege, in: Artikel für KA7-Sammler aus alten "Zinnfigur" Heften (1924-1944), KLIO-Arbeitsgruppe 7jähriger Krieg, Manuskript, Köln 1980, page 107-109
  • Großer Generalstab, Kriegsgeschichtliche Abteilung II (Publisher). Die Kriege Friedrichs des Großen. Dritter Teil: Der Siebenjährige Krieg 1756–1763. Vol. 5 Hastenbeck und Roßbach, Berlin 1903,

    - chapter A: Die Truppen der Deutschen Mittel- und Kleinstaaten, 1. Hessen-Kassel, page 5-7

    • appendix: supplement 3, Truppen der Landgrafschaft Hessen-Kassel, page 7-9
  • Haswell Miller, A.E.; Dawnay, N.P.: Military Drawings and Paintings in the Royal Collection, Volume I: Plates, London 1966
  • Haswell Miller, A.E.; Dawnay, N.P.: Military Drawings and Paintings in the Royal Collection, Volume II: Text, London 1970
  • Mohr, Kurt: Einiges über die Hessen-Kasselsche Infanterie 1760, in: Artikel für KA7-Sammler aus alten "Zinnfigur" Heften (1924-1944), KLIO-Arbeitsgruppe 7jähriger Krieg, Manuskript, Köln 1980, page 106-107
  • Noeske, Rolf: Die Heere der kriegführenden Staaten 1756-1763, 1. Ergänzung Hessen-Kassel, Edited and published by KLIO-Landesgruppe Baden-Württemberg e.V., Magstadt 1989
  • Ortenburg, Georg: Das Militär der Landgrafschaft Hessen-Kassel zwischen 1783 und 1789, Herausgegeben im Auftrag der Deutschen Gesellschaft für Heereskunde e.V., Potsdam 1999
  • Renouard, Carl: "Geschichte des Krieges in Hannover, Hessen und Westfalen von 1757 bis 1763", 3 vols., Cassel, 1863-64.
  • Thalmann, G.F.:Abbildungen und Beschreibung des Fürstes Hessen-Casselschen Militair-Stantes unter der Regierung Landgraf Friedrich des Zweiten bis zum Jahre 1786 (Handschrift im Hessischen Staatsarchiv Marburg, no. E195/2)
  • Trenkle, Karl: Nix wie weg ... die Hesse komme - Hessen-Kasseler Uniformen 1730 - 1789, Marburg 2000
  • Schirmer, Friedrich: Die Heere der kriegführenden Staaten 1756 - 1763. Edited and published by KLIO-Landesgruppe Baden-Württemberg e.V., Magstadt, 1989.
  • Schirmer, Friedrich: Die Infanterie des Landgrafentums Hessen-Kassel während des Siebenjährigen Krieges, in: Artikel für KA7-Sammler aus alten "Zinnfigur" Heften (1924-1944), KLIO-Arbeitsgruppe 7jähriger Krieg, Manuskript, Köln 1980, page 104-106
  • Witzel, Rudolf:Hessen Kassels Regimenter in der Allierten Armee 1762, bearb. u. hrsg. von Ingo Kroll, Norderstedt 2007

Acknowledgements

Crogge for the information on the reorganisation of 1760.

Kopset for the information on the organisation of 1756 at the beginning of the war.