Hessian 1. Garde

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Hierarchical Path: Seven Years War (Main Page) >> Armies >> Hesse-Kassel Army >> Hessian 1. Garde

Origin and History

The unit was raised early in 1760 with contributions of served men from among the Hessian infantry regiments. The forming of Friedrich II. new life-guard battalion took his entire attention, and for reasons of security it was transferred to Lüneburg/Electorat of Hanover in August 1760. Here it remained throughout 1760 and 1761 and did not take to the field, thus, ceased to take any further part in the final campaigns of the Seven Years War.

During the Seven Years' War, the successive Chefs of the regiment were:

  • since 1760: landgrave Friedrich II

During the Seven Years' War, the successive Kommandeure assuming effective command of the regiment were:

  • at its creation in 1760: colonel von Lossberg
  • from 1760: colonel von Schlieffen
  • from 1762: major-general von Bardeleben

In 1788 the regiment was incorporated into Infanterie Regiment 1 to form the new Garde Regiment.

Service during the War

The regiment did not take the field during this war.

Uniform

Since the regiment was created in 1760, it immediately adopted the uniforms of the newly reorganised infantry.

Privates

Uniform in 1760 - Source: Frédéric Aubert
Uniform Details
as per the Mundierungsreglements 1761

from the State Archive of Hesse, Marburg, piece 4 h 4203
completed where necessary with other sources
Headgear
Musketeer black tricorne laced with a broad white zig-zag lace (similar to Prussian I/IR15) with a black cockade and red pompons.
Grenadier Prussian style mitre with silver front plate, a red (or yellow) back, white piping, white pompom and a red/white plume. All silver plate and base contained the Hessian lion with four red stripes below the monogram “FL”.
Neckstock black
Coat blue with 6 white buttons and 8 white button loops on each side and 1 white button loop on each side in the small of the back
Collar red
Shoulder Straps red with a white aiguillette on the right shoulder
Lapels none
Pockets horizontal with 3 white buttons (no button loops on the pockets)
Cuffs red round and slit cuffs, each with 2 white buttons and 2 white button loops on the sleeve above each cuff
Turnbacks red fastened with a white button
Waistcoat yellow
Breeches yellow
Gaiters white in summer; black otherwise
Leather Equipment
Crossbelt white
Waistbelt white
Cartridge Box black with a metal plate
Bayonet Scabbard black
Scabbard black
Footgear black


Troopers were armed with a sword (brass hilt) and a musket carried using a leather strap.

Officers

Painting of Landgrave Frédéric II in officer uniform of the Hessian Leibgarde in or after 1760

Officiers have embroidered silver lace on their chest, above the cuffs, pockets (2 on each?), waist and in the back; silver braces (Achselbänder) and embroidered silver (zig-zagged) lace on the hats with white plumage; black stocks. They also had a simple everyday outfit with no lace except for the braces.

They also wore a gorget in button colour, and sash. The sash was of silver silk shot with red flecks. NCO's carried the Prussian style partizan and had silver lace instead of the troopers white lace.

Officers spontoons, NCO half-pikes and standard poles were furnished yellow for all Garde regiments in 1760.

Musicians

By the Seven Years War the convention of wearing reversed colours had disappeared. Drummers now wore the same dark blue coat as the troopers with white and red livery lace placed along the coat seams in seven inverted chevrons along the sleeves and around the 'swallows nests' on the shoulder. Very much a copy of the Prussian style.

Drum barrels were of polished brass and were decorated with the Hessian lion surrounded by a laurel wreath with a crown above. The Hessian lion was striped red and white with a red tongue on a royal blue background. The drum cords were white and, for this regiment, the rim was a pattern of alternating red and yellow diagonal stripes.

Colours

Detail of a painting of Landgrave Frédéric II showing the flag of the Garde regiments - Source: Hessian Army Museum, Bad Wildungen

To the present day, a definitive reconstruction of the Hesse-Cassel colours during the Seven Years' War is non-existent. All existing publications are mostly speculative.

Here follows a tentative reconstruction of the flag introduced in 1760 (yellow flag poles).

Colonel Flag - Source: Source: Frédéric Aubert

References

Bleckwenn, Hans: Europa kämpft in Flandern... Die Morier-Bilder in Windsor Castle, Teil IV: Hessen-Kassel 1748, in: Zeitschrift für Heereskunde, XXX Jg. (1960), Nr. 207, S. 122-125 and Nr. 208, S. 166-168

Böhm, Uwe Peter: Hessisches Militär: Die Truppen der Landgrafschaft Hessen-Kassel 1672-1806, Herausgegeben im Auftrag der Deutschen Gesellschaft für Heereskunde e.V., Beckum 1986

Cookman, D., Sandershausen 1758, Battlefields Vol. 1 Issue 6

Großer Generalstab, Kriegsgeschichtliche Abteilung II (Publisher). Die Kriege Friedrichs des Großen. Dritter Teil: Der Siebenjährige Krieg 1756–1763. Band 5 Hastenbeck und Roßbach, Berlin 1903

Henry, Mark, Hessian Army of the 7 Years War, Seven Years War Association Journal Vol. VII No. 3

Manley, S., Uniforms of the Danish and German States armies 1739-1748, Potsdam Publications

Mohr, Kurt: Einiges über die Hessen-Kasselsche Infanterie 1760, in: Artikel für KA7-Sammler aus alten "Zinnfigur" Heften (1924-1944), KLIO-Arbeitsgruppe 7jähriger Krieg, Manuskript, Köln 1980, S. 106-107

Mulder, Luke, Some Notes on Landgraf Friedrich II of Hessen-Kassel Re-Organization of 1760, Seven Years War Association Journal Vol. XI No. 2

Noeske, Rolf: Die Heere der kriegführenden Staaten 1756-1763, 1. Ergänzung Hessen-Kassel, KLIO-Landesgruppe Baden-Württemberg e.V., Magstadt 1989

Ortenburg, Georg: Das Militär der Landgrafschaft Hessen-Kassel zwischen 1783 und 1789, Herausgegeben im Auftrag der Deutschen Gesellschaft für Heereskunde e.V., Potsdam 1999

Pengel & Hurt, German States in the Seven Years War 1740 to 1762, Imperial Press

Renouard, Carl: "Geschichte des Krieges in Hannover, Hessen und Westfalen von 1757 bis 1763", 3 Bände, Cassel, 1863-64

Rogge, Christian, The French & Allied Armies in Germany during the Seven Years War, Frankfurt, 2006

Schirmer, Friedrich: Die Heere der kriegführenden Staaten 1756 - 1763. KLIO-Landesgruppe Baden-Württemberg e.V., Magstadt, 1989

Schirmer, Friedrich: Die Infanterie des Landgrafentums Hessen-Kassel während des Siebenjährigen Krieges, in: Artikel für KA7-Sammler aus alten "Zinnfigur" Heften (1924-1944), KLIO-Arbeitsgruppe 7jähriger Krieg, Manuskript, Köln 1980, S. 104-106

Witzel, Rudolf: Hessen Kassels Regimenter in der Allierten Armee 1762, bearb. u. hrsg. von Ingo Kroll, Norderstedt 2007

Zahn, Michael, Stammliste und Gefechtskalender der Regimenter der Landgrafschaft Hessen-Kassel im Siebenjährigen Krieg (1756-1763) - Teil 1: Infanterie, Metzingen, 2009