Kreisregiment Hohenzollern Cuirassiers
Origin and History
The regiment was raised in 1683 as the Regiment zu Pferde Graf Joseph Franz von Gronsfeld.
In 1691, the regiment was transformed into a cuirassier regiment.
The regiment counted four squadrons of two companies each and had an authorised strength of 585 men and 22 staff.
The regiment consited of 61 contingents and was a prime example of a motley crew:
|1. Konstanz: 18 men
2. Augsburg: 95 men
|32. Weissenau: 1 man|
33. Schussenried: 4 men
N. B.: The Baden-Baden contingent (36 men) was in fact a cuirassier company (nominal strength of 40 men) belonging to the Margraviate of Baden-Baden. It had been converted from a dragoon company in 1732 and usually garrisoned in Rastatt.
In August 1757 the regiment had an effective strength of 570 men.
The regiment was owned by:
- from ????: Count Johann Friedrich Schenck von Stauffenberg
- from 1704: Count Eustach Maria Fugger
- from 1736: Margrave Karl Friedrich von Baden-Durlach
- from 1756: Fürst Friedrich von Hohenzollern-Sigmaringen
- from 1785 to 1801: Fürst Anton Aloys zu Hohenzollern-Sigmaringen
Service during the War
From 1757 to 1762, the regiment served with the Reichsarmee against Prussia.
In 1757, the regiment was with the Reichsarmee operating in Thuringia and Saxony. In August, this army combined with a French contingent under the Prince de Soubise to form the Franco-Imperial Army for the planned reconquest of Saxony. By August 5, the regiment counted 483 men fit for service. On November 5, it fought in the Battle of Rossbach.
On March 31 1759, between Stockheim and Mellrichstadt, 2 squadrons of Prussian Black Hussars (Ruesch Hussars) belonging to the vanguard under the Hereditary Prince of Brunswick charged sword at hand an enemy detachment consisting of the Hohenzollern Cuirassiers and of 1 battalion of the Blau Würzburg Infantry. They first routed the cuirassiers, then charged the infantry, taking many prisoners. By mid-August, during the Austro-Imperial campaign in Saxony, the regiment was attached to Hadik's Corps. On September 8, it took part in the Combat of Zinna where it was deployed in the second line of the cavalry right wing. On September 21, it probably took part in the Combat of Korbitz where it would have been deployed in the centre of Hadik's Corps.
To do: campaigns from 1760 to 1762
|Coat||white, Austrian cut
In 1734 the insignia were different. It is possible that this design was still worn partially:
- the coat had no collar
- the waistcoat had a red border
- the saddle cloth was yellow with a broad white border thereupon red spots and black borders.
Troopers were armed with a sabre and a carbine.
N. B.: The various contingents of the Swabian regiments had partially their own uniforms. This is confirmed for the contingent of Baden-Baden, which was similar to the uniform described above but seems to have had some specific distinctives, which have unfortunately not been recorded.
Officers wore a gold and black sash.
The following description is based on the uniform worn by the trumpeters of the contingent of Baden-Baden in 1794.
Trumpeters wore reversed colours uniforms:
- red coat with white collar, cuffs and turnbacks, no lapels; hanging sleeves laced silver, fastened at the waist; a silver epaulet on each shoulder; pewter buttons
- white waistcoat and breeches
Four standards per regiment, each with a golden finial and a brown pole.
Colonel standard: white field fringed in gold; centre device consisting of an oval shield, its left half had a black field carrying a white cross, its right half, a yellow field carrying 3 black leopards; green palm branches surrounding the centre device
Regimental standards: yellow field fringed in gold; centre device consisting of an oval shield, its left half had a black field carrying a white cross, its right half, a yellow field carrying 3 black leopards; green palm branches surrounding the centre device
Here follows a tentative reconstruction of these two standards.
Several contingents carried (additionally?) their own standards. This was the case of the Baden-Baden contingent. This standard was probably taken into the field.
Baden-Baden standard: white field fringed in silver; yellow staff
- obverse: centre device consisting of an ermine mantel with red lining, crowned with a margrave´s hat in gold; on the ermine mantle the great arms of Baden-Baden, surrounded by the necklace of the Order of the Golden Fleece, supported by a griffin (left) and a lion (right). Corner devices consisting of flowering twig in silver.
- reverse: centre device consisting of an ermine mantel with red lining, crowned with a margrave´s hat in gold; on the ermine mantle the intricate cipher "AM" for August Markgraf (August Margrave), probably in silver. Corner devices consisting of flowering twig in silver.
N.B.: In 1771, when the last Margrave of Baden-Baden, August Georg Siempert, died, Margrave Carl Friedrich of Baden-Durlach re-united both margraviates (according to a contract of inheritance signed in 1765) and formed the Margraviate of Baden. From this time, the new Margraviate of Baden had two griffin as supporters. Because the new Baden state was ruled by a native Durlach Margrave, these were in fact the originally Baden-Durlach supporters. Because the Baden-Baden Arms were abandoned in 1771, it is almost forgotten, that the Baden-Baden Arms had, contrary to Baden-Durlach, a griffin and a lion as supporter.
Princely Abbey of Kempten standard (since 1760): crimson or dark red field fringed in silver, each side of the standard had its own silver fringe, and at the seam of both sides an additional fringe in crimson or dark red was sewn in
- obverse:. field with a wavy outer border and a straight inner border, both in gold; the inner border was entangled with a vegetal-like pattern in silver; centre device consisting of a pale blue or pale grey arm, holding an upright silver sword in his gloved hand; beneath a silver scroll with a motto embroidered in black letters. The motto is difficult to decipher and probably reads as follows: "DEO PRINCIPE PATRIA", what roughly means "GOD, PRINCE, FATHERLAND".
- reverse: field with a wavy outer border and a straight inner border, both in gold; the inner border was entangled with a vegetal-like pattern in silver; centre device consisted of an ermine mantel in red and crowned with a princely crown, on the ermine mantle the small arms of the Prince-Abbot Honorius Roth von Schreckenstein
N.B.: Originally, the present-day city of Kempten consisted of two independent cities, the Imperial city of Kempten and the princely abbey of Kempten (the so-called "twin cities"). Both cities were built next to each other, the Imperial city was a protestant territory and surrounded by the princely abbey, which was a catholic territory. This situation caused many conflicts, unarmed and armed. In 1802, parts of Swabia were incorporated into Bavaria, and the new government merged the two cities.
- Bleckwenn, Hans: Reiter, Husaren und Grenadiere - die Uniformen der kaiserlichen Armee am Rhein 1734, Dortmund 1979
- Boehm, E.; Rottgardt, D.; Weirich, W.-D.: Die Reichsarmee 1757-63. II. Teil: Die einzelnen Einheiten, ihre Stärke, Zusammensetzung, Uniform und Feldzeichen, KLIO-Arbeitsgruppe 7jähriger Krieg, Friderzianische Epoche, Manuskript, o.J.
- Deutsche Uniformen, Vol. 1, Das Zeitalter Friedrich des Großen, 240 images from Herbert Knötel d. J., text and explanations from dr. Martin Letzius, published by Sturm-Zigaretten GmbH, Dresden, 1932
- Grosser Generalstab Kriegsgeschichtliche Abteilung II: Die Kriege Friedrichs des Grossen, Part 3 Der siebenjährige Krieg 1756-1763, Vol. 5 Hastenbeck und Roßbach, Berlin, 1903, Appendix 8, 9
- Hohenzollern Kürassiere Sigmaringen e.V., Hohenzollern Kürassiere
- Knötel, R.: Uniformkunde, Lose Blätter zur Geschichte der Entwicklung der militärischen Tracht, Rathenow 1890-1921, volume VI, plate 7 - Die Truppen des Schwäbischen Kreises 1781
- Koch, Ulrich: Der modische Wandel der Uniform im 18. Jahrhundert. Reich und Württemberg (Offiziersportraits 1730 bis 1790) ( Teil IV.), in: Zeitschrift für Heereskunde, No. 334, Nov./Dez., LI. Jg. (1987), page 152-159
- Soden, Karl baron von: Nachricht von den Fränkischen Craistruppen. Nebst einem Anhang von den Schwäbischen Creisregimentern, Nürnberg, by Gabriel Nicolaus Raspe, 1782
- Söllner, Gerhard: Für Badens Ehre: Die Geschichte der badischen Armee von 1604 - 1832
- Vol. 1, Info Verlagsgesellschaft, Karlsruhe 1995
- Vol. 2, P.I.G. Zinn-Press, Meckenheim 2001
Bavarian Army Museum, Ingolstadt
Fiebig, Ewald: Unsterbliche Treue - Das Heldenlied der Fahnen un Standarten des deutschen Heeres, Anderman Verlag, Berlin, around 1936
Brauer, Hans M.: Heer und Tradition, Fahnentafel Nr. XLIX (so-called „Brauer-Bogen"), Berlin 1926 -1967
N.B.: the section Service during the War is mostly derived from our articles depicting the various campaigns, battles and sieges.
Volker Scholz for additional info on the Baden-Baden and Kempten contingents and their standards