Kreisregiment Hohenzollern Cuirassiers

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Hierarchical Path: Seven Years War (Main Page) >> Armies >> Reichsarmee >> Kreisregiment Hohenzollern Cuirassiers

Origin and History

Uniform in 1782 - Source: Illustration by Raspe, Nürnberg 1782

The regiment was raised in 1683 as the Regiment zu Pferde Graf Joseph Franz von Gronsfeld.

In 1691, the regiment was transformed into a cuirassier regiment.

The regiment counted four squadrons of two companies each and had an authorised strength of 585 men and 22 staff. The regiment consited of 61 contingents and was a prime example of a motley crew:

1. Konstanz: 18 men

2. Augsburg: 95 men
3. Kempten: 22 men
4. Ellwangen: 12 men
5. Justingen: 2 men
6. Baden-Baden: 36 men
7. Eberstein: 2 men
8. Zollern-Hechingen: 16 men
9. Zollern-Haigerloch: 6 men
10. Zollern-Sigmaringen: 13 men
11. Stift Buchau: 3 men
12. Fürstenberg-Heiligenberg: 20 men
13. Engen: 13 men
14. Fürstenberg-Baar: 14 men
15. Fürstenberg-Kinzigthal: 14 men
16. Fürstenberg-Meßkirch: 4 men
17. Fürstenberg-Gundelfingen: 3 men
18. Oettingen-Spielberg: 20 men
19. Schwarzenberg because of Klettgau: 11 men
20. Lichtenstein because of Vaduz: 3 men
21. Taxis because of Scheer-Friedberg: 20 men
22. Taxis because of Eglingen: 1
23. Salmansweiler: 11 men
24. Weingarten: 21 men
25. Ochsenhausen: 15 men
26. Elchingen: 7 men
27. Irsee: 8 men
28. Ursberg: 4 men
29. Kaisersheim: 9 men
30. Roggenburg: 7 men
31. Roth: 2 men

32. Weissenau: 1 man

33. Schussenried: 4 men
34. Marchthal 5 men
35. Petershausen: 2 men
36. Wettenhausen: 3 men
37. Gengenbach: 1 man
38. Heggbach: 2 men
39. Gutenzell: 2 men
40. Rothmünster: 2 men
41. St. Ulrich: 2 men
42. Althausen: 9 men
43. Montfort: 10 men
44. Wiesensteig: 3 men
45. Mindelheim: 11 men
46. Wolfegg-Waldsee: 15 men
47. Zeil-Zeil and Zeil-Wurzach: 10 men
48. Königsegg-Rothenfels: 6 men
49. Königsegg-Aulendorf: 7 men
50. Fugger: 17 men
51. St. Blasien: 4 men
52. Traunbecause of Eglofs: 2 men
53. Thannhausen: 2 men
54. Hohengeroldseck: 3 men
55. Überlingen: 13 men
56. Wangen: 6 men
57. Pfullendorf: 5 men
58. Offenburg: 5 men
59. Gengenbach 3 men
60. Zell am Harmersbach 2 men
61. From the district (Kreis): 4 men
Total: 590 men

N. B.: The Baden-Baden contingent (36 men) was in fact a cuirassier company (nominal strength of 40 men) belonging to the Margraviate of Baden-Baden. It had been converted from a dragoon company in 1732 and usually garrisoned in Rastatt.

In August 1757 the regiment had an effective strength of 570 men.

The regiment was owned by:

  • from ????: Count Johann Friedrich Schenck von Stauffenberg
  • from 1704: Count Eustach Maria Fugger
  • from 1736: Margrave Karl Friedrich von Baden-Durlach
  • from 1756: Fürst Friedrich von Hohenzollern-Sigmaringen
  • from 1785 to 1801: Fürst Anton Aloys zu Hohenzollern-Sigmaringen

Service during the War

From 1757 to 1762, the regiment served with the Reichsarmee against Prussia.

In 1757, the regiment was with the Reichsarmee operating in Thuringia and Saxony. In August, this army combined with a French contingent under the Prince de Soubise to form the Franco-Imperial Army for the planned reconquest of Saxony. By August 5, the regiment counted 483 men fit for service. On November 5, it fought in the Battle of Rossbach.

On March 31 1759, between Stockheim and Mellrichstadt, 2 squadrons of Prussian Black Hussars (Ruesch Hussars) belonging to the vanguard under the Hereditary Prince of Brunswick charged sword at hand an enemy detachment consisting of the Hohenzollern Cuirassiers and of 1 battalion of the Blau Würzburg Infantry. They first routed the cuirassiers, then charged the infantry, taking many prisoners. By mid-August, during the Austro-Imperial campaign in Saxony, the regiment was attached to Hadik's Corps. On September 8, it took part in the Combat of Zinna where it was deployed in the second line of the cavalry right wing. On September 21, it probably took part in the Combat of Korbitz where it would have been deployed in the centre of Hadik's Corps.

To do: campaigns from 1760 to 1762

Uniform

Privates

Uniform - Source: Ibrahim90
Uniform Details
as per Raspe's description of the 1782 uniform
Headgear
Trooper black tricorne laced silver (or white); white-red pompoms; black cockade fastened with a white button
Neckstock black
Coat white, Austrian cut
Collar red (looks like a low collar continuing the lapels)
Shoulder Straps red fastened with a white button (probably a red aiguillette on the right shoulder)
Lapels red with white buttons
Cuffs red with 3 white buttons
Turnbacks red
Waistcoat straw
Breeches straw
Leather Equipment
Crossbelt white
Waistbelt white
Cartridge Box no information available yet
Bayonet Scabbard none
Scabbard brown
Footgear black boots
Horse Furniture
Saddlecloth red bordered in white thereupon a small red (or blue) stripe
Housing red bordered in white thereupon a small red (or blue) stripe
Blanket roll white with red lining


In 1734 the insignia were different. It is possible that this design was still worn partially:

  • the coat had no collar
  • the waistcoat had a red border
  • the saddle cloth was yellow with a broad white border thereupon red spots and black borders.

Troopers were armed with a sabre and a carbine.

N. B.: The various contingents of the Swabian regiments had partially their own uniforms. This is confirmed for the contingent of Baden-Baden, which was similar to the uniform described above but seems to have had some specific distinctives, which have unfortunately not been recorded.

Officers

Officers wore a gold and black sash.

Musicians

The following description is based on the uniform worn by the trumpeters of the contingent of Baden-Baden in 1794.

Trumpeters wore reversed colours uniforms:

  • red coat with white collar, cuffs and turnbacks, no lapels; hanging sleeves laced silver, fastened at the waist; a silver epaulet on each shoulder; pewter buttons
  • white waistcoat and breeches

Standards

Four standards per regiment, each with a golden finial and a brown pole.

Colonel standard: white field fringed in gold; centre device consisting of an oval shield, its left half had a black field carrying a white cross, its right half, a yellow field carrying 3 black leopards; green palm branches surrounding the centre device

Regimental standards: yellow field fringed in gold; centre device consisting of an oval shield, its left half had a black field carrying a white cross, its right half, a yellow field carrying 3 black leopards; green palm branches surrounding the centre device

Here follows a tentative reconstruction of these two standards.

Speculative colonel standard - Source: PMPdeL
Speculative Regimental Standard - Source: PMPdeL

Several contingents carried (additionally?) their own standards. This was the case of the Baden-Baden contingent. This standard was probably taken into the field.

Baden-Baden standard: white field fringed in silver; yellow staff

  • obverse: centre device consisting of an ermine mantel with red lining, crowned with a margrave´s hat in gold; on the ermine mantle the great arms of Baden-Baden, surrounded by the necklace of the Order of the Golden Fleece, supported by a griffin (left) and a lion (right). Corner devices consisting of flowering twig in silver.
  • reverse: centre device consisting of an ermine mantel with red lining, crowned with a margrave´s hat in gold; on the ermine mantle the intricate cipher "AM" for August Markgraf (August Margrave), probably in silver. Corner devices consisting of flowering twig in silver.

N.B.: In 1771, when the last Margrave of Baden-Baden, August Georg Siempert, died, Margrave Carl Friedrich of Baden-Durlach re-united both margraviates (according to a contract of inheritance signed in 1765) and formed the Margraviate of Baden. From this time, the new Margraviate of Baden had two griffin as supporters. Because the new Baden state was ruled by a native Durlach Margrave, these were in fact the originally Baden-Durlach supporters. Because the Baden-Baden Arms were abandoned in 1771, it is almost forgotten, that the Baden-Baden Arms had, contrary to Baden-Durlach, a griffin and a lion as supporter.

Princely Abbey of Kempten standard (since 1760): crimson or dark red field fringed in silver, each side of the standard had its own silver fringe, and at the seam of both sides an additional fringe in crimson or dark red was sewn in

  • obverse:. field with a wavy outer border and a straight inner border, both in gold; the inner border was entangled with a vegetal-like pattern in silver; centre device consisting of a pale blue or pale grey arm, holding an upright silver sword in his gloved hand; beneath a silver scroll with a motto embroidered in black letters. The motto is difficult to decipher and probably reads as follows: "DEO PRINCIPE PATRIA", what roughly means "GOD, PRINCE, FATHERLAND".
  • reverse: field with a wavy outer border and a straight inner border, both in gold; the inner border was entangled with a vegetal-like pattern in silver; centre device consisted of an ermine mantel in red and crowned with a princely crown, on the ermine mantle the small arms of the Prince-Abbot Honorius Roth von Schreckenstein

N.B.: Originally, the present-day city of Kempten consisted of two independent cities, the Imperial city of Kempten and the princely abbey of Kempten (the so-called "twin cities"). Both cities were built next to each other, the Imperial city was a protestant territory and surrounded by the princely abbey, which was a catholic territory. This situation caused many conflicts, unarmed and armed. In 1802, parts of Swabia were incorporated into Bavaria, and the new government merged the two cities.

References

  • Bleckwenn, Hans: Reiter, Husaren und Grenadiere - die Uniformen der kaiserlichen Armee am Rhein 1734, Dortmund 1979
  • Boehm, E.; Rottgardt, D.; Weirich, W.-D.: Die Reichsarmee 1757-63. II. Teil: Die einzelnen Einheiten, ihre Stärke, Zusammensetzung, Uniform und Feldzeichen, KLIO-Arbeitsgruppe 7jähriger Krieg, Friderzianische Epoche, Manuskript, o.J.
  • Deutsche Uniformen, Vol. 1, Das Zeitalter Friedrich des Großen, 240 images from Herbert Knötel d. J., text and explanations from dr. Martin Letzius, published by Sturm-Zigaretten GmbH, Dresden, 1932
  • Grosser Generalstab Kriegsgeschichtliche Abteilung II: Die Kriege Friedrichs des Grossen, Part 3 Der siebenjährige Krieg 1756-1763, Vol. 5 Hastenbeck und Roßbach, Berlin, 1903, Appendix 8, 9
  • Hohenzollern Kürassiere Sigmaringen e.V., Hohenzollern Kürassiere
  • Knötel, R.: Uniformkunde, Lose Blätter zur Geschichte der Entwicklung der militärischen Tracht, Rathenow 1890-1921, volume VI, plate 7 - Die Truppen des Schwäbischen Kreises 1781
  • Koch, Ulrich: Der modische Wandel der Uniform im 18. Jahrhundert. Reich und Württemberg (Offiziersportraits 1730 bis 1790) ( Teil IV.), in: Zeitschrift für Heereskunde, No. 334, Nov./Dez., LI. Jg. (1987), page 152-159
  • Soden, Karl baron von: Nachricht von den Fränkischen Craistruppen. Nebst einem Anhang von den Schwäbischen Creisregimentern, Nürnberg, by Gabriel Nicolaus Raspe, 1782
  • Söllner, Gerhard: Für Badens Ehre: Die Geschichte der badischen Armee von 1604 - 1832
    • Vol. 1, Info Verlagsgesellschaft, Karlsruhe 1995
    • Vol. 2, P.I.G. Zinn-Press, Meckenheim 2001

Other sources

Bavarian Army Museum, Ingolstadt

Fiebig, Ewald: Unsterbliche Treue - Das Heldenlied der Fahnen un Standarten des deutschen Heeres, Anderman Verlag, Berlin, around 1936

Brauer, Hans M.: Heer und Tradition, Fahnentafel Nr. XLIX (so-called „Brauer-Bogen"), Berlin 1926 -1967

N.B.: the section Service during the War is mostly derived from our articles depicting the various campaigns, battles and sieges.

Acknowledgement

Volker Scholz for additional info on the Baden-Baden and Kempten contingents and their standards