Menominee People

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Hierarchical Path: Seven Years War (Main Page) >> Armies >> Native American Peoples >> Menominee People

Origin and History

The Menominee people are an Algonquian-speaking nation of Native Americans. They inhabited land along the western Great Lakes in present-day Wisconsin and the Upper Peninsula of Michigan. As well as hunting and gathering, and growing corn, beans and squash the Menominee people collected wild rice as one of their main food staples. They maintained close cultural relations with the Ojibwe and the Siouan-speaking Winnebago.

In 1634, the Menominee came into contact with Jean Nicolet, who had been commissioned by the Company of One Hundred Associates to make peace with the Winnebago people, the so-called ‘Men of the Sea’. When they came to contact with the Menominee, the French designated them as “Folles Avoines.” At that time, the Menominee had an estimated population some 3,000 peoples according to the French and controlled the northwestern shore of Lake Michigan. Their largest village was located where the present-day town of Green Bay stands on the Menominee River.

Between 1635 and 1653, due to their position, the Menominee avoided direct attack from the Iroquois Confederacy, which caused the central Algonquin, Odawa and Wyandot to disperse to their north and the Illinois, Fox, Kickapoo and Mascouten going southward. After peace was made with the Iroquois, the Odawa and Wyandot came to Green Bay to trade and acted as intermediaries with the French, who had ceased visiting the area since 1642.

Around 1658, the Menominee and their Ojibwe neighbours fought a war over the access to sturgeon fishing.

In 1661, Radisson and his party of 60 visited the Menominee.

The earliest record of direct settlement by the French was in 1667 when the fur trader Nicolas Perrot set up residence. From this time, the Menominee people started to extend westwards to supply their fur trading activities with the French. This caused their former village pattern to disintegrate and the nation divided into roving bands to trap furs. In the spring of 1670, Perrot joined a flotilla of canoes manned by 900 men enroute from Green Bay to Montréal. In 1671 Jesuit missionaries arrived.

In 1680 Iroquois attacks on the Illinois valley temporarily interrupted the fur trade.

In 1687 Menominee warriors joined the Perrot expedition of 100 men for Governor Denonville’s war against the Iroquois. Going down Lake Huron the force captured the English trader Johannes Roseboom and 29 Europeans and 5 Mohawks. On July 4, they joined Denonville’s force of 832 regular troops, 930 Canadiens and 300 to 400 Native Americans at Irondequoit from where they laid waste fields and burnt four villages of the Seneca.

In 1696 French policy changed drastically following a decline in the European fur market and due to growing reports of the harmful effects of the liquor trade and abuse of Native American women by the French. In 1698 a royal edict closed the posts, revoked trading licenses and prohibited trade with Native Americans except when they visited Montréal. A few missionaries and coureurs des bois continued alone under the threat of being sent to the galleys if caught.

Menominee Territory - Copyright: Kronoskaf

The Menominee people gradually reoccupied territories south and west of their present territory. At some point, Menominee territory covered most of central Wisconsin as far south as Milwaukee.

Then in 1712 the Menominee became entangled with the French again by becoming embroiled in the affairs of the Fox nation. In May 1712 Menominee warriors arrived to aid the French at Détroit and joined in the sieges of Fox and Mascouten villages.

In 1716 the French authorised the re-establishment of 25 licensed traders in Nouvelle France. In 1718 the Menominee were still living in their Menominee River village when they were visited by Sieur de la Mothe Cadillac. The Jesuit Charlevoix arrived in 1721.

In 1727, influenced by British intrigue, the Fox refused to make peace with the Illinois and their allies. Louis XIV ordered the destruction of the Fox nation. On August 15, 1728 the 400 French under Marchand de Lignery and 800 Native Americans from Michilimackinac landed at the Menominee village, ‘... with a view to prove them to oppose our descent; they fell into the snare and were entirely defeated.’ The Jesuit Crespel offered no explanation for the attack on the ‘loyal’ Menominee. The expedition failed to engage the Fox and before retiring de Lignery ordered the destruction of the French fort at Green Bay to prevent the Fox from taking it.

In 1730 Pierre Paul, Sieur de Marin headed a second expedition to aid the Winnebago against the Foxes. He and 9 soldiers arrived among the Menominee at their village There he repaired the abandoned trading post. The Winnebago were being attacked by the Fox at their village on an island in Little Lake Butte des Morts and on surrender negotiations gave the Fox four Menominee warriors, two bound and two decapitated, who had come to their assistance. The Fox demanded Winnebago warriors instead and the battle resumed. When their young men did not return the Menominee leader, Aus-kin-naw-waw-witsh, sought Marin’s aid. Marin sent 5 soldiers with 34 Menominee warriors to relieve the Winnebago village. Going by canoe they landed close to the Fox entrenchments and began to fortify their position. The Fox heard them and attacked but were repulsed shouting insults and informing them they had put their young men in their kettles. Incensed, Aus-kin-naw-waw-witsh desired to make war on both groups but Marin prevailed on him to concentrate on the Foxes. That night Marin and the Menominee were aided by the Winnebago in getting into their fort. The siege lasted another five days before the Fox withdrew. The Menominee had lost 3 men killed and 7 wounded. The Menominee escorted the Winnebago to Green Bay and then proceeded to Michilimackinac. Marin persuaded the Menominee to do nothing about their warriors sacrificed by the Winnebago until he had talked with Onontio (the governor-general of Canada).

In 1731 the burnt fort at Green Bay was rebuilt.

In 1733 the 50 remaining Fox men and boys came to M. de Villiers at Green Bay to beg for mercy. Four were to accompany him to Montréal and the remainder to wait at a Sauk village. Governor Beauharnois decided that all the Fox should be brought to Montréal to be dispersed. Villers returned to Green Bay but was slain at the Sauk village on September 16, 1733. They refused to surrender the Fox men. The Sauk and Fox fled pursued by the French and 200 allies, including the Menominee. Six Menominee were killed in the final encounter of the Second Fox War.

By 1736, the Menominee population had increased to 850 including 160 warriors.

In 1737 the Menominee and other nations sent delegates to Governor Beauharnois to ask for clemency for the remaining Fox, which he agreed to.

In 1742 the Menominee, along with Dakota, Fox, Sauk and Ojibwe nations, sent delegates to conferences in Montréal to meet Governor Beauharnois. The Fox complained that the Menominee had killed two of their men. Beauharnois told them of the sorrow caused by the wicked ways of their members and replied that the Menominee had already atoned for misdeed of one of their men and had distributed gifts to their leaders and ‘the Distinguished women’.

In King Goerge’s War (1744-48) the Menominee responded to a call for assistance when a leader, La Mothe, and 16 warriors went to war. In July 1745 they were with Lieutenant Demuy’s detachment of 69 soldiers and 400 Native Americans at Fort Frederic. From here they went on raiding parties, including one led by La Mothe in the area of Albany, which secured the scalps of 2 Mohawks and 1 Dutchman. In August 1747 they went to Montréal with the scalps.

La Mothe was amongst a delegation which visited Montréal in 1751 where they assured Governor Marquis da la Jonquière they would try and stop the Winnebago from attacking the Missouri people. Despite declarations of peace the Menominee on June 1, 1752 joined the Winnebago, Fox, Sauk and Potawatomi in a revenge attack on the Michigami and Cahokia bands of the Illinois.

In 1752 Joseph Marin, son of Pierre Paul, arrived as commandant at Green Bay and a general peace was obtained in the area.

Role during the War

1755

In 1755 some Menominee warriors responded to call from Charles de Langlade – who was half Odawa and related to the Menominee by marriage – at Green Bay and he led them to Fort Duquesne. From there it is likely that the Menominee joined the other Native Americans in attacking and routing General Braddock’s army in an engagement on the Monongahela on July 9.

1756

In May 1756, a party of 60 Menominee warriors accompanied the French under Coulon de Villiers for their operations on Lake Ontario. This force encamped at Niaouré Bay (present-day Saukkett's Harbor) to harass Oswego and cut its communications with Albany. At one point de Villiers force of 400 attacked a convoy of 300 to 400 bateaus each with two men and three companies of soldiers and ‘knocked off a great number and would have knocked off a lot more were it not for the poor quality of the tomahawks furnished by the ‘King’s store’.

The Menominee warriors proceeded to Presque Ilse on Lake Erie where they were joined by Joseph Marin and warriors of other western nations. Because of reports of smallpox at French forts all except the Menominee refused to go to Montréal. On July 11, the party of 40 Menominee warriors arrived at Montréal with Marin. On July 13 La Mothe, as spokesman, met with Governor de Vaudreuil expressing their wish to strike the British. They soon accepted the offer to join the expedition against Oswego and 30 Menominees left with Marin on July 18 for Fort Frontenac on Lake Ontario. Bougainville reported on July 30 that a council was held with the Menominee for them to remain. They received pork, wine, tobacco, vermillion, and 18 strings of wampum. On August 1 they mustered with the II./Guyenne and II./Béarn Infanterie for inspection by General Montcalm. Three days later the Menominee embarked for M. de Rigaud’s camp at Oswego with Montcalm, Canadiens and a group of engineers. The Menominee were used as escort and on details assigned to intercepting couriers on trails and supply vessels on rivers. By August 13 detachments were sent to harass the British fort at Oswego. Following bombardment, the forts surrendered the following day.

On August 17, all Menominee warriors left Oswego to return home, probably with prisoners, for the rice harvest and fall hunt.

1757

In 1757, 129 Menominee warriors took part in Montcalm’s expedition against Fort William Henry. On July 12 the French army left Montréal and on July 16 Marin with some of the Menominees with other Native Americans left Fort Carillon on a raid. On July 18 he with 300 warriors and 80 French reached the Chicot River and on the next day scattered a British patrol. He then proceeded towards Fort Lydius (Edward). On July 23 they encountered a party of British carpenters at the edge of the woods with a covering party of 12 provincial soldiers, the latter being fired upon ‘silently’ with bows and arrows to avoid discovery. Four provincials fell before the alarm was sounded. The carpenters and provincials fleeing were then caught in the cross fire between the relief force. A brisk fire fight broke out, Marin’s force withdrawing into the woods. A second skirmish developed in the woods before a larger force from the fort forced them to vanish into the forest. Marin’s force lost 3 men and returned to Fort Carillon on the morning of July 24 with 32 scalps and a prisoner.

At the same time, other Menominee warriors under their leader La Chat went with Langlade’s force. On July 24 they ambushed Colonel John Parker and the New Jersey ‘Blues’ who had been sent out by Colonel Monroe, commanding at Fort William Henry, to scout Fort Carillon at Sabbath Day Point on Lac Saint-Sacrement. The New Jersey provincials lost 280 men as casualties or captured out of total of 359 men. One warrior was slightly wounded.

On July 26 speaking in council with Montcalm, La Mothe, speaking on behalf of the Western nations, approved the French plan to attack Fort William Henry. On July 28 Bougainville listed that there were 129 Menominee warriors of which 67 were from La Chat and 62 from L’Original. The siege of Fort William Henry started on August 4 and lasted until August 9 during which time Native Americans were deployed as an observation screen in woods around the perimeter of the cleared land. Following the surrender, the Menominee and other Native Americans went to Montréal arriving with their prisoners on August 19. Vaudreuil gave presents of clothing, tobacco, brandy, lace, and vermillion to each nation before they left for home. That winter, when they returned to their villages, they brought back smallpox with them. Green Bay was hit hard.

1758

In 1757 Vaudreuil had secured a renewal of the Green Bay trading post contact for his brother, Rigaud de Vaudreuil and his Montréal associates. During the winter of 1757/1758 the Menominee of Green Bay, angry at the epidemic that had hit them, attacked the French, investing the fort for three days and killing 22. At the time there was also a scarcity of trade goods due to the British naval blockade of Nouvelle France. Whatever the cause, the Menomonee were not united and those leaders favouring the French alliance sent seven of the killers to Montréal with warriors in the summer of 1758. In early August Onontio pardoned four of the Menominees and sent them to war against the British the other three were unexpectedly executed in the town square. Angry the rest went home.

Meanwhile other Menominee warriors once again joined Jospeh Marin. In August 1758 with a force of 450 men, Native Americans, Troupes de la Marine and Canadiens, he ambushed the head of a British force of 750 men comprising 500 men from the Connecticut Provincials under Major Putnam, volunteers from the regulars, and Rogers' Rangers and 250 men of Gage’s Light Infantry near Fort de la Reine (Fort Anne). Outnumbered, he was forced to withdraw due to the behaviour of the Canadiens, which he did in good order, losing 13 dead, 5 of them Native Americans and 10 wounded. The British lost about the same number. Marin’s force took 5 captives including Major Putnam.

1759

In 1759 Menominee warriors once again joined Charles de Langlade at the defence of Québec. General Wolfe had landed his army on the opposite shore on July 9. On July 25 the Menominee were part of an ambushing force formed against a 2,000 strong British reconnaissance force. The ambush failed due to French officers failing to issue orders to attack. However, a spontaneous attack by Native Americans killed 60 British soldiers. A large contingent of Menominee were present on July 31 at the 1759-07-31 - Battle of Beauport and, on September 13, at the Battle of the Plains of Abraham. The Menominee leaders listed include Carron, his son, Glode, O-sau-wish-ke no (Yellow Bird), and Kacha-ka-wa-sheka (The Notch Maker). During the battle the Menominee skirmished on the left flank of the British force. At the surrender by the French, Langlade withdrew his force from the field in disgust regarding the act as premature and ‘effected through bribery.’

1760-1761

By the fall of 1760 the French had abandoned their posts in the western Great Lakes and on October 12, 1761 a detachment of the 60th Regiment and 80th (Gages) Light Infantry arrived at Green Bay. At the time the Menominee people were away on their fall hunt. The fort was ‘quite rotten’ and Lieutenant James Gorrell of the 60th and 17 other ranks, a French interpreter and 2 traders were left to garrison and rebuild it, renaming it Fort Edward Augustus. Gorrell gave Menominee visitors gifts of ammunition and flour and assurances of British goodwill.

1762

A formal conference was held with Menominee leaders in 1762 where Gorrell stressed the bigoted nonsense that their sovereign territory was now a British domain but expressed the king’s desire to trade. The Menominee expressed their desire for presents as was custom, declared they were poor, had recently suffered the loss of 300 warriors from a smallpox epidemic and some to war. They requested a gunsmith. Little came of the conference as Gorrell had little to give but promised to request supplies. He listed that the Menominee had 150 warriors at the time living in two towns at La Bay. Subsequently, Ensign Thomas Hutchins arrived to inspect the post and met with the Menominee, Sauk and Fox where he received request from them for flags and commissions in the British army as they had received them from the French. The Menominee made bitter complaints about the Ojibwe who had murdered a Menominee at Michilimackinac and stated that they were ready to fight a war against them. Subsequently there was little response to the war (Pontiac’s) to drive out the British and they subsequently protected Fort Edward Augustus whilst the garrison was away in June 1763.

Dress

Louis Antoine de Bougainville witnessed the arrival of the Menominee at Montr/al on July 11, 1756 and described them: ‘These men were naked save for a piece of cloth in front and behind, the face and body painted, feathers on their heads, symbol and signal of war, tomahawk and spear in hand. In general, these are brawny men, large and of good appearance....’

In June 1757 he wrote generally that there was, ‘... no difference in their dress, ornaments, dances and songs of these different nations. They are naked save for a breechclout, and painted black, red, blue, etc. Their heads are shaved and feather ornament them. In their lengthened ear [lobes] are rings of brass wire. They have beaver skins for covering, and carry lances, arrows and quivers made of buffalo skin.’ However, he was able to distinguish between the music of the Odawa and the Winnebago (a Siouan speaking nation from the western Great Lakes).

Hair

Menominee men may have worn their hair long as it would grow and plait it into either four braids, two each side of the ear, or two braids, similar to Ojibwe neighbours. Bougainville does not mention that their heads was shaved in his description of 1756. On the warpath they would additionally braid a scalplock at the back of the head or a half-braided tuft 6 – 8 inches tall bound with bark or red cloth on top of the head.

However, it is also possible that Menominee men shaved their head leaving a patch of long hair on the crown, which was braided. The French soldier J. C. Bonin may have observed delegates representing many nations at a council at Michilimackinac in 1753. He described: ‘Generally speaking, [they] do not keep any hair on their bodies.... keep it only on the back of the head. There it is cut short, leaving one of two long strands, dyed black [?], which they braid and let hang to their shoulders. There is none on the rest of the body, for they are careful to pluck it. Some even pull out [their] eyelashes and eyebrows, as well as any down the body.’

Another early 20th century description states that the Menominee warriors formerly roached the hair, leaving a broad unshaven space over the crown from forehead to nape.

Headdress

It is likely that feathers, eagle, hawk or turkey for example, and other items were worn in the scalplock according to the man’s spiritual experiences.

A circular roach of red dyed deer hair and porcupine guard secured with a bone spreader was worn by some men. It is fixed to the head by passing a scalp braid through the spreader and secured with a wooden pin to the head. The spreader could have a bone or wood socket into which a single eagle feather was fixed so that it could revolve with the wearer’s movement.

Otter fur turbans, which were considered superior to roaches at least in the early 20th century, may have been worn by some for occasions. These could be decorated with silver broaches. Woven sashes could also have been used as turbans.

Tattoo and Paint

Tattooing of the face and body was practised as an alternative to painting. Tattoos in the form of some animal, such as an eagle, a snake or other figure were ingrained with powdered charcoal. Linear patterns were also used extensively. The French soldier J.C. B. stated that: ‘Many... are accustomed to tattoo the whole body.’ He goes on to state: ‘He dips the points [of the needles] in the colour desired, which is prepared from alder charcoal or gunpowder; from red earth or vermillion; or blue, green and the like; all bright colours.’

J. C. B. observed that: ‘Others are satisfied with painting the face and body in different colours, first rubbing themselves with bear grease, and then daubing on black, red blue and green’ and ‘They painted themselves red and black, then sang the war song’ and ‘They do this by dipping their fingers in the colour with which they want to paint their faces in every direction, forming stripes across and down the face.’

Bougainville writing in 1756 observed: ‘We marched through the woods in several files, the Indians almost naked, all in black and red war paint.’

Ears and Nose

Menominee men were likely to have had pierced ears for rings from which hung ornaments of silver or shell. Some Menominee men may have had nose rings, including with pendent silver ornaments.

Ornaments, Necklaces and Neck Pouches

Broaches of silver, replacing those of copper or brass, became increasingly abundant through the 18th century in adorning clothing. There were several designs of broach. The simplest and most numerous was a ring across which a tongue extended like a buckle. This is affixed to cloth by pinching the material up so that the tongue penetrates it twice and when drawn back holds it firmly in place. Smaller ones can often line the edges of breechclouts, etc. whilst those of larger diameter decorated the upper body of shirts. Another very common broach fixed in the same manner is a circular ornate disc perforated with punched out or embossed regular patterns which can have embossed or crenulated edges sometimes known as a round buckle.

Necklaces of wampum, imitation wampum or glass beads were likely to have been worn. Pendants could have consisted of large shells or silverwork such as French coins with the king’s head, cross of Lorraine or a crucifix. In the French and Indian War period, Pierre Pouchot stated that men, ‘... wear around the neck, a collar pendent like our order of knighthood [probably referring to the gorget worn by army officers at that period]. On July 13, 1756 de Vaudreuil presented Menominee warriors with two medals and eight gorgets.

As amongst other eastern woodland peoples Menominee men are likely to have worn bracelets and or armbands of silver.

A tobacco pouch was worn around the neck and in which was kept a man’s personal pipe. The tobacco pouch made of the skins of animals with the hairy side turned outwards. Slit pouches of animal skins may have also been worn over the belt.

‘The Indians are fond of wearing rings upon all their fingers.’

Breechclout and Apron

Bougainville observed of the Menominee: ‘These men were naked save for a piece of cloth in front and behind...’

J.C.B. recorded that ‘The loincloth is made of deerskin or cloth obtained from Europeans. It is a quarter or third cloth that the men wind between their legs. The piece of cloth is held in place around the hips with a cord. The two ends of the loincloth are folded over in front and in the back, with the end in front longer than the one in the back.’

Leggings

Menominee men are likely to have worm both full and half leggings of deerskin, according to the circumstance. These had side seams and were attached to the belt by a thong. A tanned skin, trimmed into a rectangular piece, was taken and folded down the centre lengthwise of the skin. The open edges were then tied together, with thongs at intervals beginning with a narrow margin at the top, or hip, and gradually increasing this until the ankle was reached. Here the residual edges formed flaps five or six inches wide. One of these flaps was afterward slit fine for a fringe, the longest strands being at the bottom; the other was notched or serrated.

They are also likely to have worn cloth half leggings which were fitted tightly to the leg with double flaps or wings hanging feely down the outside that reached mid-thigh and attached to the belt with thongs. Some had a single flap at the back with the front stitched on the inside forming the outer seam of the legging. For best wear each flap was decorated with ribbon, edge beading, broaches and braid. J.C.B stated: ‘When it is wished to make this kind of stocking ornamental it is trimmed with ribbon sewed together or in points on the edge of the flapping outside strip. To ornament this the savages often add porcupine quills fashioned in various colours, as well as animal fur dyed red. They also fasten little bells sold to them by Europeans.’ Those worn on the trail are likely to have been plain half or full leggings of blue or red cloth, or of deerskin.

Garters

Pierre Pouchot observed that, generically, ‘... they wear garters of beads [probably loomed wampum in geometric patterns of white and dark blue black], or porcupine quills [in red, black, blue, yellow and white], bordered four fingers wide, which are tied on the legs.’ Garters, probably more typically for Menominee ones, were also made of woven woollen fibres typically dyed red with white bead patterns incorporated into the weave.

Moccasins

Menominee moccasins were made of smoked buckskin. One style, common the eastern woodlands had a puckered centre seam along the instep. They had cuffs split at the back (women’s moccasins were made with a single cuff around the ankle). Another style was a two-piece moccasin style with a separate broad vamp over the instep, which had puckered stitching around the join of the two pieces Both were fastened under the cuff and tied at the instep with a thong. During the winter moccasins are made larger so that they could be lined with rabbit skin, moose hair and or old blanket and the cuffs wrapped up around the ankles. Snow shoes were worn when there was snow during the winter.

Shirts

A European shirt, cut in contemporary European fashion, obtained from French traders was also popular and could be daubed with grease and paint to waterproof it over the shoulders. Shirts were usually of linen or muslin usually in white or plain colours. Some of the most requested fabrics included cotton, chintz and calico in bright prints. Shirts could also have front and cuff ruffles.

Blankets and Coats

Trade blankets, usually of blue or red woollen cloth, and skin robes were worn for warmth. At the time French blankets were considered of better quality than those supplied by the British.

Winter coats and pointed hoods made from old blankets may have been worn by Menominee men. The coats were belted and the hoods were often made to extend down the back to the waist, with a belt holding them in place. A muskrat skin, tanned with the hair on was worn as a ‘chest protector’ by men when hunting.

During the 18th century European dress continued to be sought by some principal men as a symbol of their role amongst their people, particularly when dealing with Europeans who would have recognised the status of the wearer by his dress. Hats and coats (but not britches) of European origin and of higher quality marked men as diplomatic mediators. For the Menominee these were likely to have been obtained from the French post at Green Bay or given as gifts on their visits to Montréal. These are likely to have been in a contemporary military style in blue, red or yellow unlined woollen fabric, about 40” long and laced with fine brass wire.

Armament

Pierre Pouchot described generically the equipment carried by Native American men. ‘The men wear a belt about six inches wide, made of wool of different colour, which the Indian women make very neatly, of flaming designs. They hung to this belt their mirrors and their tobacco pouch, which is the skin of an otter, beaver, cat or bird taken off whole and tanned, into which they put their pipe tobacco and steel. They have also a pocket hanging like a wallet, for carrying their balls and lead for hunting or war. They have an ox horn with a shoulder strap for carrying powder. Their knife is hung in a sheaf from the neck, and falls upon the breast. They also have a crooked knife or a curved sword, and they make great use of this.’

By the beginning of the 18th century the standard trade musket that armed the Menominee was manufactured in France at the Tulle arsenal. The .62 calibre ‘fusil de chasse’ or hunting musket has a 44-inch octagon-to-round barrel and the lock plate is marked with the name of the arsenal spelt as TVLLE. After 1745 the ‘V’ changed to a ‘U’. Characteristically the stock had a drooped ‘cow’s foot’ butt.

A powder horn and a shot pouch would have been worn over the shoulder and high up under the arm to minimise them flapping about whilst moving. Shot pouches were often made of woven fibre with white bead patterns woven into the threads; or of black dyed deerskin with quillwork and white bead edging with a fringe of metal cones filled with red dyed deer hair. The panel of these bags could be decorated with quilled geometric designs and with images of thunderbirds, underwater panthers or turtles. Straps were of woven fibre. A knife was carried in a sheaf, often decorated with geometric quillwork, hung around the neck.

A tomahawk or warclub was carried stuffed through a belt or sash at the back or on the hip. Woven woollen sashes were wrapped twice around the waist with the fringe hanging down before. Pouchot describes, ‘The men wear a belt about six inches wide, made of wool of different colours, which the Indian women make very neatly, with flaming designs. They hung to this belt their mirrors and their tobacco pouch, which is the skin of an otter beaver, cat or bird, taken off whole and tanned, into which they put their pipe tobacco and steel. They have also a pocket like a wallet, for carrying their balls and lead for hunting and war. They carry their mirror and tomahawk upon their hips.’

References

Bearor, Bob, Leading by Example: Partisan Fighters & Leaders of New France 1660-1760, Volume 3, Westminster: Heritage Books, Inc., 2007, pp.161-173.

Hamilton, Edward (trans. and ed.) Adventures in the Wilderness: The American Journals of Louis Antoine de Bougainville, 1756-1760, Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 1990, pp.143-145, 151,

Laramie, Michael G., The European Invasion of North America, Santa Barbara: Praeger, 2012, pp. 281-282.

McDonnell, Michael A., Masters of Empire: Great Lakes Indians and the Making of America, New York: Hill and Wang, 2015, pp. 178, 186-188.

Ourada, Patricia K., The Menominee Indians, Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 1979, pp. 1-44.

Pouchot, Pierre, Memoir Upon The Late War In North America, Between The French And English, 1755-60. Volume II, Alpha Editions, 2021, pp. 49, 189-191.

Skinner, Alanson, Material Culture of the Menomini, New York: Museum of the American Indian Heye Foundation, 1921, pp. 108-123.

Skinner, Alanson, The Mascoutens or Prairie Potawatomi Indians: Part 2 Notes on Material Culture, Bulletin of the Public Museum of the City of Milwaukee, Vol. 6, No.2, 1926, pp.288.

Spindler, Louise S., Menominee: in Trigger, Bruce G. and Sturtevant, W. C. (eds), Handbook of the North American Indians, Volume 15, Northeast, Washington: Smithsonian Institute, 1978, pp. 708-723.

Stevens, Sylvester, Donald Kent & Emma Woods (eds), Travels in New France by J C B, Harrisburg: Pennsylvania Historical Commission, 1941,

White, Richard, The Middle Ground: Indians, Empires, and Republics in the Great Lakes Region, 1650-1815, Cambridge: University of Cambridge Press, 1991, pp. 246-247.

Acknowledgements

Larry Burrows for a major overhaul of the article