Mestre de camp Général Cavalerie
Origin and History
The unit originated from the corps of the Duke of Saxe-Weimar of 1635. This regiment was incorporated into the French Army on January 24 1638 for the Marquis de Coislin. On December 3 1665, it was renamed Mestre-de-camp-général Cavalerie and ranked second in the French Line Cavalry.
During the War of the Polish Succession, the regiment served in Italy. In 1733, it was at Gera d'Adda and Pizzighetone; in 1734 at Tortone, Parma and Guastalla; in 1735 at Reggiolo and Revere.
During the War of the Austrian Succession, the regiment took part to the invasion of Bohemia in 1741. On June 27 1743, it fought in the battle of Dettingen. In 1744, it was at Weissenburg, Augenheim and at the siege of Fribourg. In 1745, the regiment fought in the battle of Fontenoy (May 11) and also saw action at Tournai. In 1746, it was at Bruxelles and fought at Rocoux on October 11. On July 2 1747, it took part in the battle of Lauffeld. In 1748, it was at the siege of Maastricht.
The regiment counted 2 squadrons.
During the Seven Years' War, the regiment ranked 2nd among the line cavalry and was under the nominal command of the successive mestre-de-camp-général:
- since May 4 1748: Armand, Marquis de Béthune
- from April 16 1759 to 1783: Marquis de Castries
However, the regiment was under the effective command of:
- since May 4 1748: de Cornainville
- from May 7 1760 to July 19 1763: Marquis de Clermont-Tonnerre
When the French Cavalry was reorganised on December 1 1761, the regiment was increased to 4 squadrons, each of them consisting of 4 companies of 40 troopers, for a total of 640 troopers. The 2 additional squadrons came from Seyssel Cavalerie which was incorporated into Mestre de Camp Général Cavalerie.
Service during the War
In 1756, the regiment was stationed at Verdun
In 1757, the regiment joined the Army of the Lower Rhine commanded by the Maréchal d'Estrées for the planned invasion of Hanover. From April 27 to June 17, it was part of the Reserve under the Prince de Soubise. On July 26, the regiment took part in the Battle of Hastenbeck where it was among the cavalry of the left wing. After the Convention of Kloster-Zeven, it followed the main body, led by the Maréchal de Richelieu, who encamped at Halberstadt in Prussian territory from September 28 to November 5. The regiment was placed on the left wing of the first line. At the end of the year, it took its winter-quarters in Kleve on the Lower Rhine, in the fourth line of the French Army.
In March 1758, during the Allied winter offensive in Western Germany led by Ferdinand of Brunswick, the regiment was part of the French garrison of Minden which was attacked by an Allied corps under General Kilmansegg. On March 15, the garrison of Minden surrendered without opposing any serious resistance. However, the regiment was soon exchanged. From March 30 to April 4, it was with Clermont's Army in the camp of Wesel on the Lower Rhine, in the first line of the right wing. In April, when Clermont redeployed his army along the Rhine, the regiment was stationed at Kleve, Donsbrüggen, Nütterden, Zyfflich and Niel; between Kleve and the German-Dutch border. After the successful crossing of the Rhine by Ferdinand's Army on May 31, the regiment retired towards Rheinberg where it joined Clermont's Army on June 2. It remained in this camp until June 12 and was placed on the right wing of the first line. On June 23, the regiment took part in the Battle of Krefeld where it was placed on the left wing of the first line, under FitzJames. In Mid August, after Ferdinand's retreat to the east bank of the Rhine, the regiment, as part of the Army of the Lower Rhine now under Contades, recrossed the Rhine to follow the Allied army. On August 20, it was encamped near Wesel where it was placed on the left wing of the first line.
In June 1759, during the offensive in Western Germany, the regiment was part of the main army under the command of the Marquis de Contades and was deployed in the first line of the cavalry left wing. On August 1, the regiment took part in the Battle of Minden where it was deployed in the first line of the cavalry centre under the command of the Duc de FitzJames. On August 15, during the French retreat, the regiment, who had suffered heavily at Minden and was now too weak to serve adequately, was sent to the rear at Marburg where it arrived on August 19.
In 1760, the regiment served on the Atlantic coasts.
|Headgear||black tricorne (reinforced with an iron skullcap for combat) laced gold, with a black cockade on the left side fastened with a black silk strap and a small copper button|
|Neck stock||black cravate|
|Coat||iron grey lined iron grey
|Waistcoat||buff leather jacket with copper buttons|
|Breeches||kid (goat leather)|
|Greatcoat||iron grey lined red|
Troopers were armed with a carbine, two pistols and a sabre. They were also supposed to wear a breastplate under their coat during battle but this regulation was not always followed.
Evolution of the uniform during the war
Lienhart and Humbert show the following differences:
- a black and gold cord attached to the left shoulder strap and the upper button of the left lapel
- red turnbacks
- a simple braid made of alternating blue and aurore squares as regimental lace
Raspe's illustration depicting the uniform towards the end of 1760 shows the following evolutions:
- white lace at the tricorne and a white cockade for the troopers
- black collar
- coat (and consequently turnbacks) and waistcoat edged with the regimental lace
- iron grey waistcoat and breeches (maybe the “dressed uniform”)
- white waistbelt
Raspe's illustration depicting the uniform after the reorganisation of December 1761 shows the following evolutions:
- black collar
- white coat
- only 3 buttons on each cuff
- waistcoat edged with the regimental lace (red waistcoat for officers)
Officers wore uniforms similar to those of the troopers with the following distinctions:
- Maréchal des logis: silver laced tricorne, housing bordered with a 2,7 cm silver lace
- brigadier: double silver lace on the cuffs
House of Béthune
Until April 1759, trumpeters and kettle drummers probably wore a green uniform heavily laced with a braid consisting of 4 stripes (red, black, blue and light orange) and with yellow buttons. The kettle drummers wore a white turban with red and yellow plumes.
House of Castries
Until April 1759, trumpeters and kettle drummers probably wore the livery of the House of Castries. Unfortunately for the moment, we have no information on this livery.
Regimental standards (4 silken standards): red field bordered and fringed in gold.
- obverse: sown with golden flames; centre device consisting of a golden royal sun with the royal motto “Nec Pluribus Impar” in gold.
- reverse: sown with golden flames.
N.B.: the regiment did not carry any white standard.
This article incorporates texts from the following books which are now in the public domain:
- Pajol, Charles P. V.: Les Guerres sous Louis XV, vol. VII, Paris, 1891, pp. 321-322
Funcken, L. and F.: Les uniformes de la guerre en dentelle
Menguy, Patrice: Les Sujets du Bien Aimé (a website which has unfortunately disappeared from the web)
Mouillard, Lucien: Les Régiments sous Louis XV; Paris 1882
Raspe, Gabriel Nicolaus: Recueil de toutes les troupes qui forment les armées françoises, Nuremberg, 1762
Rogge, Christian: The French & Allied Armies in Germany during the Seven Years War, Frankfurt, 2006
N.B.: the section Service during the War is mostly derived from our articles depicting the various campaigns, battles and sieges.