Origin and History
On 12 June 1701, Emperor Leopold I authorised Carl (Joseph Ignaz, 1680 - 1715) Bishop of Osnabrück and Olmütz, Duke of Lothringen and Bar to incorporate his former Osnabrücker Leibregiment (10 companies of 100 men each) free of charge in the Imperial Army. Carl promised to bring the regiment to 16 companies, of 150 men each, for a total of 2,400 men. Ten companies were already in the bishop's service and garrisoned Freiburg, but the six others had to be recruited within the next four months in Westphalia, Swabia, Saxony and Franconia. For these additional men Duke Carl received 28 florins per man. The new companies mustered in Frankfurt and then effected a junction with the 10 companies of the old Osnabrücker Leibregiment in Freiburg. On September 15, 1701, the regiment had 1,000 men in Offenburg, while the 10 old companies were in Kehl until March 1702. Both parts of the regiment later effected a junction in Freiburg as mentioned above, but due to problems during enlistment, the regiment did not yet reach the promised strength of 2,400 men. The regimental flags initially had the coat of arms of Osnabrück on one side, and that of Lorraine on the other.
During the War of the Spanish Succession (1701-1713), in 1702, the regiment (one battalion and one grenadier company) was attached to the Army of the Rhine under the command of Margrave Ludwig of Baden and took part in the siege of Landau. In 1703, part of the regiment (5 companies) was posted in the Lines of Wissembourg while the rest (12 companies) was stationed in Freiburg. On November 10, 1704, the regiment took part in an unsuccessful attempt against Alt-Breisach. In 1706, the regiment took part in the battle of Castiglione; and in 1707, in the siege of Susa. In 1709, it was transferred to Spain where it campaigned under the command of Field Marshal Guido von Starhemberg. In 1710, it fought in the battles of Almenar, Saragossa and Villaviciosa. In December 1711, the third battalion and both grenadier companies took part in the relief of Cardona. In 1713, the regiment returned to Italy.
At the death of the Bishop of Osnabrück, on December 4 1715, he was succeeded by the only four years old Prince Carl Alexander von Lothringen (born December 12, 1712). Due to his age, his father Duke Leopold von Lothringen took the “Inhaber” rights. Carl Alexander would have to wait until 1726, before being presented to the regiment as its “real” proprietor in the rank of colonel.
In 1718, during the War of the Quadruple Alliance (1717-1720), two battalions and the grenadiers defended Milazzo. On June 26, 1719, the regiment took part in the battle of Francavilla where it lost 14 men dead and 55 wounded. Later on, two battalions and the grenadiers took part in the siege of Messina. On May 2, 1720, the grenadiers and a combined battalion led by Major Braittwitz stormed the main redoubt of Palermo. The following years, they garrisoned Naples, Gaeta and Capua.
On May 25, 1734, during the War of the Polish Succession (1733-1735), a detachment of the regiment was present at the battle of Bitonto. Between April 9 and November 30, the two field battalions and the grenadiers led by Lieutenant-Colonel Count Sinzendorf distinguished themselves during defence of Capua.
On April 10, 1736, Gianluca (also Johann Lucas) Marquis Pallavicini-Centurioni (born November 23 1697 – died September 1773) was appointed proprietor of the regiment.
During the War of the Austrian Succession, the regiment served in Bavaria from 1741 until December 1743 against Franco-Bavarian troops. In 1744, one battalion and the grenadiers were at Velletri in Italy where they were later joined by the whole regiment. In April 1746, the regiment took part in the siege of Citadel of Parma, in the battles of Piacenza and Rottofreddo, and finally in the capture of Genoa.
After the war, the regiment was stationed in Italy until October 1755..
|Did you know that...|
|In 1715, Duke Leopold von Lothringen, the brother of the first owner, had raised Alt-Lothringen Infantry and Jung-Lothringen Infantry Hereditary Prince Leopold Clemens, the duke’s oldest son received Alt-Lothringen Infantry; while his second son, Franz Stefan received Jung-Lothringen Infantry. When the Hereditary Prince died in 1726, his brother Franz Stefan became owner of Alt-Lothringen Infantry while the duke‘s third son Karl, who already owned IR 15 received Jung-Lothringen. As Karl was underage, Jung-Lothringen was confided to Count Ligneville. In 1734, at Ligneville’s death, Karl asked for the command of Jung-Lothringen Infantry but command was rather given to General Wuttgenau and later to Major-General Johann Lucas Pallavicini. Nevertheless, Prince Karl persisted and, when his brother Franz Stefan married Maria Theresa, Karl finally received command of Jung-Lothringen.
Meanwhile, General Pallavicini had raised a so-called Marine-Bataillon intended to man the Danube vessels. However, the battalion was rather used as garrison in Hungary and was eventually sent to Trieste to be amalgamated into IR 15 whose first battalion was very weak at that time. After this amalgamation, the regiment, which was now known as Pallavicini Infantry was organised in three battalions.
As per the Etat nouveau des Troupes de sa Majesté Impériale Royale comme elles se trouvent effectivement l'an 1759 and Etat général des Troupes qui servent sa Majesté Impériale et Royale Apostolique sur pié en 1760, the regiment counted 4 battalions (2 grenadier coys and 16 fusilier coys) for a total of 2,300 men. This was the administrative organisation of the regiment. However, the tactical organisation differed: 2 field fusilier battalions, each of 6 companies; 2 grenadier companies (usually converged with grenadiers from other battalions into an ad hoc unit); and 1 garrison battalion of 4 companies (see Austrian Line Infantry Organisation for more details).
During the Seven Years' War, the chef of the regiment was:
- from April 10, 1736 till 1773: Johann Lucas, Count Pallavicini-Centurioni
During the Seven Years' War, its colonel-commander was:
- from September 20, 1755 to March 6, 1758: Johann Anton Baron Tillier (promoted to major-general)
- from January 29, 1758 to August 14, 1759: Leopold von Grevenitz (retired)
- from August 15, 1759 to November 21, 1764: Anton Bertram von Rolshoffen (died)
- from November 22, 1764 to March 15, 1766: Galleago, Count d’Origo
Regimental numbers were introduced only in 1769 when this regiment was designated as "I.R. 15".
Service during the War
By the end of May 1756, the regiment counted 1,877 men, but it received some recruits in following days. In accordance to the new reglements the regiment formed two field battalions à 6 companies and one garrison battalion à 4 companies. On October 1, the first field battalion and the grenadiers led by Colonel Tillier set off from Milan and marched towards Tyrol, followed, on October 13, by the second and third (garrison) battalions under Lieutenant-Colonel Haslinger. Then they embarked aboard ships which transported them on the Inn and Danube rivers to Linz. From there, the whole regiment marched to join Field Marshall Browne’s main army encamped in Bohemia.
At the beginning of 1757, the various units of the regiment were stationed as follows:
- the grenadiers, in Prague with the staff of the main army
- the third (garrison) battalion, in Prague as part of the garrison of the place
- the two field battalions, in Pilgram (present-day Pelhřimov/CZ)
- the Depositorium (100 men) in Polná
The third battalion and the Depositorium remained the whole year in Prague and Polná. The grenadier companies. were completed while the two field battalion fielded 1,632 men together. The regiment was deployed in the cordon between Gabel (present-day Jablonné v Podještědí/CZ) and Hohenelbe (present-day Vrchlabí/CZ) under the command of FML Maquire. In the spring, during the Prussian invasion of Bohemia, Maquire was ordered to reinforce the corps under the command of FZM Königsegg. On April 21, the two field battalions, which were part of the brigade of Major-General von Würben, were still on the march from Gabel and did not take part in the Combat of Reichenberg. On April 23, Maquire reached Liebenau (present-day Hodkovice and Mohelkou/CZ) and effected a junction with Königsegg’s Corps. On April 24 and 25, the Prussians attacked Königsegg’s troops, which marched to Altbunzlau (present-day Stará Boleslav/CZ) after this combat. On May 2, Königsegg’s Corps (incl. Pallavicini Infantry) effected a junction with the main army of Prince Charles de Lorraine near Prague.
On May 6, the regiment (incl. its grenadiers), fought in the Battle of Prague where they were deployed in Baron Otterwolf's Brigade, in the first line of the left wing of infantry between Carl Lothringen Infantry and Harsch Infantry. During the fight, the converged grenadiers (22 coys. incl. Pallavicini) led by Colonel Count Guasco engaged the Prussian grenadiers. At his moment of the battle Field Marshall Ulysses Browne was mortally wounded by a cannon-ball. In this battle, the regiment lost a total of 529 men. Colonel Tillier was promoted to general but retained his function of regiment commander. The remnants of the regiment took refuge in Prague where they joined the defenders of the place; once more its grenadiers were converged with others to form a corps under FML Lacy.
After Field Marshall Daun’s victory at Kolin on June 18, the army followed the retiring Prussians. Pallavicini Infantry arrived Zittau on July 22. From there, the army (incl. the present regiment) went through Lauban (present-day Luban/PL), Jauer (present-day Jawor/PL) to Lissa (present-day Lesnica/PL) near Breslau (present- day Wroclaw/PL) where it arrived on October 1. On November 12, part of the regiment (6 officers and 183 men) took part in Nádasdy’s storming of Schweidnitz (Swidnica/PL).
On November 22, one battalion and the grenadiers of the regiment took part in the Battle of Breslau where it was deployed in Buttler's Brigade, in the second line of the infantry centre under Baron Kheul. In this battle, the regiment had 43 men wounded, 18 fusiliers and 4 grenadiers killed. Furthermore, Lieutenant-Colonel Haslinger was wounded once more. On December 5 at the Battle of Leuthen, one battalion of the regiment was deployed in Starhemberg's Division in the second line of the infantry right wing under Kheul. This battalion fought near Nypern while the grenadiers were engaged at Frobelwitz. In this battle, the regiment lost 23 men killed; 10 officers and 165 men wounded; and 7 officers and 458 men, taken prisoners of war. On December 17, the regiment counted only 255 men fit for service.
On January 10, Major-General Tillier, who had commanded the regiment until the end of 1757, left. The new commander was Leopold von Grevenitz, transferred from Carl Lothringen Infantry and promoted to colonel. By February, the regiment counted only one grenadier company of 79 men and one fusilier battalion of 771 men, it was stationed at Borohradek in Bohemia. By March, the regiment was concentrated in Jaromir (present-day Jaroměř/CZ) and now counted 2 battalions and 2 grenadier companies for a total of 1,694 men. The garrison battalion was increased to 6 coys à 140 men.
On April 19, the regiment left Jaromir and marched to the camp of the main army at Gewitsch (present-day Jevíčko/Moravia). In May, the Prussians laid siege to Olmütz. On June 22, a force of some 1,300 men (including a detachment of the present regiment) led by Major-General von Bülow reached the fortress and reinforced the garrison.
On July 2, after the disaster of Domstadl, Frederick II raised the siege of Olmütz and retired to Bohemia, followed by Daun’s Army. The regiment marched through Königgrätz to Reichenberg (present-day Liberec/CZ), where it arrived on August 14, and was deployed in Lacys corps. It then accompanied this corps to Görlitz. There, all grenadier companies were converged to form 9 battalions led by Major-General Siskovics. By the end of September, the regiment, which had remained with the main army, was at Stolpen. From there, FM Daun followed the Prussian army up to Hochkirch. On October 14, at the beginning of the Battle of Hochkirch, one grenadier company and one battalion of the regiment were posted on the Stromberg. The other battalion fought under FML Löwenstein near Weissenberg. In this battle, Lieutenant-Colonel Haslinger was again wounded, and 5 officers and 25 men were taken prisoners of war. Major-General Tillier, the former regiment commander, received the Maria-Theresia-Order for his valour in this battle. Tillier, accompanied by Captain Neugebauer from the regiment, was sent to Moscow by Empress Maria Theresia to coordinate the next campaign with the Russians. The regiment took up its winter-quarters in Reichenberg.
Until the end of February 1759, the regiment remained in its position on the border between Bohemia and Saxony. Lieutenant-Colonel Haslinger had already returned from Prussian prisons in November 1758 but was not usable for field service due to his war injuries. He received command of the third (garrison) battalion. For the whole month of March, the regiment was in Swijan (present-day Svijany/CZ). In April, it marched (all three battalions and the grenadiers) through Lomnitz (present-day Lomnice/CZ) and Chlumetz (present-day Chlumec/CZ) to the camp of the main army at Schurz (present-day Žírec/CZ) where it was allocated with Carl Lothringen Infantry and Harsch Infantry to the brigade of FZM Sincére. At the end of July, the first and second battalions and the grenadiers were sent to GdC Hadik’s corps at Groß-Hennersdorf. On July 27, Hadik effected a junction with Loudon at Pribus and proceeded to Guben. While Loudon was effecting a junction with the Russians, Hadik marched to Müllrose and Fürstenberg, the two battalions of the regiment on his right flank under FML Pálffy. Meanwhile, the third battalion was in FZM Maquire’s Corps who supported the Reichsarmee on its way to Dresden Austro-Imperial campaign in Saxony. On September 9, Maquire reached Dresden while the Prussians retired. The third battalion remained at Dresden. On September 21, the first battalion of the regiment took part in the Combat of Korbitz (aka Combat at Meissen) where it was deployed on the right wing of Hadik's Corps.. Both battalions and the grenadiers then fought until the end of 1759 in GM Brentano’s Corps at Oschatz, Schilderberg and Dommitsch. On November 20-21, the whole regiment distinguished itself in the Battle of Maxen where they were attached to Brentano's Corps initially posted at Röhrsdorf, 5 km north of Maxen. Captain Franz Ludwig Neugebauer, in his function as Daun's adjutant, led the attack of Stampach Cuirassiers, Alt-Modena Cuirassiers and Anhalt-Zerbst Cuirassiers. For his conduct in this battle, he would later receive the Maria-Theresia-Order in the ninth promotion (November 21, 1763). During winter, the first battalion was assigned to the troops forming a cordon near Berenth.
In February 1760, the first battalion was replaced by the second. At the end of June, Hadik was sent again to support to the Reichsarmee, both field battalions and the grenadiers were under the command of FML Guasco. The third battalion still garrisoned Dresden. The Reichsarmee and Hadik’s Corps took position on the left bank of Elbe River, both field battalions supported the garrison of Dresden, besieged by the Prussians since July 14. During the siege, which lasted on Dresden until July 29, the regiment lost 8 men dead and 23 wounded. On August 14, the two field battalions and the grenadiers fought in the combat on the Katzenhäuser. On August 20 1760, the two battalions took part in the Combat of Strehla where they were deployed in the advance guard led by FML Guasco and distinguished themselves once more. At the beginning of October, the town of Wittenberg was besieged and captured. The Prussian garrison (1,000 men) were taken prisoners of war. Frederick II tried to recapture Wittenberg. On October 23, the field battalions of the regiment, two battalions of Salzburg Infantry, and Sachsen-Gotha Chevauxlegers were attacked near Wartenberg. After the unlucky Battle of Torgau, to which the regiment did not take part, the whole regiment spent the winter in camps around Paulsdorf and Seifen and had 1,516 men fit for service.
Already in December 1760, the third (garrison) battalion had been directed to Eger (present-day Cheb/CZ), along with 11 other infantry battalions belonging to FML Guasco’s Corps .
In May 1761, FM Daun concentrated his army near Dippoldiswalde. On May 20, Guasco’s Corps joined the army there. In July, the whole regiment was sent to Dresden, with the corps of FZM Sincère and remained there until October 5. On the next day, the regiment together with Wied Infantry marched again to Dippoldiswalde and camped at Schmiedeberg, Falkenhayn and Ulbersdorf.
In November, the whole regiment went to Gruna where it remained until November 20. On the next day, the first battalion and one grenadier company occupied an outpost at Nossen, while the second and third battalions and the second grenadier company were posted at Siebenlehen. However, the Prussians didn’t move from their positions, and the Imperial army marched to its winter-quarters. The first and second battalions and the grenadiers went to Brand and some other nearby villages, and the third battalion to Freiberg.
In 1762, the Austrian corps supporting the Reichsarmee was led by Field Marshal Serbelloni. The whole regiment was with this corps and was posted near Freiberg. On June 1, Serbelloni attacked the Prussian troops around Freiberg, 28 Prussian officers and 480 men were taken prisoners of war, two guns captured. On July 2, FZM Maquire sent the third battalion and one battalion of Nikolaus Esterházy Infantry to Altenburg. They were later joined by two battalions of Sincère Infantry with four 6-pdr guns and two howitzers. These troops, under the command of FML Plunquet, marched to Teplitz (present-day Teplice/CZ). On July 18, a superior Prussian force attacked Plunquet’s detachment. The battalion of Pallavicini Infantry lost 4 men dead, 150 wounded and 71 missing and returned to Altenburg. On July 24, the first and second battalions and one grenadier company of the regiment arrived at Altenburg. FML Campitelli assumed command there. On August 2, the third battalion of the regiment was at the Combat of Teplitz. Together with one bat. of Nikolaus Esterházy Infantry, it managed to occupy the hill above the village Kradrob before the Prussians and defended it against a superior force. The battalion (575 men) distinguished itself there but lost 2 men dead, 3 wounded and 6 missing. The Prussians lost a total of 5 officers and 1,230 men.
The last combats of the Seven Years’ War in which the regiment took part was fought between October 13 and 17 on the Katzenhäuser. On November 29, the regiment marched to Dresden with Wied Infantry and spent the winter around this town.
In April 1763, the regiment was stationed in Chrudim/CZ and reduced to 2,072 men (including 997 young recruits).
For the moment we have very few information on the uniform in 1756, at the outbreak of the war. Most of our references describe the uniform in 1762. However, Muhsfeldt mentions that, in 1756-57, the coat was white lined white (therefore white turnbacks), the distinctive colour was blue and the waistcoat and breeches were white.
|Neck stock||one red and one black (for parades the regimental commanders agreed before on the colour of the neckstocks)|
|Coat||white lined white with 3 yellow buttons under the right lapel and 1 yellow button in the small of the back on each side
|Waistcoat||white with 2 rows of small yellow buttons (3-3-3) and with horizontal pockets, each with 3 yellow buttons|
|Gaiters||one pair of black (for winter) and one pair of white gaiters (for summer and parade)|
Troopers were armed with a musket (Model 1745 for fusiliers, Model 1754 for grenadiers). Grenadiers carried a sabre while fusiliers carried only a bayonet.
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The officers wore the same uniform as the privates with the following exceptions:
- tricorne laced gold bordered with white plume; a white and green cockade
- black neckstock
- no turnbacks
- yellow and black silk sash
Senior officers carried sticks identifying their rank:
- lieutenant: bamboo stick without knob
- captain: long rush stick with a bone knob
- major: long rush stick with a silver knob and a small silver chain
- lieutenant-colonel: long rush stick with a larger silver knob without chain
- colonel: long rush stick with a golden knob
Sergeants carried a halberd and a wooden stick.
Corporals carried a halberd.
Until 1760, despite the new regulation of 1755, the musicians probably wore coats of reversed colours with white swallow nests and white turnbacks. From 1760, they wore uniforms identical to those of the privates with poppy red swallow nests on the shoulders.
The drum had a brass barrel decorated with black flames at the bottom and with a black double headed Eagle on a yellow field. Rims were decorated with red and white diagonal stripes. The bandolier was white.
All German infantry regiments carried identical colours: a white Leibfahne (colonel) and yellow Regimentsfahne. The hand painted colours were made of silk and measured Size 178 cm x 127 cm. The 260 cm long flagpoles had golden finial and were decorated with black and yellow spirals of cloth.
The colonel colour was carried by the first battalion.
Colonel flag (Leibfahne):
- field: white
- border: alternating white and yellow outer waved triangles pointing inwards, red and black inner waved triangles pointing outwards
- obverse (right): the Immaculate Mother of God (which had been declared the patroness of the army by kaiser Ferdinand III) on a cloud, crushing a snake under her foot and surrounded by rays
- reverse (left): crowned and armed Imperial double-eagle with the "Lothringen-Toscanian" arms on a shield and the initials of the Emperor CF (Corregens Franciscus) on the left wing and IM (Imperator Magnus) on the right
Regimental flags (Regimentsfahne):
- field: yellow
- border: alternating white and yellow outer waved triangles pointing inwards, red and black inner waved triangles pointing outwards
- obverse (right): crowned and armed Imperial double-eagle with the "Lothringen-Toscanian" arms on a shield and the initials of the Emperor CF (Corregens Franciscus) on the left wing and IM (Imperator Magnus) on the right
- reverse (left): unarmed and crowned Imperial double-eagle with the arms of Hungaria and Bohemia on a shield and the initials M on the left wing and T on the right
In fact, the situation on the field was slightly more complex than this, since colours were usually replaced only when worn out. It is fairly possible that some regiment who had been issued colours of the 1743 pattern were still carrying them at the beginning of the Seven Years' War. For more details, see Austrian Line Infantry Colours.
This article contains texts from the following sources, which are now in the public domain:
- Rona, L.: Geschichte des K.U.K. Infanterie-Regimentes Adolf Grossherzog von Luxemburg, Herzog zu Nassau Nr. 15, Prague, 1901
- Seyfart, Kurzgefaßte Geschichte aller kaiserlich-königlichen Regimenter zu Pferde und zu Fuß, Frankfurth and Leipzig, 1762, p. 22
Dihm, Dr. Hermann; Oesterreichische Standarten und Fahnen zur Zeit des 7 jährigen Krieges, Die Zinnfigur, Klio
Donath, Rudolf; Die Kaiserliche und Kaiserlich-Königliche Österreichische Armee 1618-1918, 2. Aufl., Simbach/Inn 1979
Etat nouveau des Troupes de sa Majesté Impériale Royale comme elles se trouvent effectivement l'an 1759
Etat général des Troupes qui servent sa Majesté Impériale et Royale Apostolique sur pié en 1760
Funcken, Liliane and Fred, Les uniformes de la guerre en dentelle
Gräffer, August: Geschichte der kaiserl. Königl. Regimenter, Corps, Bataillons und anderer Militär-Branchen seit ihrer Errichtung biz zu Ende des Feldzuges 1799, Vol. 1, Vienna, 1804, pp. 62-66
Hausmann, Friedrich, Die Feldzeichen der Truppen Maria Theresias, Schriften des Heeresgeschichtlichen Museums, vol. 3, Vienna: 1967
Knötel, Herbert d.J.; Brauer, Hans M.: Heer und Tradition / Heeres-Uniformbogen (so-called “Brauer-Bogen”), Berlin 1926-1962, Österreich-Ungarn – 1756-63
Muhsfeldt, Th.; Abzeichenfarben der K. und K. Regimenter zu Fuss im Jahre 1757 und früher, in Mitteilungen zur Geschichte des militärischen Tracht, No. 12, 1904
Schirmer, Friedrich, Die Heere der kriegführenden Staaten 1756-1763, hrsg. von der KLIO-Landesgruppe Baden-Württemberg, überarb. u. aktual. Neuauflage 1989
Seidel, Paul; Nochmals österreichische Standarten und Fahnen zur Zeit des 7 jährigen Krieges, Die Zinnfigur, Clio
Seyfart, Kurzgefaßte Geschichte aller kaiserlich-königlichen Regimenter zu Pferde und zu Fuß, Frankfurth and Leipzig, 1762, p. 22
Thümmler, L.-H., Die Österreichiches Armee im Siebenjährigen Krieg: Die Bautzener Bilderhandschrift aus dem Jahre 1762, Berlin 1993
N.B.: the section Service during the War is mostly derived from our articles depicting the various campaigns, battles and sieges.
Harald Skala for the translation and integration of Rona’s book into the present article
Michael Zahn for additional information about this regiment