Prinz von Anhalt Infantry
Origin and History
This Hesse-Kassel regiment was raised in 1745 by Pprince Carl Leopold von Anhalt-Bernburg.
During the Seven Years' War, the successive Chefs of the regiment were:
- since 1745 until 1770: Prince Carl Leopold von Anhalt-Bernburg
During the Seven Years' War, the successive Kommandeure assuming effective command of the regiment were:
- since 1749: Colonel von Toll
- from 1757: Colonel Kleinschmidt
- from 1759: Colonel Müller
- from 1760 to 1765: Colonel von Wilcke
During the War of the American Independence, the regiment was sent to North America in 1776 where it served with the British Army against the insurgents.
In 1789 the regiment was amalgamated with Infanterie Regiment No. 12.
Service during the War
On May 20 1757, during the French invasion of Hanover, the regiment occupied Paderborn. On July 24, it took part in the combat of Lafferde. Two days later, on July 26, it was at the Battle of Hastenbeck where it fought in the first line of the centre.
On May 26 1758, the regiment was with the corps of the Prince von Anhalt in the camp of Coesfeld. On May 31, this corps accompanied Ferdinand of Brunswick in his offensive on the west bank of the Rhine. On June 2, it crossed the Rhine at Emmerich. On June 12, it was at the encounter of Rheinberg. On June 23, it fought at the Battle of Krefeld where it was deployed on the left wing under the command of Lieutenant-General von Spörcken.
During the first half of 1759, the regiment formed part of the Allied army of Ferdinand of Brunswick. It was attached to May's Brigade in the second line of the infantry centre. On April 12, it took part in the combat of Windecken. The following day, on April 13, it fought at the Battle of Bergen where it formed part of the first column under the command of the Hereditary Prince of Brunswick. The regiment, along with the Brunswicker Behr Infantry and Imhoff Infantry supported by 7 squadrons of British cavalry and 2 squadrons of the Prussian Ruesch Hussars, advanced in support of the left flank attack on Bergen. In mid June, the regiment was part of Wutginau's Corps which had taken position at Büren in Westphalia. On August 1, it took part in the victorious Battle of Minden where it was deployed in the second line of the 6th column under Major-General von Bischausen.
On July 10 1760, the regiment was part of the Prince von Anhalt's Reserve at the Combat of Corbach. This reserve did not take part in the engagement.
On March 6 1761, the regiment took part in the combats of Florstadt and Wickstadt. On July 2, it was present in the advanced post action at Unna. On July 15 and 16, it fought in the Battle of Vellinghausen.
Hessian troops wore a uniform in the Prussian style including the grenadier and fusilier helm. Until 1750 the trousers were dark blue. The stock was red for the other ranks and white for officers.
|Neck stock||red in 1756, black in 1761|
|Coat||dark blue with 1 white button on each side at the small of the back and 3 white buttons under the left lapel
|Gaiters||white in summer; black otherwise|
Troopers were armed with a sword (brass hilt) and a musket carried using a leather strap.
Richard Knötel illustrate the 1756 uniform with white buttonholes on the pockets, lapels and coat.
Officers wore a white stock and, as a sign of their commissioned rank, a gorget, in button colour, and sash. The sash was of silver silk shot with red flecks. NCO's carried the Prussian style partizan. The standard staff was black.
By the Seven Years War the convention of wearing reversed colours had disappeared. Drummers now wore the same dark blue coat with white and red livery lace placed along the coat seams in seven inverted chevrons along the sleeves and around the 'swallows nests' on the shoulder. Very much a copy of the Prussian style.
Drum barrels were of polished brass and were decorated with the Hessian lion surrounded by a laurel wreath with a crown above. The Hessian lion was striped red and white with a red tongue on a royal blue background. The drum cords were white and, for this regiment, the rim was a pattern of alternating red and white diagonal stripes.
To the present day, a definitive reconstruction of the Hesse-Cassel colours during the Seven Years' War is non-existent. All existing publications are mostly speculative. The Leib (colonel) colour was probably white and the regimental colour assumed blue.
Here follows a tentative reconstruction of these colours used till 1767 (black flag poles).
Bleckwenn, Hans: Europa kämpft in Flandern... Die Morier-Bilder in Windsor Castle, Teil IV: Hessen-Kassel 1748, in: Zeitschrift für Heereskunde, XXX Jg. (1960), Nr. 207, S. 122-125 and Nr. 208, S. 166-168
Böhm, Uwe Peter: Hessisches Militär: Die Truppen der Landgrafschaft Hessen-Kassel 1672-1806, Herausgegeben im Auftrag der Deutschen Gesellschaft für Heereskunde e.V., Beckum 1986
Großer Generalstab, Kriegsgeschichtliche Abteilung II (Publisher). Die Kriege Friedrichs des Großen. Dritter Teil: Der Siebenjährige Krieg 1756–1763. Band 5 Hastenbeck und Roßbach, Berlin 1903
Henry, Mark: Hessian Army of the 7 Years War, Seven Years War Association Journal Vol. VII No. 3
Manley, S.: Uniforms of the Danish and German States armies 1739-1748, Potsdam Publications
Mohr, Kurt: Einiges über die Hessen-Kasselsche Infanterie 1760, in: Artikel für KA7-Sammler aus alten "Zinnfigur" Heften (1924-1944), KLIO-Arbeitsgruppe 7jähriger Krieg, Manuskript, Köln 1980, S. 106-107
Mulder, Luke: Some Notes on Landgraf Friedrich II of Hessen-Kassel Re-Organization of 1760, Seven Years War Association Journal Vol. XI No. 2
Noeske, Rolf: Die Heere der kriegführenden Staaten 1756-1763, 1. Ergänzung Hessen-Kassel, KLIO-Landesgruppe Baden-Württemberg e.V., Magstadt 1989
Ortenburg, Georg: Das Militär der Landgrafschaft Hessen-Kassel zwischen 1783 und 1789, Herausgegeben im Auftrag der Deutschen Gesellschaft für Heereskunde e.V., Potsdam 1999
Pengel & Hurt: German States in the Seven Years War 1740 to 1762, Imperial Press
Renouard, Carl: "Geschichte des Krieges in Hannover, Hessen und Westfalen von 1757 bis 1763", 3 Bände, Cassel, 1863-64
Rogge, Christian: The French & Allied Armies in Germany during the Seven Years War, Frankfurt, 2006
Schirmer, Friedrich: Die Heere der kriegführenden Staaten 1756 - 1763. KLIO-Landesgruppe Baden-Württemberg e.V., Magstadt, 1989
Schirmer, Friedrich: Die Infanterie des Landgrafentums Hessen-Kassel während des Siebenjährigen Krieges, in: Artikel für KA7-Sammler aus alten "Zinnfigur" Heften (1924-1944), KLIO-Arbeitsgruppe 7jähriger Krieg, Manuskript, Köln 1980, S. 104-106
Witzel, Rudolf: Hessen Kassels Regimenter in der Allierten Armee 1762, bearb. u. hrsg. von Ingo Kroll, Norderstedt 2007
Zahn, Michael: Stammliste und Gefechtskalender der Regimenter der Landgrafschaft Hessen-Kassel im Siebenjährigen Krieg (1756-1763) - Teil 1: Infanterie, Metzingen, 2009
N.B.: the section Service during the War is mostly derived from our articles depicting the various campaigns, battles and sieges.