Prussian Garrison Regiment XI
Origin and History
From 1753 to 1756, the regiment garrisoned the towns of Heiligenbeil, Kreuzburg in Prussia, Zinten and Dommau; while its grenadiers garrisoned Königsberg.
On July 27 1756, Frederick II ordered to increase the regiment to 4 battalions. The 2 new battalions had no grenadier companies. These new battalions where then assigned to garrison duty in Liebstadt, Preussiche Holland and Heiligenbeil.
During the Seven Years' War, the regiment was under the command of:
- since September 6 1748: Franz Christoph von Manteuffel
- from February 5 1760 to March 26 1769: Henning Christian von Mellin
After the war, the regiment retained three battalions and garrisoned the places of Heiligenbeil (6 coys), Kreuzburg (3 coys), Zinten (3 coys) and Preußisch-Eylau (3 coys).
Service during the War
In 1757, the regiment was part of Lehwaldt's Army assigned to the defence of East Prussia against a Russian invasion. On August 30, at the Battle of Gross-Jägersdorf, it was deployed in the second line of the infantry left wing under General Kalnein. The regiment suffered heavy casualties during this battle. At the end of December, the regiment was ordered to join the Prussian Army of Silesia.
In April 1758, the regiment took part in the siege of Schweidnitz. After the capture of the place, it formed part of its garrison.
In 1760, the regiment was attached to Fouqué's Corps operating in Upper Silesia. It second and third battalions formed part of Zieten's detachment while the first battalion occupied Neisse. The fourth battalion remained with Fouqué's main body and, on June 23, fought at the battle of Landeshut where it was deployed on the Buchberg on the left wing under Colonel von Rosen. It was taken prisoners during this engagement and never re-established. Zieten then retired to Schweidnitz. At the end of August, the second and third battalions joined the first at Neisse where they remained as garrison till the end of the war.
N.B.: During the war the grenadiers from the 2 wing grenadier company were put together with the grenadiers of Garrison Regiment I, forming the Standing Grenadier Battalion Nr. IV Lossau (please refer to this article for the details of the service of the grenadiers during the war).
As was the case for most garrison regiments, the musketeers and grenadiers of this regiment wore different uniforms. The present article describes the uniform of the musketeers. For the uniform of the grenadiers, please refer to the article dedicated to the Standing Grenadier Battalion Nr. IV Lossau.
|Coat||Prussian blue lined red with 6 pewter buttons on both sides on the chest, 2 pewter buttons at the waist on the right side and 3 pewter buttons on each side to fasten the skirts forming the turnbacks
Privates were armed with a short musket and a bayonet.
NCOs wore uniforms similar to those of the privates with the following distinctions:
- tricorne with wide silver lace and a black and white pompom
- silver laced cuffs
- no shoulder strap
- yellowish leather gloves
- black and white sabre tassel
NCOs were armed with a sabre and a white light half-pike measuring 7,5 Rhenish feet (2.37 m.).
NCOs also carried wooden canes (normally attached to a button at the top of the right front while carrying the half-pike).
Uniforms of officers were very similar to those of the privates with the following exceptions:
- black tricorne with a thin silver lace with 2 black and white tassels, 1 in each lateral corne of the tricorne (officers always wore tricornes notwithstanding if they were commanding musketeers, fusiliers or grenadiers)
- black neck stock
- no shoulder strap on the coat
- no turnbacks on the coat
- no trimming on the coat
- black and silver sash around the waist
- a silver and gold gorget
Officers carried white spontoons measuring 7 ½ Rhenish feet (2.36 m.) and an officer stick.
Drummers wore uniforms similar to those of privates but were distinguished by white swallow nests at the shoulders.
Drummers carried a side-arm.
The drum pattern had ???.
Colonel flag (Leibfahne): White field. Centre device consisting of a silver “FR” monogram surrounded by silver palm leaves and surmounted by a silver crown. Grenades in silver.
Regimental flags (Kompaniefahnen): Crimson field. Centre device consisting of a silver “FR” monogram surrounded by silver palm leaves and surmounted by a silver crown. Grenades in silver.
N.B. the reverses of all colours were mirror images of the obverses
Bleckwenn, Hans: Die friderizianischen Uniformen 1756-1783, Bd. II., Infanterie II, Osnabrück 1984
Duffy, Christopher: Friedrich der Große und seine Armee, Stuttgart, 2. Auflage 1983
Engelmann, Joachim and Günter Dorn: Die Infanterie-Regimenter Friedrich des Grossen, Podzun-Pallas, 2000, pp. 146-147
Grosser Generalstab Kriegsgeschichtliche Abteilung II: Die Kriege Friedrichs des Grossen, Part 3 Der siebenjährige Krieg 1756-1763, Vol. 1 Pirna und Lobositz, Berlin, 1901, App. 1
Guddat, Martin: Die Infanterie Friedrichs des Großen, Herford 1986
Haythornthwaite, Philip: Frederick the Great (2), Men-at Arms-Series No. 240, Osprey
Hohrath, Daniel: The Uniforms of the Prussian Army under Frederick the Great from 1740 to 1786; Vol. 2; Verlag Militaria, Vienna: 2011, pp. 446-451
Horvath, Carl Christian: Friedrichs II. König von Preussen Armee-Montirungen, Potsdam 1789. Vierte Sammlung
Merta, Klaus-Peter: Das Heerwesen in Brandenburg und Preußen von 1640 bis 1806 - Die Uniformierung, Berlin 1991
Martina Hager for the initial version of this article.
N.B.: the section Service during the War is mostly derived from our articles depicting the various campaigns, battles and sieges.