Russian Horse Grenadiers Organisation
Horse grenadiers regiments had disappeared from the Russian army since 1726. They were re-introduced in 1756 when the Russian cavalry was reorganised. At this occasion, six former dragoon regiments were converted into horse grenadier units.
Of these 6 horse grenadier regiments, 5 took an active part to the Seven Years' War. In 1757 and 1758, most of them could field only 4 squadrons. By 1759, the 5th squadron was designated as a reserve squadron.
Composition and Organisation
A horse grenadier regiment totalled some 1,000 men and consisted of:
- 1 colonel
- 1 lieutenant-colonel
- 2 majors
- 1 quartermaster
- 1 warrant officer
- 2 commissaries
- 1 chief of train
- 1 chaplain
- 1 doctor
- 1 assistant doctor
- 3 clerks
- 2 provision clerks
- 2 trumpeters
- 8 oboists
- 1 kettle-drummer
- 2 provosts
- 5 squadrons, each of:
- 2 companies, each of :
- 1 captain
- 1 first lieutenant
- 1 second lieutenant
- 6 NCOs
- 2 drummers
- 69 horse grenadiers
- 2 companies, each of :
- other troops
- 30 workers
- 96 various troops (coachmen, horse keepers...)
The companies were grouped into squadrons as follows:
- 1st squadron: 1st company and 6th company
- 2nd squadron: 2nd company and 7th company
- 3rd squadron: 3rd company and 8th company
- 4th squadron: 4th company and 9th company
- 5th squadron: 5th company and 10th company
For combat, the best troopers of each squadron were combined into a Reserve half squadron. The role of this latter squadron was to protect the flanks and rear of the line.
The regulation stated that each regiment of horse grenadiers had a regimental artillery consisting of:
- 2 x 3-pdr cannon (each with 2 small 6-pdrs mortars affixed to its carriage)
These pieces were served by 6 gunners, 4 fusiliers and 6 wagoners from the Russian artillery. Furthermore, the regiment was accompanied by 4 two-horses artillery ammunition wagon and 6 two-horses cartridge ammunition wagons and an additional two-horses wagon transporting grenades.
In the field, a regiment rarely had more than 1 piece.
From 1758, the guns were gradually replaced by 8-pdr unicorns.
The train of a horse grenadier regiment counted between 60 and 70 wagons.
Großer Generalstab, Kriegsgeschichtliche Abteilung II (Publisher). Die Kriege Friedrichs des Großen, Part 3: Der Siebenjährige Krieg 1756–1763. Vol. 4 Groß-Jägersdorf und Breslau, Berlin 1902
- chapter A: Das Kaiserlich Russiche Heer, page 1-46
- appendix: supplement 1, Das Kaiserlich Russiche Heer, page 3-18
Konstam, Angus, and Bill Younghusband, Russian Army of the Seven Years War, Vol. 2, Osprey Men at Arms Series, No. 297, 1996
Schirmer, Friedrich, Die Heere der kriegführenden Staaten 1756-1763, published by the KLIO-Landesgruppe Baden-Württemberg, Neuauflage 1989, pp. 54-55
Ziegler, Volker: Die Russische Kavallerie zur Zeit des 7-jährigen Krieges (1756-1763), in: Jahrbuch der Gesellschaft für hessische Militär- und Zivilgeschichte, vol. 4, 2007, pp. 62-80
Zweguintzov, L'Armee Russe, 1973