Origin and History
For the War of Polish Succession (1733-35, Emperor Charles VI authorize the creation of some new regiments. One of them was the present regiment. Nikolaus Leopold Rheingraf von Salm received the necessary decree on November 4, 1733. The regiment should consist of 2,300 men organized in 12 fusilier companies and 2 grenadier companies. The recruits should be enlisted in the Hereditary Lands (Erbländer). It was prohibited to raise men from Hungary, Poland, Switzerland, Italy and France. The regiment should be completed within 5 months. It was first reviewed in Linz and Prague. In April 1734, it came to Freiburg and Breisach where it remained until June 1738.
In 1738, one battalion and both grenadier companies (800 men in total) were sent against the Turks. In June, they arrived at Belgrade and were attached to the corps of FZM Neipperg. In 1739, the second battalion was also sent to Hungary to guard the Austrian-Hungarian border.
In 1740, at the outbreak of the War of the Austrian Succession (1740-48), the whole regiment was concentrated in the Austrian Netherlands where it remained until 1743. In March 1743, one battalion and the grenadiers marched to the Rhine River to join the Allied army. On June 27, they took part in the Battle of Dettingen where they were deployed the the corps of FM Duke Arenberg. In October, the whole regiment (3 battalions and 2 grenadier companies) took up its winter-quarters in the Province of Luxembourg. By the end of 1744, the whole regiment garrisoned Ath. On January 1, 1745, one battalion and the grenadiers marched to Jülich as part of the Duke Arenberg’s Corps and joined the Allied army. By June, this army was in Hesse around Saalmünster and Herborn. In March 1746, these troops, now led by General Grünne, returned to the Austrian Netherlands to support the Allies fighting against the French. During winter, the whole regiment was quartered in Luxembourg again. At the end of April 1747, one battalion and the grenadiers joined the Allied army led by the Duke of Cumberland. On July 2, they took part in the Battle of Lauffeld.
From 1748 to 1757, the regiment garrisoned Luxembourg.
As per the Etat nouveau des Troupes de sa Majesté Impériale Royale comme elles se trouvent effectivement l'an 1759 and Etat général des Troupes qui servent sa Majesté Impériale et Royale Apostolique sur pié en 1760, the regiment counted 4 battalions (2 grenadier coys and 16 fusilier coys) for a total of 2,300 men. This was the administrative organisation of the regiment. However, the tactical organisation differed: 2 field fusilier battalions, each of 6 companies; 2 grenadier companies (usually converged with grenadiers from other battalions into an ad hoc unit); and 1 garrison battalion of 4 companies (see Austrian Line Infantry Organisation for more details).
During the Seven Years' War, the chef of the regiment was:
- from November 4, 1733 till his death on February 5, 1770: Nikolaus Leopold Rheingraf von Salm
During the Seven Years' War, its successive colonel-commanders were:
- from 1752: Adam Ferdinand Baron Krammer von Oberbeck (promoted to general in 1758)
- from 1758: Christof Friedrich Baron von Bettendorf (died at the end of 1761)
- from January 1762: Maximilian August Zorn von Plombsheim (aka “Blovsheim”, from the artillery, promoted to general in 1771)
- Note: from 1758, Maximilian Prince zu Salm-Salm was colonel in second of the regiment.
Regimental numbers were introduced only in 1769 when this regiment was designated as "I.R. 14".
Service during the War
At the beginning of September 1756, the regiment received the order to march with two reinforced battalions and two grenadier companies to Bohemia. Two “field battalions” (each of 6 companies) were formed from the three original battalions while the garrison battalion (originally 4th Battalion consisting of 4 companies) remained in Luxembourg.
In January 1757, the two field battalions and the grenadiers, led by Major-General Count d´Arberg, arrived Bohemia. They spent the winter around Bechinie (present-day Bechyně/CZ). The same year, the regiment received a new uniform with black lapels and cuffs.
The regiment was initially allocated to the corps under the command of G.d.C. Count Serbelloni near Königgrätz (present-day Hradec Králové/CZ). On May 7, , during the Prussian invasion of Bohemia and after the defeat of an Austrian army in the Battle of Prague, the regiment joined FM Leopold Daun’s Army at the camp at Böhmisch Brod (present-day Český Brod/CZ) where it received some new recruits from Styria and Carinthia. On June 18, these two battalions and the grenadiers took part in the Battle of Kolin. They were part of Reichlin’s Brigade in Wied's Division in the corps of Count Colloredo held in reserve behind the centre. Wied's Division was moved to the right to plug a gap in the Austrian positions near the Krzeczhorz Height. This area of the line of battle was repeatedly assaulted by Hülsen with the Prussian vanguard. Finally, at the end of the afternoon, Salm regiment retired from its position in great disorder. During this battle, the regiment was led by Major Prince Maximilian Salm-Salm, while its colonel and lieutenant-colonel were absent (detached). Prince Salm-Salm received three wounds and lost his horse during the combats. His soldiers finally had to carry him unconscious to a surgeon (for his valour Prince Salm-Salm would receive the Knight Cross of the Maria-Theresia-Order in the third promotion on December 4, 1758). In this battle, the regiment lost 4 officers and 56 men killed; and 17 officers and 376 men wounded. Not a single man was taken prisoner of war! After the battle, the regiment who had heavily suffered, was reorganized in only one fusilier battalion and two grenadier companies. The battalion and the grenadiers were then deployed in the advance guard of FML Count Maquire. On July 14, they reached Gabel (present-day Jablonné v Podještědí/CZ). The next day, they took part in the storming of Gabel, losing 55 men killed; and 1 officer and 11 men wounded. The regiment was also present at the siege of Zittau on July 22 and 23.
Soon afterwards, the regiment was brought back to full strength with new recruits, forming two fusilier battalions as before.
On September 7, when General Nádasdy attacked the isolated corps of Winterfeldt in the Combat of Moys, the first battalion of the regiment was deployed in the second line and the second battalion in the third line of the infantry right division under the command of Lieutenant-General Wied. The regiment distinguished itself in this combat: Colonel Franz Krammer von Obereck attacked with 5 grenadier companies a Prussian battery and captured the guns (for his valour Krammer would receive the Knight Cross of the Maria-Theresia-Order in the third promotion of this military order on December 4, 1758).
The regiment was then allocated to the corps of FZM Baron Marschall and remained at Lauban (present-day Luban/PL) until September 30 . Due to the high losses suffered by its grenadiers in previous combats, the regiment could now field only a single grenadier company. On November 18, FZM Baron Marschall moved with his corps from Bautzen through Löbau - Niemes (present-day Mimoň/CZ) to Welwarn (present-day Velvary/CZ) where he remained until the end of December.
In 1758, the regiment was reorganized in 18 companies of 140 men each. These companies formed three battalions: two field battalions and one garrison battalion (now with 6 companies). The garrisoned battalion was stationed in Bruxelles.
On January 6, the two field battalions and the grenadiers went to Niemes and Wartenberg (present-day Vartenberk/CZ) where they remained until the end of February. FZM Marschall, who took the command in Olmütz, was replaced by FML Sincère. After a short skirmish near Zittau on April 26, the regiment came to Gabel. At the end of April, the regiment was deployed in FML Maquire’s Division around Zittau. Afterwards, the regiment joined the main army. On August 11, it was in the army camp near Kulm (present-day Chlum/CZ). On August 14, the grenadiers, converged into a grenadier battalion led by Major-General Count Guasco, attacked Tetschen (present-day Děčín/CZ), the Colonel in second Prince Salm-Salm occupied the castle with his grenadiers. The grenadier battalion later returned to the main army which, on August 27, went to Pirna.
On September 5, when the Prussian garrison of the Fortress of Sonnenstein and Pirna surrendered, Prince Maximilian Salm-Salm got the honour to bring the captured Prussian colours to Vienna.
At the beginning of November, the regiment – now under FZM Landgraf von Fürstenberg – marched to Frauenstein and, on November 7, joined the main army at Freiberg.
On November 24, the Austrian army reached its winter-quarters near Zwickau. The first battalion and one grenadier company were quartered at Schermding; and the second battalion and the second grenadier company, in Muckberg. The third – garrison – battalion remained the whole year at Bruxelles.
For the campaign of 1759, the regiment was attached to the Reichsarmee under the command of the Duke Zweibrücken and marched to the region of Bayreuth. On March 26, a Prussian detachment tried to cut the line of communication of the garrison of Saalfeld (4 battalions, including two of the present regiment) with the main army. All four battalions left the city in good order and retired through Gräfental to Asch (present-day Aš/CZ).
In May, the regiment was part of Macquire's force who fought to contain a Prussian incursion in Franconia. On May 7, this force was attacked by Prince Henri near Oelsnitz and forced to retire by Asch (actual Aš) to Hasslau (present-day Hazlov/CZ) to Eger (Cheb/CZ). The regiment suffered heavy losses in the combat and its commander, Maximilian Salm-Salm, was taken prisoner.
The regiment, still in Maquire’s Corps, marched through Frankenhammer – Arberg and, on May 16, effected a junction with the Reichsarmee at Nuremberg. On June 4, most of the Imperial army supporting the Reichsarmee was reallocated to FM Daun’s Army at Elbogen (present-day Loket/CZ) in Bohemia.
On June 16, the regiment was part of FML Maquire’s troops in Leitmeritz (present-day Litoměřice/CZ), forming the main body of FML Hadik’s Corps in Gabel (present-day Jablonné v Podještědí). On July 24, the whole corps assembled in Löbau. On July 29, Hadik arrived at Priebus (present-day Przewóz/PL) where he effected a junction with Loudon’s Corps. On July 31, the two corps marched to Pforten. The same night, Loudon reached Frankfurt a. d. Oder while Hadik remained at Guben. Frederick II then marched with superior forces on Guben. On the morning of August 12, Hadik retired and marched to Forst in Lower Lusatia. After the Prussian debacle the same day at Kunersdorf, Hadik returned to Guben. On August 16, he proceeded to Müllrose and marched through Mochow, Peitz, Spremberg and Hoyersdwerda, to Königsbruck where he arrived on September 8. The next day, Hadik’s Corps marched to Dresden where it effected a junction with the Reichsarmee. The regiment was then allocated to the garrison of Dresden.
In 1760, the regiment (two field battalions and the grenadiers) left Dresden and, on May 24, arrived at Königgrätz (Hradec Králové/CZ) where it was allocated to Loudon’s Corps (the field battalions in Major-General Callenberg’s Brigade; the grenadiers, in the grenadier division of FML Baron Müffling). The third battalion left Bruxelles and marched to Königgrätz.
At the end of May, the regiment was allocated to Major-General Naselli’s troops (two battalions Salm, one squadron Löwenstein Dragoons and the – weak - brigades of Major-General Jahnus and Major-General Nosy) to reconnoitre the Fortress of Glatz (present-day Klodsko/PL). On June 23, the grenadiers of the regiment took part in the Battle of Landeshut where they lost 6 dead and 20 wounded.
On July 26, after a short siege, the troops – now under FML Drašković’s command – attacked Glatz which surrendered. The siege troops then marched towards Breslau where they arrived on July 31.
Both fusilier battalions remained at Striegau, the grenadiers were allocated to Loudon’s Corps which marched through Jauer and Kroitsch (present-day Krotoszyce/PL) and camped near Seichau (present-day Sichów/PL), near the Prussian camp. On August 15, the regiment was not involved in the Battle of Liegnitz. In September, it was deployed in FML Baron Wolffersdorf’s Corps near Kunzendorf (present-day Niedamirów, part of Lubawka/PL). In November, the third battalion joined the two field battalions. At the beginning of December, the first battalion was transferred to FML Guasco’s Corps near Eger (present-day Cheb/CZ); the other two battalions and the grenadiers to FZM Maquire’s Corps near Dippoldiswalde.
In 1761, the first battalion, still part of Guasco’s Corps, marched with De Ville Cuirassiers under command of Colonel Count Millesimo from Eger through Asch and Schleitz to the border between Bohemia and Saxony where they joined Roth Würzburg Infantry. The two other fusilier battalions of the regiment and its grenadiers remained at Dippoldiswalde.
On May 10, the whole regiment (3 fusilier bat. and the grenadiers) was once more reunited in FML Hadik’s Corps near Dippoldiswalde. In August, one battalion garrisoned. In September, the whole regiment was concentrated in Dippoldiswalde again.
At the beginning of October, one battalion was deployed in Major-General Zedtwitz detachment at Frauenstein.
On December 6, the whole regiment was allocated to General Renard’s Corps posted near Zschopau.
On January 12, 1762, one battalion was transferred to Major-General Zedtwitz’s forces at Gehringswalde. The grenadiers joined FML Campitelli,s troops. Meanwhile, Major General Duke Sulkowsky with the two other battalions of the regiment and Thürheim Infantry got the order to defend Pening on the Zwickauer Mulde River.
On January 23, FML Campitelli occupied Altenburg, Kohren, Frohburg and Borna, Major-General Duke Sulkowsky with 5 battalions (including one from “Salm”) and some cavalry drove the Prussians out of Pegau. Since January 28, the third battalion of the regiment was garrisoning Chemnitz to defend the big magazines there.
On March 27, two battalions and the grenadiers were sent also to the Altenburg region, while the battalion garrisoning Gehringswalde marched to Mittweida.
In the following months, the fusilier battalions and the grenadiers were successively allocated to several corps or detachments and marched back and forth in Saxony and northern Bohemia without seeing any action. On October 15, two fusilier battalions took part in a skirmish with the Prussians at Brand where the first battalion together with Mainz Infantry particularly distinguished itself and stormed one of the Prussian redoubts. On October 29, the same two bat. and the grenadiers, as part of G.d.C. Stolberg’s Reichsarmee took part in the Battle of Freiberg. Colonel Zorn von Blovsheim led three grenadier companies during the attack of the “Spittelwald”. Both fusilier battalions also took part in this combat, the second battalion covered the retreat of the army after the defeat. In this battle, the grenadiers lost 54 men killed; and 1 officer and 10 men wounded. The fusiliers lost only 2 men. However, 2 officers and 57 men were taken prisoners of war; and 32 men went missing.
On November 12, Stolberg’s Reichsarmee marched to Teplitz (present-day Teplice/CZ), the two field battalions and the grenadiers remained with FML Campitelli’s Corps at Altenberg.
During the whole year, the third battalion had garrisoned Zittau.
At the beginning of 1763, the whole regiment (three battalions and the grenadiers) assembled at Bayreuth, Golderonach (aka Goldkronach) and Berneck. In February, it was directed to the Austrian Netherlands. It arrived at Roermond at the end of March. The staff, ten fusilier companies and both grenadier companies garrisoned Antwerp where FM Nikolaus Leopold Duke Salm, the proprietor of the regiment, was appointed governor; the other fusiliers garrisoned Termonde (aka Dendermonde).
In 1749, the regiment received a new uniform with violet waistcoat, lapels and cuffs. In 1757, the distinctive colour of the regiment was changed from violet to black.
For the moment we have very few information on the uniform in 1756, at the outbreak of the war. Most of our references describe the uniform in 1762. However, Muhsfeldt and Schirmer mention that, in 1756-57, the coat was white lined white (therefore white turnbacks), and the waistcoat and breeches were white.
|Neckstock||one red and one black (for parades the regimental commanders agreed before on the colour of the neckstocks)|
|Coat||white lined white with 3 yellow buttons under the right lapel and 1 yellow button in the small of the back on each side
|Waistcoat||white with 2 rows of small yellow buttons (3-3-3) and with horizontal pockets, each with 3 yellow buttons|
|Gaiters||one pair of black (for winter) and one pair of white gaiters (for summer and parade)|
Troopers were armed with a musket (Model 1745 for fusiliers, Model 1754 for grenadiers). Grenadiers carried a sabre while fusiliers carried only a bayonet.
Knötel illustrates a white shoulder strap.
Donath shows a white shoulder strap, dark blue distinctive colour, and white buttons.
no information found yet
The officers wore the same uniform as the privates with the following exceptions:
- tricorne laced gold with a white and green cockade
- black neck stock
- no turnbacks
- yellow and black silk sash
Senior officers carried sticks identifying their rank:
- lieutenant: bamboo stick without knob
- captain: long rush stick with a bone knob
- major: long rush stick with a silver knob and a small silver chain
- lieutenant-colonel: long rush stick with a larger silver knob without chain
- colonel: long rush stick with a golden knob
Sergeants carried a halberd and a wooden stick.
Corporals carried a halberd.
Until 1760, despite the new regulation of 1755, the musicians wore coats of reversed colours with white swallow nests and white turnbacks. From 1760, they wore uniforms identical to those of the privates with black swallow nests on the shoulders.
The drum had a brass barrel decorated with black flames at the bottom and with a black double headed Eagle on a yellow field. Rims were decorated with red and white diagonal stripes. The bandolier was white.
All German infantry regiments carried identical colours: a white Leibfahne (colonel) and yellow Regimentsfahne. The hand painted colours were made of silk and measured Size 178 cm x 127 cm. The 260 cm long flagpoles had golden finial and were decorated with black and yellow spirals of cloth.
The colonel colour was carried by the first battalion.
Colonel flag (Leibfahne):
- field: white
- border: alternating white and yellow outer waved triangles pointing inwards, red and black inner waved triangles pointing outwards
- obverse (right): the Immaculate Mother of God (which had been declared the patroness of the army by kaiser Ferdinand III) on a cloud, crushing a snake under her foot and surrounded by rays
- reverse (left): crowned and armed Imperial double-eagle with the "Lothringen-Toscanian" arms on a shield and the initials of the Emperor CF (Corregens Franciscus) on the left wing and IM (Imperator Magnus) on the right
Regimental flags (Regimentsfahne):
- field: yellow
- border: alternating white and yellow outer waved triangles pointing inwards, red and black inner waved triangles pointing outwards
- obverse (right): crowned and armed Imperial double-eagle with the "Lothringen-Toscanian" arms on a shield and the initials of the Emperor CF (Corregens Franciscus) on the left wing and IM (Imperator Magnus) on the right
- reverse (left): unarmed and crowned Imperial double-eagle with the arms of Hungaria and Bohemia on a shield and the initials M on the left wing and T on the right
In fact, the situation on the field was slightly more complex than this, since colours were usually replaced only when worn out. It is fairly possible that some regiment who had been issued colours of the 1743 pattern were still carrying them at the beginning of the Seven Years' War. For more details, see Austrian Line Infantry Colours.
This article contains texts from the following sources, which are now in the public domain:
- Grois, V.: Geschichte des k. k. Infanterie-Regiments Nr. 14, Linz, 1876
- Seyfart, Kurzgefaßte Geschichte aller kaiserlich-königlichen Regimenter zu Pferde und zu Fuß, Frankfurth and Leipzig, 1762, p. 35
Dihm, Dr. Hermann: Oesterreichische Standarten und Fahnen zur Zeit des 7 jährigen Krieges, Die Zinnfigur, Klio
Donath, Rudolf: Die Kaiserliche und Kaiserlich-Königliche Österreichische Armee 1618-1918, 2. Aufl., Simbach/Inn 1979
Etat nouveau des Troupes de sa Majesté Impériale Royale comme elles se trouvent effectivement l'an 1759
Etat général des Troupes qui servent sa Majesté Impériale et Royale Apostolique sur pié en 1760
Funcken, Liliane and Fred: Les uniformes de la guerre en dentelle
Hausmann, Friedrich: Die Feldzeichen der Truppen Maria Theresias, Schriften des Heeresgeschichtlichen Museums, vol. 3, Vienna: 1967
Knötel, Herbert d.J.: Brauer, Hans M.: Heer und Tradition / Heeres-Uniformbogen (so-called “Brauer-Bogen”), Berlin 1926-1962, Österreich-Ungarn – 1756-63
Muhsfeldt, Th.: Abzeichenfarben der K. und K. Regimenter zu Fuss im Jahre 1757 und früher, in Mitteilungen zur Geschichte des militärischen Tracht, No. 12, 1904
Schirmer, Friedrich: Die Heere der kriegführenden Staaten 1756-1763, hrsg. von der KLIO-Landesgruppe Baden-Württemberg, überarb. u. aktual. Neuauflage 1989
Seidel, Paul: Nochmals österreichische Standarten und Fahnen zur Zeit des 7 jährigen Krieges, Die Zinnfigur, Clio
Thümmler, L.-H.: Die Österreichiches Armee im Siebenjährigen Krieg: Die Bautzener Bilderhandschrift aus dem Jahre 1762, Berlin 1993
N.B.: the section Service during the War is mostly derived from our articles depicting the various campaigns, battles and sieges.
Harald Skala for the translation and integration of the book of V. Grois
Michael Zahn for additional information about this regiment