Origin and History
The exact date of creation of this regiment is not known. It was formerly the Zellische Leib-Regiment and was one of the four regiments that this principality maintained during the Thirty Years' War (1618-1648). In 1631, the regiment took part in the unsuccessful siege of Calenberg; in 1632, it fought in the Battle of Lützen; in 1633, in the siege and capture of Hameln. In June 1642, when the House of Brunswick-Lüneburg made peace with the Emperor, the regiment was reduced to four companies. The regiment was further reduced after the Treaty of Westphalia in 1648.
In 1665, during the quarrel of Georg Wilhelm and Johann Friedrich for the succession, the regiment was increased to 12 companies. In 1666, the regiment was sent to the Dutch Republic but returned the same year.
In 1668, the regiment was part of the relief force that Duke Georg Wilhelm sent to Candia (present-day Heraklion) in Crete to support the Venetians fighting the Turks. In 1670, only 25% of the regiment returned to the Principality of Zell.
In 1671, the regiment took part in the siege of Braunschweig.
In 1673, during the Franco-Dutch War (1672–78), the regiment was in Dutch pay. In 1674, it fought in the Battle of Entzheim near Strasbourg. In 1675, it took part in the siege and capture of Trier on the Moselle and in the blockade of Stade; in 1676, in the capture of Demmin and Anklam; in 1677, in the siege of Stettin; and in 1678, in the Battle of Saint-Denis near Mons.
In 1679, the regiment took part to the relief of Hamburg, blockaded by a Danish force.
In 1685, eight companies of the regiment were sent to Hungary to serve with the Imperial Army. They took part in the Battle of Gran and in the storming of the Fortress of Neuhäusel.
In 1686, the regiment was sent to garrison Hamburg, threatened once more by the Danes.
In 1688, at the outbreak of the Nine Years' War (1688–97), the regiment received two additional companies. It was once more in the Dutch service for that year and accompanied William of Orange in his expedition in England. In 1689, it returned to Hanover and took part in the sieges of Mainz and Bonn. In 1690, it fought in the Battle of Fleurus; in 1691, in the Battle of Leuze. In 1692, the regiment was subdivided into two separate battalions. It took part in the Battle of Steenkerque. In 1693, it served in Flanders. In 1694, it was placed in Dutch pay and took part in the siege of Namur. In 1697, the regiment returned to Hanover.
In 1700, a dispute arose between Denmark and Holstein-Gottorp. The king of Denmark seized Gottorp, Schleswig, Friedrichsburg and besieged the Fortress of Tönning. Duke Georg Wilhelm came to the rescue of Holstein-Gottorp with his army.
In 1701, at the outbreak of the War of the Spanish Succession, each battalion of the regiment was increased from six to seven companies and they were placed in Dutch pay. In 1702, the regiment was sent to the Netherlands and took part in the siege of Kaiserwerth. In 1703, it took part in the Combat of Speyerbach. In 1704, it returned to Zell. In 1705, the Principality of Zell was incorporated into the Electorate of Hanover. In 1708, a battalion was sent to Hamburg as part of an Imperial contingent to settle an internal dispute. It remained in that city until a peace agreement had been reached. In November 1712, a battalion was sent to Hamburg one more time.
In 1719, the battalion went to Mecklenburg as part of an Imperial Contingent. It took part in the actions at Stralendorf.
In 1733, the battalion was once more sent to Mecklenburg but it soon returned to Lüneburg.
In 1734 and 1735, during the War of the Polish Succession, the regiment served against the French on the Rhine, taking part in the Battle of Clausen (October 20 1735). In 1736, it returned to Hanover.
In 1738, the battalion was sent against the Danes at Steinhorst.
In 1741, at the outbreak of the War of the Austrian Succession, the battalion encamped at Nienburg. In 1743, it was part of the Reserve at Hanau. In 1744, it garrisoned Stade. In 1745, it served on the Rhine. In 1746, it was sent to Brabant. In 1747, it fought in the Battle of Lauffeld.
After the war, the battalion garrisoned Stade.
During the Seven Years' War the regimental inhabers were:
- from 1755: Colonel Joachim Christian Ludwig von Stafhorst (retired in 1756)
- from 1756 to 1781: Colonel Johann Heinrich von Scheither (promoted to major-general in 1759 and to lieutenant-general in 1761, died on July 2, 1781)
Service during the War
On July 26, 1757, during the French invasion of Hanover, the regiment took part in the Battle of Hastenbeck where it was deployed in the first line of the right wing under the command of Lieutenant-General Zastrow. During the retreat, it formed part of the rearguard.
On March 18, 1758, during the Allied winter offensive in Western Germany, 4 companies of the regiment took possession of Hameln. By May 26, the regiment was part of Wangenheim's Corps encamped at Dorsten. On May 31, this corps accompanied Ferdinand of Brunswick in his offensive on the west bank of the Rhine. On June 18, it was part of Wangenheim's Corps who passed the Rhine at Duisburg. On June 23, the regiment took part in the Battle of Krefeld where it was deployed on the right wing under the command of the Erbprinz (Hereditary Prince) of Brunswick. It took its winter-quarters at Coesfeld in the Bishopric of Münster.
In June 1759, the regiment was part of Wangenheim's Corps who had taken position at Dülmen in Westphalia to observe the movement of a French corps under the Marquis d'Armentières. On August 1, the regiment took part in the Battle of Minden where it was deployed in Wangenheim's Corps between Kutenhausen and the Weser, in the first line of the infantry centre. It supported the assault on the village of Totenhausen on the right flank. The regiment then advanced with the Allied army to Lahn in Hessen. It later took part in the siege of Münster. It then took up its winter-quarters in Werl.
In January 1760, the regiment took part in the expedition against Dillenburg.
On July 31, 1760, the regiment took part in the Battle of Warburg where it was deployed in the first line of the right wing in front of Ossendorf under the command of Lieutenant-General Hardenberg. In this battle, the regiment lost more than 70 men wounded or killed; and lieutenants von Marschalk and von Diepenbroick, ensigns Clausen, Brunsich and Hoyer wounded. In September, it accompanied the Hereditary Prince of Brunswick who laid siege to Wesel. On October 16, it did not take part in the Battle of Clostercamp, having been left behind to maintain the blockade of Wesel.
On July 16, 1761, the regiment took part in the Battle of Vellinghausen where it was attached to Ahlefeld's Brigade. In this battle, it lost 3 officers killed (Lieutenant-Colonel von Linstow, Captain von Jeinfer and Ensign Ziehen) and 8 wounded (Captain von Bessel, Captain-Lieutenants von Düring and Carstens, Lieutenants von Hugo and le Bachelle, and Ensigns Brunsich, von Türk and Prezelius). It later took part in the siege of Kassel under the command of the Count von Bückeburg.
In 1762, the regiment was at the siege and capture of Kassel under the command of Prince Friedrich von Braunschweig.
In 1763, the regiment returned to Hanover where it garrisoned Hoya.
|Coat||red lined dark green with 2 brass buttons and 2 yellow buttonholes under the lapels (hidden by the sleeve in our plate)
|Waistcoat||dark green with 2 horizontal pockets, each with 3 brass buttons|
Troopers were armed with a musket, a sword (brass hilt) and carried a dark brown haversack with a metal canteen on the left hip.
As per Wissel, the regiment changed its distinctive colour from dark green to straw in 1761.
Officers had gold lace lining the cuffs and lapels, a black cockade hat, a gold gorget with the arms of Hanover in the centre and carried a yellow sash slung over the right shoulder.
Sergeants wore straw gloves. Partizans were carried.
Drummers wore a red coat with swallows nest and lace in yellow.
The drum pattern had hoops in alternating dark green and red diagonal stripes, white drum cords over a brass drum with the Arms of Hanover in the centre.
Colonel Colour: white field; centre device consisting of the Arms of Hanover (common to all Hanoverian infantry regiments).
Regimental Colours: dark green field; centre device consisting of a golden lion reaching for chain within which is a sword and shield, the whole surrounded by a palm wreath; a scroll above carrying the motto TU NE CEDE MALIS. Hereafter, we present an illustration from the Reitzenstein Sammlung, dating from circa 1761 (left) and our own interpretation (right).
This article incorporates texts from the following books which are now in the public domain:
- Wissel, Friedrich v. and Georg von Wissel: Geschichte der Errichtung sämmtlicher Chur-Braunschweig-Lüneburgischen Truppen, sammt ihren Fahnen, Standarten und Pauken-Devisen ...], Zelle, 1786, pp. 329-353
Gmundener Prachtwerk, circa 1761
Knötel, and Hans M. Brauer: Heer und Tradition
Niemeyer Joachim, Ortenburg Georg: The Hanoverian Army during the Seven Years War
Pengel & Hurt: German States in the Seven Years War 1740 to 1762, Imperial Press
Reitzenstein Sammlung, Bomann Museum, Celle
Rogge, Christian: The French & Allied Armies in Germany during the Seven Years War, Frankfurt, 2006
Vial J. L.: Nec Pluribus Impar