Schlusselburgskiy Infantry

From Project Seven Years War
Revision as of 18:49, 30 November 2019 by RCouture (talk | contribs)
Jump to navigationJump to search

Hierarchical Path: Seven Years War (Main Page) >> Armies >> Russian Army >> Schlusselburgskiy Infantry

Origin and History

The Schlusselbúrgskiy Regiment was formed in 1708-1709 when Peter the Great reorganised the Russian infantry regiments and renamed each of them as per a city or province of his empire.

During the Seven Years' War, the regiment was commanded by:

To do: identify the successive commanders during the SYW

Service during the War

In 1756, the regiment was stationed in Novgorod and Livonia.

In 1757, the regiment took part in the campaign in East Prussia under Field-Marshal count Apraxin. On August 30, at the Battle of Gross-Jägersdorf, it belonged to Plemiannikov's Brigade attached to Lopuchin 2nd Division. When the Russian army deployed, it was placed in the first line of the centre.

In January 1758, 2 battalions of the regiment took part in the Russian invasion of East Prussia. At the beginning of August, the regiment followed the Russian army in its [[invasion of Brandenburg. On August 25, the regiment fought at the Battle of Zorndorf where it was part of Uvarov's Brigade in the first line of the infantry centre. About mid November, the regiment took up its winter quarters in Graudentz (present-day Grudziadz) and the surrounding villages as part of Resanov's 2nd Division.

To do: more details on the campaigns from 1759 to 1762

Uniform

Most Russian regular line infantry regiments wore the same uniforms.

N.B.: the entire section on uniform is based on information provided by Arthur Yushkevich and Daniel Milekhin

Privates

Uniform in 1757 - Copyright Kronoskaf
Summer uniform in 1757 - Copyright Kronoskaf
Uniform Details
Headgear
Musketeer black felt tricorne laced white with a white cockade on the left fastened with a copper button
Grenadier
Grenadier mitre in 1757 - Copyright Kronoskaf

until 1759: the M1756 mitre with a brass front plate embossed with trophies of weapons and standards and carrying in its centre the regimental coat of arms surmounted by the Imperial Eagle (sometimes painted black); a black leather skull-cap and neck guard with brass reinforcements and decorations; and a white wool pompom.

from 1760: red cloth cap with red turnbacks with white lace (golden for officers) on the seams of the cap and on the edges of the turnbacks; a white wool pompom.

(*)Note: grenadiers still used cloth leftovers after the making of uniforms, and, for example, the grenadiers of the Observation Corps 1st Musketeer used red cloth for both caps and turnbacks.

...for more information on the evolution of the grenadier mitre cap of the Russian infantry, see Russian Line Infantry Uniform

Neckstock black
Coat dark green with 9 copper buttons on the right side on the chest, and 2 copper buttons (one on each side) in the small of the back

N.B.: During summer campaigns, the coat was not worn, being left with the baggage. Soldiers carried a cornflower blue cape rolled over the shoulder. Since the waistcoat was red, Russian line infantry appeared to be entirely clad in red.

Collar red
Shoulder Straps none
Lapels none
Pockets horizontal pockets, each with 3 copper buttons
Cuffs red with 3 copper buttons
Turnbacks red, each fastened with a copper button
Waistcoat long sleeved red waistcoat lined green with 9 copper buttons and 9 red trimmed buttonholes, and with 2 en patte d'oie pockets each with 3 copper buttons and 3 red trimmed buttonholes
Breeches red
Gaiters black leather with 10 large copper buttons (white for parade)
Leather Equipment
Crossbelt elkskin leather
Waistbelt elkskin leather
Cartridge Box black covered with a copper plate
Bayonet Scabbard ???
Scabbard black leather with copper fittings
Footgear black shoes


During winter, line infantry wore knee-length cornflower blue cape.

Troopers were armed with a musket, a bayonet and a sabre.

NCOs

NCOs wore the same uniform as the privates, but were distinguished by gold laces on their tricorne, collar, and cuffs, more precisely

  • Sergeant: gold laces on cuffs (in 3 rows) and collar
  • Fourrier, Master-at-arms and Sub-Ensign: gold laces on cuffs (in 2 rows) and collar.
  • Corporal: gold lace on collar

Officers

Dmitriy Alexeevich Rezanov, lieutenant ('poruchik') of line infantry by Mina Kolokolnikov, 1752 - Source: Wikimedia Commons

Musketeer officers wore a gold laced tricorne (gold/black pompoms) or a simpler tricorne without lace. Grenadier officers wore a grenadier mitre, similar to that of grenadiers (or an earlier Modified M1731 model), but with a coloured regimental coat of arms.

Officer’s coat was similar to that of rank and file , but with a gold laced collar and lateral pockets closed by flaps en patte d’oie with 3 golden buttons each. Generally officers wore their coat with opened turnbacks. They also wore white cravates, green breeches and beige gloves.

Officers wore a gorget with the regimental coat of arms. For officers from ensign to captain, it was covered with silver; for majors, lieutenant-colonel and colonel with gold.

Officers carried a musket in action, the use of halberds and spontoons was abandoned. They also carried a sword suspended to a red leather belt.

Officer’s cartridge box was edged in gold.

Officer’s saddlecloth and holsters were red with round posterior corner, edged with one or two gold stripes (the inner broader), as rank distinction. EPI ciphers on the corner and holsters.

Officers wore a black and yellow (higher ranks - black and gold) silk sash.

Musicians

Line Infantry Regimental Musician (Oboist) Uniform in 1757 - Copyright Kronoskaf
Line Infantry Company Musician (Drummer or Fifer) Uniform in 1757 - Copyright Kronoskaf

Company musicians (drummers and fifers) wore the same uniform as privates with swallow nests on shoulders and braids on cuffs, pockets and collar.

Regimental musicians (oboists) wore the same uniform as privates with braids on cuffs, pockets and collar. Buttonholes and buttons were laced. Each sleeve was decorated with 4 chevrons with 2 wide drummer laces on each side.

The Drum Major had a gold edge on his tricorne, and gold braids on cuffs and collar.

Drums were made in copper, the regimental coat of arms engraved in the front, bordered in red and green, green and white cords.

Important notice: Even though our illustrations depict yellow laces, the colour of the braids on the uniforms of the musicians were chosen by the colonel. For instance, it could have been the distinctive colour of the regiment (shown on the ordonnance flag). They were often decorated with red “XXXX” in the middle.

N.B.: During summer campaigns, the green coat was not worn, being left with the baggage. Since the waistcoat was red, Russian line infantry musicians appeared to be entirely clad in red.

Colours

The flags measured 1,62 m. x 2,66 m., were fringed in gold and mounted on a 3,35 m. red wooden pole.

Colonel Flag: white field with, in its centre: an Imperial Eagle bearing the regimental arms on a breastplate encircled by the necklace of the St.George’s Order. In each corner: a yellow flame pointing at the centre.

Regimental Flag: red field, in its centre: a gold crown surmounting a gold shield bearing the regimental arms. In each corner: a yellow flame pointing at the centre.

Colonel Colour - Source: rf-figuren from an original black and white plate by Viskovatov
Regimental Colour - Source: rf-figuren from an original black and white plate by Viskovatov

References

Funcken, L. and F., Les uniformes de la guerre en dentelle

Grosser Generalstab Kriegsgeschichtliche Abteilung II: Die Kriege Friedrichs des Grossen, Part 3 Der siebenjährige Krieg 1756-1763, Vol. 4 Groß-Jägersdorf und Breslau, Berlin, 1902, Appendix 1

Konstam, Angus, and Bill Younghusband, Russian Army of the Seven Years War, Vol. 1, Osprey Men at Arms Series, No. 297, 1996

Lubimow, A.J., Die Feldzeichen der russischen Armee 1741-1761, in. Die Zinnfigur, Uniformheft 18

Pengel and Hurt, Russian Infantry of the Seven Years War, Birmingham, 1976

Schirmer, Friedrich: Die Heere der kriegführenden Staaten 1756 - 1763. Edited and published by KLIO-Landesgruppe Baden-Württemberg e.V., Magstadt, 1989.

Viskovatov, A. V., Historical Description of the Clothing and Arms of the Russian Army, vol. 3, Petersburg: 1900

Ziegler, Volker, Die Russische Linien-Infanterie zur Zeit des 7-jährigen Krieges, Jahrbuch der Gesellschaft für hessische Militär- und Zivilgeschichte 3, 2005


N.B.: the section Service during the War is mostly derived from our articles depicting the various campaigns, battles and sieges.

Acknowledgements

Carlo Bessolo for the initial description of the uniforms