Slavonisch-Peterwardeiner Grenzer

From Project Seven Years War
Jump to: navigation, search

Hierarchical Path: Seven Years War (Main Page) >> Armies >> Austrian Army >> Slavonisch-Peterwardeiner Grenzer

Origin and History

Slavonisch-Peterwardeiner Grenzer - Copyright: Harald Skala

This Grenzinfanterieregiment (Frontier Infantry Regiment) was raised in 1747 by Feldmarschallleutnant Baron Engelshofen as the “Slavonisch-Peterwardeiner National-Grenz-Infanterie-Regiment”.1 It consisted of two battalions, each of five companies of fusiliers, for a total of 5,600 men.2

In 1751, the regiment was reorganised and then consisted of two companies of grenadiers and four battalions, each counting five companies of fusiliers of 200 men.3

In 1752/53, the regiment had two companies of grenadiers of 120 men each, and four battalions, each counting four companies of fusiliers counting 240 men each.4

From 1753, the regiment was known as the “Peterwardeiner Grenz-Infanterie-Regiment”.5

As per the Etat nouveau des Troupes de sa Majesté Impériale Royale comme elles se trouvent effectivement l'an 1759 and Etat général des Troupes qui servent sa Majesté Impériale et Royale Apostolique sur pié en 1760, the regiment counted four battalions (2 grenadier coys and 16 fusilier coys) for a total of 2,300 men. This was the administrative organisation of the regiment. However, the tactical organisation differed: 2 field fusilier battalions, each of 6 companies; 2 grenadier companies (usually converged with grenadiers from other battalions into an ad hoc unit); and 1 depot battalion of 4 companies (see Austrian Line Infantry Organisation for more details).

Accordingly, by 1756, the regiment really consisted of two companies of grenadiers, twelve companies of fusiliers and four Landesdefensions (depot) companies. In addition, there were two companies of sharpshooters and two artillery companies. A company counted about 100 men.6

In wartime, the companies of grenadiers were detached from the regiment and converged into a Grenadier Corps (ad hoc battalions). However, these converged battalions seem to have been employed mostly as elite light troops. Only in some extreme cases would they fight among the elite line infantry battalions.

At the outbreak of the Seven Years War, the regiment was organised as follows:

  • Regimental Staff
  • I. Battalion
    • Battalion Staff
    • 1. Grenadier Company
    • 1. Fusilier Company
    • 2. Fusilier Company
    • 3. Fusilier Company
    • 4. Fusilier Company
    • 5. Fusilier Company
    • 6. Fusilier Company
    • 1. Sharpshooter Company
  • II. Battalion
    • Battalion Staff
    • 2. Grenadier Company
    • 7. Fusilier Company
    • 8. Fusilier Company
    • 9. Fusilier Company
    • 10. Fusilier Company
    • 11. Fusilier Company
    • 12. Fusilier Company
    • 2. Sharpshooter Company
  • III. Battalion (Depot)
    • Battalion Staff
    • 13. Fusilier Company
    • 14. Fusilier Company
    • 15. Fusilier Company
    • 16. Fusilier Company

Tactically a Grenz-Husar squadron was assigned to a foot battalion of the same Generalate.7

The regiment recruited in Syrmia, on the Lower Sava and on the Danubian border.8 Since 1752/53, each group of 20 yokes (???) had to contribute one man to the regiment.9 The regimental staff was located in Mitrowitz (present-day Sremska Mitrovica) in Serbia.10

During the Seven Years' War, the Chefs of the regiment were:

  • since 1750: Christian Baron von Helfreich
  • from 1757: Friedrich Baron von Lietzen
  • from 1762: Christian Baron von Wulffen

During the Seven Years' War, its commanders were:

Regimental numbers were introduced only in 1769 when this regiment was designated as "I.R. 68".

Service during the War11

By mid September 1756, one battalion of the regiment was part of Beck's detachment who reinforced Piccolomini's Corps operating in Moravia.

At the opening of the campaign of 1757, one battalion of the regiment was attached to Serbelloni's Corps. On April 28, two battalions of the regiment accompanied Count Esterházy to Smirschitz (present-day Smiřice). Later on, two battalions of the regiment were attached to the Austrian relief army sent to stop the Prussian invasion of Bohemia. In mid May, two battalions were attached to Haller's small corps left in the area of Glatz and Trautenau. In August, one battalion of the regiment was operating in Silesia with Colonel Jahnus. On August 13, it took part in the first Combat of Landshut where it was initially deployed in the first line. Throughout the night of August 13-14, 50 volunteers from this regiment harassed the Prussians. On August 14, this battalion covered the Austrian battery on the Burgberg. In October and November, these two battalions took part in the Siege of Schweidnitz where Colonel Franz Jahnus von Eberstädt distinguished himself, receiving the Military Maria-Theresien Order for his conduct. On November 22, the regiment took part in the Battle of Breslau where it was attached to Nádasdy's Corps.

From March to July 1758, during the Prussian invasion of Moravia and the Siege of Olmütz, detachments of the regiment under Lanius took part in guerilla warfare in Northern Moravia and in engagements near Andersdorf (May 19), Heidenpiltsch (May 25) and Siebenhöfen.

In 1759, one battalion followed Field Marshal Loudon who made a junction with the Russian Army who had undertaken a campaign in Brandenburg. On August 12, this battalion of the regiment fought in the Battle of Kunersdorf where it was deployed in the first line of the right wing. On August 17, another detachment, operating with Beck, took part in the capture of Grünberg in Silesia. At the beginning of November, the battalion belonging to Loudon's Corps retired to the camp of Neutitschein. On November 20, the other battalion took part in the Battle of Maxen where Major Jeossich distinguished himself. In December, the battalion encamped at Neutitschein was attached to Draskowitz's Corps.

In 1760, the regiment served in Loudon's Corps for the campaign of Silesia. On June 23, two battalions of the regiment took part in the Battle of Landeshut where they were deployed in the fourth column under Jahnus and Wolfersdorf who attacked Blasdorf. After the capture of Glatz, the regiment garrisoned the place. On September 17, these battalions were present at the Combat of Hochgiersdorf where they remained in the surroundings of Glatz.

In 1761, the regiment served once more in Loudon's Corps for the campaign of Silesia. At the end of September, it took part in the Siege of Schweidnitz where it participated to the blockade of the place before its successful storming on October 1.

In 1762, the regiment continued to serve in Silesia. On August 16, it took part in the Battle of Reichenbach where the Austrian Army vainly tried to break the encirclement of the Fortress of Schweidnitz. In this battle, Colonel Carl Count Lanjus von Wellenburg distinguished himself and later received the Military Maria-Theresien Order for his conduct.

Notable names

Eberstädt, Franz Jahnus von12 Colonel13

Helfreich, Christian Baron von14 Feldmarschalleutnant15, Feldzeugmeister16

Jeossich17 Major18

Lietzen, Friedrich Baron von19 Feldmarschallleutnant20

Mathesen, Andreas21 Colonel22

Wellenburg, Carl Count Lanjus von23 Colonel24

Wulffen, Christian Baron von25 Feldmarschallleutnant26

Uniform

Privates

Uniform during the Seven Years War - Source: Richard Couture from a template by David at Not By Appointment
Uniform Details in 1762
Headgear
Fusilier black felt shako without any cockade
Grenadier bearskin
Neckstock black
Coat dark brown (black or dark blue as Per the Albertina Handschrift) lined and edged red without any braid or lace on the chest
Collar red
Shoulder Straps red shoulder strap on the left shoulder
Lapels none
Pockets none
Cuffs red square cuffs
Turnbacks red
Dolman medium blue edged red with 3 rows of small brass buttons and red braids
Cape red
Trousers light blue Hungarian trousers decorated with an intricate red lace (Schoitasch)
Gaiters none
Leather Equipment
Crossbelt white
Waistbelt red and yellow barrel sash
Cartridge Box black with a large overhanging cover
Bayonet Scabbard black with brass fittings
Scabbard black with brass fittings
Footgear short black boots


Privates often wore a mustache.

Privates were armed with a slightly curved 58 cm long brass hilted sabre27 with a white knot and a cord of a different colour for each company; a Model 1754 musket (151 cm long, 112 cm long barrel, 18,3 mm calibre, 4,9 kg); and a bayonet. Each trooper carried 36 musket balls and 6 shrapnel bullets.28 Privates also carried a haversack and a canteen. Additional ammunition and kettles were transported in the wagons of each company.

Other interpretations

The Bautzener Bilderhandschrift of 1762 illustrates once more a totally different uniform:

  • black felt shako without cockade
  • red coat lined green and edged yellow with 3 rows of yellow buttons and yellow braids
  • green dolman edged yellow with 3 rows of yellow buttons and yellow braids
    • green collar
    • green pointed cuffs edged yellow
  • red Hungarian trousers with yellow laces (Schoitasch)
  • green and yellow barrel-sash
  • sandals

Raspe illustrates a different uniform too:

  • light blue coat edged red; red collar; red cuffs; 6 rows of red braids with red tassels on the chest with white buttons; red turnbacks

NCOs

no information available

Officers

Officers wore uniforms of the same colour as those of the privates but were distinguished by a black tricorne laced gold with a black cockade; a Western style coat with vertical pockets, square cuffs; and black Hungarian boots.

Officers wore a black and gold sash or a gold sash with tassels at the waist, over the dolman and under the coat. The black and gold sash could be made of strictly separated layers and then intertwined in knots or in a kind of knitwear; while the entirely gold sash was made of heavy knit of fine shiny silk.29

Musicians

no information available

Colours

When the Grenzer Regiments where formed they adopted the yellow 1745 pattern flag, with the black Doppeladler carrying the Imperial shield and edged in black/red/yellow/white flames, which measured 1.8m x 1.4m. The senior company carried a white Leibfahne displaying the Madonna and Christ on the obverse.

From 1756 each battalion carried two yellow Ordinarfahnen, except the first battalion which carried a white Leibfahne and one Ordinarfahne.

However, it seems unlikely that any were carried in the field

Footnotes

1. Ref. Tessin, Georg: Die Regimenter der europäischen Staaten im Ancién Regime des XVI. bis XVIII. Jahrhunderts. Part 1. Die Stammlisten, Osnabrück 1986, p. 53, Wrede, Alphons Freiherr von: Geschichte der k.u.k. Wehrmacht, Wien 1898-1905, Vol. V, p. 288 and Kornauth, Friedrich: Das Heer Maria Theresias. Faksimile-Ausgabe der Albertina-Handschrift „Dessins des Uniformes des Troupes I. I. et R. R. de l´année 1762“, Wien 1973, p. 100.

2. Ref. Tessin, Part 1, p. 53, Wrede, Vol. V, p. 216, 288 and Kornauth, Friedrich: Das Heer Maria Theresias. Faksimile-Ausgabe der Albertina-Handschrift „Dessins des Uniformes des Troupes I. I. et R. R. de l´année 1762“, Wien 1973, p. 100.

3. Ref. Wrede, Vol. V, p. 214

4. Ref. Wrede, Vol. V, p. 217

5. Ref. Tessin, Part 1, p. 53 and Wrede, Vol. V, p. 288

6. Ref. Kornauth, p. 92

7. Ref. Kornauth, p. 92

8. Ref. Wrede, Vol. V, p. 217, 288 and Kornauth, p. 100

9. Ref. Wrede, Vol. V, p. 217

10. Ref. Wrede, Vol. V, p. 217 and Kornauth, p. 100

11. Ref. Wrede, Vol. V, p. 289 and Kornauth, p. 100

12. Ref. Wrede, Vol. V, p. 288 and Kornauth, p. 100

13. Ref. Wrede, Vol. V, p. 288 and Kornauth, p. 100

14. Ref. Tessin, Georg: Die Regimenter der europäischen Staaten im Ancién Regime des XVI. bis XVIII. Jahrhunderts. Part 2. Namen und Inhaber der Regimenter aller europäischen Staaten im Ancién Regime. Eine Materialsammlung zu den einzelnen Regimentern in alphabetischer Folge, untergliedert nach Territorien, Osnabrück 1993, Kaiser und Reich Nr.10, Tessin, Georg: Die Regimenter der europäischen Staaten im Ancién Regime des XVI. bis XVIII. Jahrhunderts. Part 3. Namensregister der deutschen Regimentsinhaber und Namensregister der Regimenter mit Orts- und Ländernamen aus ganz Europa, Osnabrück 1995, p. 126 and Wrede, Vol. V, p. 288.

15. Ref. Wrede, Vol. V, p. 288

16. Ref. Wrede, Vol. V, p. 288

17. Ref. Wrede, Vol. V, p. 289

18. Ref. Wrede, Vol. V, p. 289

19. Ref. Tessin, Part 3, p. 190 and Wrede, Vol. V, p. 288

20. Ref. Wrede, Vol. V, p. 288

21. Ref. Wrede, Vol. V, p. 288

22. Ref. Wrede, Vol. V, p. 288

23. Ref. Wrede, Vol. V, p. 288 and Kornauth, p. 100

24. Ref. Wrede, Vol. V, p. 288 and Kornauth, p. 100

25. Ref. Tessin, Part 2, Kaiser und Reich Nr.27, Tessin, Part 3, p. 374 and Wrede, Vol. V, p. 288

26. Ref. Wrede, Vol. V, p. 288

27. Ref. Kornauth, p. 26

28. Ref. Kornauth, p. 25f

29. Ref. Koch, Arwed Ulrich: Der modische Wandel der Uniform im 18. Jahrhundert. Reich und Württemberg. (Offiziersportraits 1730 bis 1790) (Part II.), in: Zeitschrift für Heereskunde, LI. Jahrgang 1987, pp. 66-72, 69

References

Etat nouveau des Troupes de sa Majesté Impériale Royale comme elles se trouvent effectivement l'an 1759

Etat général des Troupes qui servent sa Majesté Impériale et Royale Apostolique sur pié en 1760

Koch, Arwed Ulrich: Der modische Wandel der Uniform im 18. Jahrhundert. Reich und Württemberg. (Offiziersportraits 1730 bis 1790) (Part II), in: Zeitschrift für Heereskunde, LI. 1987, pp. 66-72.

Kornauth, Friedrich: Das Heer Maria Theresias. Faksimile-Ausgabe der Albertina-Handschrift „Dessins des Uniformes des Troupes I. I. et R. R. de l´année 1762“, Wien 1973.

Seyfart: Kurzgefaßte Geschichte aller kaiserlich-königlichen Regimenter zu Pferde und zu Fuß, Frankfurth and Leipzig, 1762, p. 72

Tessin, Georg: Die Regimenter der europäischen Staaten im Ancién Regime des XVI. bis XVIII. Jahrhunderts. Part 1 Die Stammlisten, Osnabrück 1986.

Tessin, Georg: Die Regimenter der europäischen Staaten im Ancién Regime des XVI. bis XVIII. Jahrhunderts. Part 2 Namen und Inhaber der Regimenter aller europäischen Staaten im Ancién Regime. Eine Materialsammlung zu den einzelnen Regimentern in alphabetischer Folge, untergliedert nach Territorien, Osnabrück 1993.

Tessin, Georg: Die Regimenter der europäischen Staaten im Ancién Regime des XVI. bis XVIII. Jahrhunderts. Part 3 Namensregister der deutschen Regimentsinhaber und Namensregister der Regimenter mit Orts- und Ländernamen aus ganz Europa, Osnabrück 1995.

Thümmler, Lars-Holger: Die Österreichische Armee im Siebenjährigen Krieg. Die Bautzener Bilderhandschrift aus dem Jahre 1762, Berlin 1993.

Vanicek, Fr.: Specialgeschichte der Militärgrenze aus Originalquellen und Quellenwerken geschöpft, Vol. II, Vienna: Kaiserlich-Königlichen Hof- und Staatsdruckerei, 1875, pp. 402-488

Wrede, Alphons Freiherr von: Geschichte der k.u.k. Wehrmacht, Wien 1898-1905.

N.B.: the section Service during the War is partly derived from our articles depicting the various campaigns, battles and sieges.

Acknowledgments

Mathias Kussmann for the initial version of this article