Taxis Cuirassiers

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Hierarchical Path: Seven Years War (Main Page) >> Armies >> Bavarian Army >> Taxis Cuirassiers

Origin and History

The regiment was established on June 29 1682 as the “Horse Regiment Beauvau” by order of Elector Max Emanuel of Bavaria.

The regiment consisted of six companies, two of them already existed since 1673 and the others were newly raised.

In 1691, the regiment was renamed “Cuirassier Regiment Weickel”.

On August 1 1743, the regiment was given to the illegitimate son of Emperor Charles VII, Count Ludwig von Holnstein, becoming the “Cuirassier Regiment Holnstein”.

On January 21 1747, the regiment was ceded to the House of Thurn and Taxis, thus becoming the “Cuirassier Regiment Thurn und Taxis”. That was a compensation for the disbandment (due to high desertion rate) of the “Dragoon Regiment Taxis” the same month. The regiment became the perpetual property of the rightful Prince of Thurn and Taxis as long as his lineage existed.

On February 22 1747, according to the new military budget, all Bavarian cuirassier regiments were dismounted. Only the dragoon regiments were allowed to keep 10 horses per company.

In October 1751, the regiment garrisoned Landsberg. In November, two companies were sent to garrison Schongau.

In September 1752, the regiment assumed garrison service in Amberg.

In 1753, the regiment assumed garrison service in Landshut.

On April 30 1757, when the “Cuirassier Regiment Frohnberg” was disbanded, all companies of the remaining cuirassier regiment were increased from 33 to 38 men, so that each regiment could now provide two squadrons, each counting 150 men. The regiment then consisted of a staff and 9 companies of 38 men each, organised in 2 squadrons for a total of 36 officers, 283 NCOs and troopers. Initially, the entire regiment was dismounted. Its companies were distributed across Bavaria to assume garrison duties and security services.

During the Seven Years' War, the successive regiment Inhaber were:

  • since January 21 1747: Colonel Friedrich August Prince von Thurn und Taxis
  • from September 29 1755: Colonel Prince Karl Anselm von Thurn und Taxis
  • from April 29 1772: Colonel Prince Max von Thurn und Taxis

The regiment was commanded by:

  • since 1747: Colonel Franz Baron von Rechenberg
  • from July 1 1754: Colonel Franz August Baron von Ingeheim
  • from January 2 1764: Colonel Joseph Anton de Cabilliau
  • from July 1 1774: Colonel Johann Maurus von Nyß
  • from January 7 1776: Colonel Quirin von Hölzl

Service during the War

Throughout the Seven Years' War the regiment remained in the estates of the Elector of Bavaria and did not take part in any campaign. Its main duty was to protect the Upper-Palatinate against potential raids of Prussian Freikorps.

By June 20 1756, on the eve of the Seven Years, the regiment was garrisoning Stadtamthof, Amberg and Neumarkt in the Upper-Palatinate. In September, it was transferred to Donauwörth.

On September 20 1757, the regiment was reassigned to garrison duty in Neumarkt in Upper-Palatinate and one of its squadron received horses.

In June 1758, the dismounted squadron was sent to Ingolstadt but soon returned to Neumarkt in the Upper-Palatinate on August 30. Meanwhile, on June 2, the mounted squadron, under Major de Cabilliau, was sent to Pressath in the Upper-Palatinate. In July a mounted detachment was at Geggendorf. On July 14, the mounted squadron was at the camp of Kemnath; on July 17, at the camp of Amberg. On September 30, the mounted squadron rejoined the regiment at Neumarkt in Upper-Palatinate. In December, a detachment took post on the border, in the Diocese of Eichstätt.

In May 1759, the dismounted companies of the regiment were distributed in various garrisons in Neustadt an der Donau and Vohburg while the mounted squadron took post in Ingolstadt. On August 20, the dismounted companies all returned to Neumarkt in the Upper-Palatinate.

On July 30 1760, the detachment previously sent to Deggendorf jejoined the regiment. On October 11, the regiment assumed garrison duty in Munich.

On October 20 1762, the regiment assumed garrison duty in Wasserburg.

Uniform

Privates

Uniform in 1757 - Source: Frédéric Aubert
Uniform Details
Headgear black tricorne laced white with a black cockade fastened with a small pewter button
Neckstock black
Coat white, the coat was fasten only the upper button so the black breastplate worn under the coat remained visible
Collar none
Shoulder strap red fastened with a pewter button
Lapels red with 10 pewter buttons on the right side, 10 buttonholes on the left side
Pockets 2 horizontal pockets, each with 3 pewter buttons
Cuffs red, each with 3 pewter buttons
Turnbacks red
Waistcoat straw with pewter buttons
Breeches deer leather
Leather Equipment
Crossbelt white
Waistbelt none
Cartridge Box black
Scabbard black
Footgear black boots with white knee covers
Horse Furniture
Saddlecloth red edged with a white braid
Holster covers red edged with a white braid
Pack red edged white
'Harness black bridles with pewter buckles, black leather halter


Troopers were armed with a black breastplate (worn under the coat), a pallasch (sword) and a pair of pistols.

Officers

The officers wore the same uniform as the troopers with the following exceptions:

  • gold laced tricorne
  • perhaps a red collar
  • perhaps red waistcoat
  • perhaps red breeches
  • red sash

Musicians

Kettle-drummers wore a field uniform which was probably quite similar to the one of the troopers.

Standards

As mentioned in our article on Bavarian Cuirassiers Standards, no Bavarian cuirassier standards of the Seven Years' War period has survived. However, a few originals from 1700-1743 have, and they seem to follow the same general pattern with only the monogram changing to reflect the successive Electors. The following description is based on the 1743 standard.


Leib Standard (Leibstandarte): We do not know how were the Leib standard for this regiment. We suppose it follows the same pattern than the Törring standards, with only a variant for the central devices : we show here the Madonna and the shield from a Reiter regiment from the beginning of the 18th century.

  • White field, heavily embroidered and fringed in silver. In the corners the "CA" monogram, surmounted by an elector´s hat. The staff was light blue. From 1745 to 1777, the monogram would be "MJ".
  • obverse: centre device consisting of a shield, bearing the arms of Bavaria-Palatinate, surmounted by an elector's hat. The shield was surrounded by the Collar of the Order of the Golden Fleece and the Collar of the Order of St. George.
  • reverse: central device depicting a Patrona Bavariae with a red robe and a blue cloak. She is standing on a gold half moon and a blue globe with gold stars. The Madonna is surrounded by gold rays. Her head is crowned, she is holding a golden scepter in the right hand and her left arm holds little Jesus, he is dressed with a light blue robe and holding a gold orb in his right hand. Above the Madonna a scroll with black letters and the motto “VINCIT MARIA”.

Company Standards (Kompaniestandarte): We do not know how were the company standards for this regiment. We suppose they follow the same pattern than the Törring standards, with only a variant for the central devices : we show here, for the obverse, the emblem of the Thurn und Taxis family in 1732 and, for the reverse, the shield from a Reiter regiment from the beginning of the 18th century.

  • Red field, heavily embroidered and fringed in silver. In the corners the "CA" monogram, surmounted by an elector's hat. The staff was light blue. From 1745 to 1777, the monogram would be "MJ".
  • obverse: centre device consisting of a double-headed imperial black eagle (emperor Maximilian I gave this family the right to use the imperial eagle) with, on its chest, the coat of arms of the Thurn und taxis family.
  • reverse: centre device consisting of a shield, bearing the arms of Bavaria-Palatinate, surmounted by an elector's hat. The shield was surrounded by the Collar of the Order of the Golden Fleece and the Collar of the Order of St. George.

References

Bavaria (Germany) Heeresarchiv, Geschichte des bayerischen Heeres: Geschichte des kurbayerischen Heeres unter Kurfürst Karl Albrecht und Kurfürst Max III. Joseph 1726-1777, J. Lindauer, 1909

Fessmaier, Johann Georg: Versuch einer Staatsgeschichte der Oberpfalz, seitdem sie Oberpfalz heisset, Vol. 2, Attenkofer, 1803

Münich, Friedrich: Geschichte der Entwicklung der bayerischen Armee seit zwei Jahrhunderten, Lindauer, 1864

Obpacher, Josef: Das K.B. 2. Chevaulegers-Regiment Taxis, München, 1926

Schwaiger, Michael and Felix Joseph Lipowsky: Chronica oder kurze Beschreibung der churfürstl. Stadt Amberg in der obern Pfalz, Giel, 1818, p. 224