1703 – Franco-Bavarian advance on the Danube
The campaign lasted from February 1703 to February 1704
In 1703, Bavaria was the centre of gravity of the French operations, and only campaigns of the methodical and non-committal kind were planned for Italy and the Low Countries. Villeroy and Boufflers commanded the French in the Low Countries, Tallard in Lorraine, Villars in Alsace, and Vendôme in Italy.
On the Rhine great projects were entertained by the French, nothing less than the capture of Vienna by a combined Franco-Bavarian-Hungarian army being intended. Campaign started by a French advance on the Upper Rhine.
|Order of Battle|
|Imperialists troops on the Danube, end January 1703|
In mid-January, Field Marshal Count Limburg-Styrum arrived with his corps (5,826 foot, 3,636 horse) from the Upper-Rhine in the region of Nördlingen and Nuremberg on the north-western frontier of Bavaria.
By the end of January, the Imperialists had a few troops marching upstream along the Rhine towards Konstanz; 8,000 men (including the garrison of Landau) were posted on the Lauter and the Queich; Palatine troops along with a few Imperial units were stationed in Palatinate and on the Speyerbach and the Hundsrück; troops of various Allies were posted around Koblenz and on the Lahn; and another Imperial corps occupied the right bank of the Rhine from the Neckar up to Alt-Breisach and Freiburg. Furthermore, an Imperial corps (approx. 7,500 men) under the Count von Limburg-Styrum was in the Black Forest; a second under General Gronsfeld on the Lower Danube; a third under FML Count Schlik on the Inn near Passau. Finally, a Saxon Contingent (10,000 men) had marched through Bohemia to Upper-Palatinate where it could effect a junction with the Franconian Contingent who had taken its winter-quarters in its own country as the Swabian Contingent had also done. All signs indicated that the Imperialists were planning an invasion of Bavaria.
FML Schlik’s small army (6,340 men) was cantoned between the Traun and the Inn with its right wing anchored to the Danube and its left extending to the Hausruck and the region of Salzburg. Furthermore, Major-General Solari was at the head of the former garrison of Guastalla which totalled 1,278 men. Finally Lieutenant-Colonel d’Albon was forming a new battalion of some 650 men in Salzburg. There was also a Saxon Contingent (6 bns, 4 cavalry rgts) in Imperial pay.
For the coming campaign, the Elector of Bavaria managed to bring his army to an unprecedented size. He could field 8 infantry rgts (each of 3 bns) for a total of 16,800 foot; 7 cavalry rgts for a total of 4,200 horse; and 10 free companies for a total of 2,000 men. The Bavarian army was subdivided into two main corps and a smaller corps at Ulm:
- a corps of some 20,000 men (including militia) was posted near the Austrian border on the left bank of the Inn, with advanced posts in Schärding and Ried;
- a corps of 14,000 men (including militia) was posted on the frontiers with Upper-Palatinate and Franconia, the main body stood between Neuburg and Ingolstadt with a few detachments near Neumarkt (present-day Neumarkt im Hausruckkreis) and Dietfurth/Altmühl;
- a garrison of 3,200 men (300 grenadiers, 1,000 foot, Monasterol Dragoons, Santiny Dragoons and Fels Dragoons) in Ulm under FML Count Arco.
On 31 January, the Elector of Bavaria arrived in front of Neuburg on the Danube where he found the Palatine Isselbach Infantry entrenched in the suburbs.
In the night of 31 January to 1 February, the Bavarians stormed the suburbs of Neuburg and immediately invested the place.
In February, the Bavarian provincial troops started to assemble. They could muster 4,000 men in 7 bns. Therefore, at the beginning of the campaign, the Elector of Bavaria could count on an army of approx. 27,000 men. Furthermore, his artillery was organised in 2 coys with 64 pieces. Finally, the local militias, totalling approx. 13,000 militiamen armed with their own weapons and organised in 30 units were confided the defence of the territory against a probable invasion of Imperialist forces. Part of them manned a line of entrenchments running from Eberschwang, by Pram, Raab and Sankt Willibald up to the vicinity of Sankt Roman.
On 1 February, the Saxon Contingent assigned to Schlik’s small army marched from its winter-quarters in Pisek (Bohemia) to Upper Austria.
On 3 February
- Colonel Friedrich Ferdinand Baron Isselbach, who commanded the garrison of Neuburg (Palatine Isselbach Infantry, Swabian Reischach Infantry) and who could not count on any relief from Count Styrum, surrendered to the Elector of Bavaria. The garrison had lost 400 men killed and the remaining 1,600 men (including 487 Palatine soldiers) became prisoners of war, from these troops, 498 men entered the Bavarian service. Baron Isselbach himself was freed on parole and went to Düsseldorf.
- The Bavarian threw a garrison of 2,000 men into Neuburg.
After the capture of Neuburg, the Count von Styrum halted at Nördlingen with his Imperial Corps instead of continuing his march towards Bühl to effect a junction with the Margrave of Baden on the Rhine. Meanwhile, another Imperial corps under General Gronsfeld was reinforced by a contingent sent by the Duke of Württemberg. He was also expecting a contingent contributed by the Circle of Franconia. Furthermore, Count Schlik was assembling a large Imperial corps at Passau. Finally, the Saxon Contingent (6,000 men) was on the march to effect a junction with Schlik's Corps.
On 10 February, Count Schlik left Vienna to join his army posted between the Traun and the Inn. He had been instructed to make a last attempt to come to an agreement with the Elector of Bavaria; and in case of failure, to make himself master of the defile of Reichenhall in order to establish communication with Starhemberg’s Army in Northern Italy; and to effect a junction with Limburg-Styrum’s Corps and Herbéviller’s Corps (posted in Western Bohemia).
After a brief and unfruitful sojourn at Munich, Count Schlik returned to Wels.
On 17 February, the Saxon Contingent arrived at Linz.
On 27 February, Count Schlik left Wels with his staff and to rejoin his army.
By the end of February, the Imperialists had established a large magazine at Passau with the consent of Cardinal Count Lamberg, the bishop of the place.
By 1 March, Count Schlik had assembled an army of 14,338 foot and 4,571 horse in the vicinity of Neumarkt.
On 2 March, Schlik’s Army passed the frontier of Bavaria at Erlach and marched to Riedau.
On 3 March
- Schlik sent detachments to occupy Zell an der Pram, Raab, Aurolzmünster and Sankt Martin (probably Sankt Martin im Innkreis) without meeting any resistance.
- Schlik’s regular troops received a not inconsiderable support from the 744 militiamen securing the borders in the regions of the Hausruck and the Traun.
- Lieutenant-Colonel Georg Pankraz Gückl von Weinbruch could also muster some and 4,000 peasants for home defence. The line of Imperialist posts extended from Geboltskirchen, in the northern part of the Hausruck, by Haag, Geiersberg, along the Pram Stream, by Riedau, Sallet and Walleiten to the vicinity of Engelszell on the Danube.
- Engagement of Dietfurt
- An engagement took place near Dietfurt/Altmühl in Upper Palatinate between an Imperialist detachment under Margrave Georg Friedrich von Brandenburg-Anspach and a few Bavarian bns under General Wolframsdorf.
All these operations had taken place while no formal declaration of war having yet been issued. Count Schlik marched upstream along the right bank of the Inn towards Schärding. The Elector of Bavaria reacted by sending General Weigel to assemble a corps in Upper-Palatinate to oppose the advance of Styrum's Corps.
On March 4
- Count von Limburg-Styrum set off from Nördlingen with his corps (7,600 men) and marched downstream along the left bank of the Danube to force the entrenchments of generals Maffei and Wolframsdorf between Neumarkt and Dietfurth and then penetrate into Upper-Palatinate.
On 7 March
- Schlik established his headquarters in Eggerding while his main body advanced against the bridgehead of Schärding. However, Schlik had no heavy artillery, so he planned to encircle Schärding and then wait for the arrival of the necessary pieces.
- The garrison of Schärding under Colonel Lützelburg prepared to resist.
On 8 March
- The Elector of Bavaria marched from Munich against Schlik's Corps with the rest of his army.
- The Austrian nobility was called upon to send detachments towards the frontier with Bavaria.
- In the evening, Schlik was informed that the Elector of Bavaria was marching towards the Inn at the head of an army of 20,000 men (in fact 12,000 men).
On 9 March
- Schlik received confirmation that the Bavarians were marching towards the Inn and that they planned to occupy Passau where there were two bridges: one on the Danube and the other on the Inn. From this place the elector could easily threaten the rear of Schlik’s Army.
- Schlik gave orders to Major-General Laurenz Count Solari to occupy Passau with 2,000 men, formed in 6 battalions.
On 10 March
- Schlik decamped from Schärding and marched with 10,000 in the direction of Passau. The rest of his army (6,000 men including Jung-Hannover Cuirassiers, Schlik Dragoons and some Saxon troops with 3 twelve-pdrs and 2 small mortars) took position along the Inn in a camp and cantonments between the Pram and the Kössel.
- In the afternoon, the Elector of Bavaria arrived at Schärding with 12,000 men, reinforced with a few thousands militia.
On the night of 10 to 11 March, the Elector crossed the Inn at Schärding with 12 bns and 20 sqns and then passed the Pram. Peasants informed him that Imperialist and Saxon troops were billeted in various place. The Bavarians then advanced in two columns against the villages of Siegharding and Schardenberg. They had some 3,000 men and some militia in the forest between Neuburg and Neufils (a hamlet near Dommelstadl) to observe the Imperialists at Passau.
On 11 March
- In the morning, 2 Saxon bns were detached from the main body at Passau and reconnoitred in the direction of Neuburg where they skirmished against Bavarian troops till noon.
- Engagements of Schardenberg and Eisenbirn
- The Imperialist troops billeted along the Inn consisted of 4 Austrian cavalry rgts, 2 Saxon cavalry rgts and a detachment of infantry scattered among several outposts between Passau and Eisenbirn.
- The Elector of Bavaria (12 bns, 20 sqns ) advanced to Schardenberg at the head of one of his column. His vanguard (Grenadiers of the Gardes and a few sqns) met with little opposition. It found 4 sqns of the Jung-Hannover Cuirassiers billeted in Schardenberg without any guard or patrol. The vanguard entered into the village.
- The Jung-Hannover Cuirassiers finally reacted and managed to effect a junction with Schlik Dragoons and the Saxon sqns which had rushed towards Schardenberg when they had heard the din of battle. Only a small part of the 4 sqns of the Jung-Hannover Cuirassiers were captured by the Bavarians.
- The Schlik Dragoons, who were encamped at Neudorf and Asing, heard musket fire and immediately rode to Schradenberg. Toghether with some rallied cuirassiers and the Saxons, Schlik Dragoons attacked the enemies and drove them out of Schardenberg, freeing the prisoners.
- The Elector of Bavaria renewed his assault against Schardenberg, attacking from two sides. He once more made himself master of the village.
- The Imperialists retreated towards Passau but soon the march degenerated into a rout until they reached cover.
- When the Elector saw that the Imperialists and the Saxons had retired behind cover and did not make any move to attack him, he started to retire in the direction of Schärding. However, on the way, he was informed by a peasant that most of the Imperialist artillery, the baggage and a cavalry detachment were Eisenbirn, some 7 km from Schardenberg.
- In fact, the Saxon Major-General Plötz was posted between a wood and the village of Eisenbirn with the 16 Saxon sqns, 3 twelve-pdr guns and about 500 foot guarding this artillery behind a barricade of wrecked peasant wagons. His left wing was anchored on the village. A few coys of Schlik Dragoons and Jung-Hannover Cuirassiers were posted behind the second line.
- Meanwhile, Field Marshal Arco had dislodged 1 sqn of Jung-Hannover Cuirassiers from Siegharding. Arco had not pursued and was now trying to effect a junction with the main body of the Elector’s forces.
- The Elector then sent Arco’s column towards Eisenbirn to verify if an Imperialist force was really posted there while he rested his forces.
- Around 4:00 p.m., Arco confirmed to the Elector the presence of an Imperialist force at Eisenbirn. The latter decided to advance on Eisenbirn with his whole force.
- The Elector advanced on Eisenbirn where Plötz had deployed his detachment in order of battle. The Saxons set fire to Eisenbirn.
- The Elector then had to wait for the arrival of his own guns which were planted on a height. The Elector then sent a few bns forward who marched along the woods bordering the meadows on both sides while his cavalry advanced in the centre. The Bavarian infantry then attacked Schlik's flanks while the cavalry charged frontally. Schlik's detachment was soon routed.
- When general von Plötz noticed this, he withdrew his troops. Chaos ensued as they retreated, the cavalry left the infantry to their fate and fled.
- The Saxon cavalry took refuge into a narrow defile. The Bavarians pursued the Saxon cavalry on 4 km, putting it to flight.
- In this action, the Bavarians took some 1,000 prisoners, including Major-General Pless, the Saxon Colonel Wiedeman, a lieutenant-colonel, the major of Jung-Hannover Cuirassiers and several captains. They also captured 12 Austrian standards, 6 Saxon standards and 3 guns, 4 mortars, a large quantity of ammunition, bridging equipment and most of baggage. The Imperialists lost 600 men killed. For their part, the Bavarians lost 30 men killed (including Jung-Arco and Lieutenant-Colonel de Chastel) or wounded (including the Marquis de Baveau and M. de Minuzy).
- Part of the Imperialist train managed to reach Kenading during the night.
On March 12
- The Elector marched back to Schärding, leaving 4,000 men (a few bns and militia, and 7 sqns) near Neuburg
- Schlik remained near Passau.
- The Saxon Corps retired to Raab, Taufkirchen and Schärding with what was left of the train.
On March 13
- FZM Christian Ernst Margrave of Brandenburg-Bayreuth invested Neumarkt.
On 14 March, the Elector of Bavaria left a large detachment at Schärding under General Lutzelburg to contain Schlik's Corps and marched upstream along the Danube to reinforce General Wolframsdorf in Upper-Palatinate, which was suffering from the depredations of Limburg-Styrum's Corps.
On 17 March, the city of Neustadt on the Danube surrendered to the Imperialists after four days of bombardment. Lieutenant-Colonel Wolf Michael Drechsel von Reufstädt was allowed to retire freely with the garrison (1 bn of Spielberg Infantry). The margrave then left for Berlin, leaving Limburg-Styrum the sole commander of the Imperialist corps operating in Upper-Palatinate.
On 18 March, Limburg-Styrum invested Amberg.
On 20 March, the Elector of Bavaria arrived at Straubing after a march of 100 km.
The Elector of Bavaria, while carrying on a trifling war with a small Imperial army under Count Limburg-Styrum, insisted that Villars should cross the Black Forest and join him, which Villars was unwilling to do that early in the year, as two-thirds of his officers were as usual on leave or detached on recruiting duties. Courtier though he was, the maréchal would not stir even in spite of Louis XIV's orders until he was ready.
On 24 March, the Elector of Bavaria marched with 14,000 men to Donaustauf, 8 km from Regensburg, which was threatened by the Imperialists. Informed of the return of Villars' Army to the left bank of the Rhine after the capture of Kehl, the Elector immediately wrote to urge him to come to his support.
On 25 March, an engagement took place near Emhof, a village downstream from Schmidmühlen, between a few Imperialists sqns and the Bavarian avant-garde under Major-General Marquis de Maffei.
On 26 March, Limburg-Styrum marched to Velburg/Laber.
On 27 March, Limburg-Styrum marched to Enselwang (unidentified location), 5 km from Schmidmühlen where he halted with the train and the infantry while FML Georg Friedrich Margrave of Brandenburg-Anspach advanced towards Schmidmühlen with 800 horse and reconnoitred the banks of the Vils. He found the bridges at Schmidmühlen and Emhof broken. The Margrave of Brandenburg-Anspach swam across the Vils at the head of 1 sqn of Bayreuth Dragoons, 1 sqn of Schad Dragoons, 1 sqn of Cusani Cuirassiers, 1 sqn of Limburg-Styrum Dragoons and 1 sqn of Gronsfeld Cuirassiers. After crossing the river, these 400 horse attacked a detachment of Bavarian dragoons but did not pursue them because the whole of Maffei’s Brigade was posted at Lanzenried. During the evening, the Imperialists repaired the bridge at Emhof.
On 28 March
- The 5,000 men strong corps of Field Marshal Count Arco emerged from the forest between Lanzenried and Hub to support the vanguard. It was soon followed by 8,000 men under the Elector of Bavaria.
- The Margrave of Brandenburg-Anspach was occupying the village of Ensdorf with a detachment of Limburg-Styrum's Corps. He had only 1 coy (80 men) of Franconian Erff Infantry posted on the left bank of the Vils. After the completion of the bridge, his cavalry had retired to the right bank.
- Limburg-Styrum was marching to the margrave’s support with 9,000 men.
- Engagement of Emhof
- The Bavarians took advantage of the dense woods to approach Emhof unnoticed.
- The Bavarians surprised and captured 60 men of the coy which defended the bridge but the captain of the company along with 20 men managed to retire to the right bank.
- With great difficulty, the battalion of Erffa Infantry managed to destroy the bridge before the arrival of the Bavarians. This bn along with a few hundreds dismounted dragoons opened a lively fire on the Bavarians.
- The Margrave of Brandenburg-Anspach decided to hold this position, despite his numerical inferiority, until the arrival of the Count of Limburg-Styrum.
- The firefight lasted for two hours and every attempt of the Bavarians to cross the Vils was driven back.
- However, more and more fresh Bavarian bns were reaching the left bank of the Vils and the Bavarian artillery posted on the Hirschberg opened on the Imperialists who were running out of ammunition.
- The Margrave of Brandenburg-Anspach was killed during the engagement and Major-General Marquis Cusani took command of the defenders and retired on Bergheim.
- By that time (10:00 a.m.), Limburg-Styrum’s Corps was still idle at Enselwang despite the repeated requests of the margrave for reinforcements.
- At noon, Limburg-Stryrum finally arrived at Bergheim with his corps.
- The Elector of Bavaria had taken position between Schmidmühlen and Emhof.
- After resting his troops, Limburg-Styrum retired to Velburg where he encamped for the night.
- The Elector of Bavaria established his headquarters at Burglengenfeld.
On 29 March, Limburg-Styrum’s Corps retired unmolested to Neumarkt.
On 30 March
- A large Bavarian detachment marched towards Neumarkt.
- The Elector of Bavaria planned to advance on Limburg-Styrum’s Corps on 2 April. However, he received news of the advance of FML Schlik from Passau into Bavaria, threatening Schärding and Vilshofen. The elector immediately realized that he had to prevent the junction of the two Imperialist corps (Schlik’s and Limburg-Styrum’s) at all cost.
- Limburg-Styrum razed the fortifications of Neumarkt and retired with his infantry westwards to Pölling while his cavalry acted as rearguard.
To invade Bavaria, Schlik first had to break through a triple ring of earthworks and palisades in the forest of Neuburg, defended by Major-General Lützelburg. Only then, could he initiate his march to the Vils River. The storming of these entrenchments looked like a very difficult undertaking and preparations took a while.
On 2 April
- Engagement in the Forest of Neuburg
- At 0:30 a.m., Schlik’s vanguard set off from Passau and marched in the direction of the forest of Neuburg.
- At daybreak, Schlik sent a few hundreds Austrian peasants forward to clear a passage in the Bavarian entrenchments in the forest of Neuburg.
- At 4:00 a.m., Schlik’s vanguard arrived in front of the Bavarian entrenchments and soon made itself master of the two first lines of entrenchments which we only defended by militia.
- When the Imperialists grenadiers, marching at the head of the vanguard, reached the third line of entrenchments, they met with a more stubborn resistance.
- Meanwhile, all of Schlik’s Corps had penetrated into the Forest of Neuburg.
- Around 10:00 a.m., the Bavarians finally evacuated their positions, fearing encirclement.
- The Imperialists pursued the Bavarians up to Fürstenzell where they nearly captured a few coys of Monasterol Dragoons which managed to take refuge in Schärding.
- Lieutenant-General Baron von der Schulenburg rushed towards Schärding with his Saxon cavalry, hoping to surprise the place. However, the Bavarians had already taken measures to defend the place.
- Schlik’s Army marched to Ortenburg.
- Lieutenant-General Schulenburg rejoined Schlik’s Army at Ortenburg with the Saxon cavalry.
On 3 April
- Schlik’s Army reached Vilshofen, a town on the left bank of the Vils where it flowed into the Danube.
- Major-General Baron von Ritschau passed the Vils without difficulty near Ziegelhütten with the cavalry of the vanguard.
- The Imperialists did not meet any resistance when they made themselves masters of the monastery and the brewery to the west of Vilshofen.
- By evening, Vilshofen was completely invested. Colonel von Weilern immediately started to erect a battery on a height to the southwest of the town.
- Major Bartels garrisoned the town of Vilshofen with approx. 1,000 men (2 coys of Monasterol Dragoons, a few coys of Palatine (???) dragoons, 2 coys of Lützelburg Infantry, and some peasants) with 9 small pieces. The town was surrounded by an old wall with towers. An earthwork formed a bridgehead on the right bank of the Vils in front of the bridge leading to Vilshofen. There was a strongly built monastery in the western part of the town. There was also a suburb on the left bank of the Vils.
- The Elector of Bavaria was in Burglengenfeld when he was informed of Schlik’s incursion. He immediately decided to make himself master of the Danube crossing at Regensburg, the only one that was not yet under Bavarian control. He knew that FM Limburg-Styrum was still posted at Neumarkt and had made no move against Regensburg but the city was on the only road by which Limburg-Styrum could effect a junction with Schlik’s Army.
On 4 April
- Around midnight, the battery erected by Colonel Weilern opened on Vilshofen. A 24-pdr cannonball fired from within 300 paces of the gate broke through the palisades and killed some soldiers.
- By daybreak, part of the Monastery Gate and an adjacent house were in ruins.
- The Imperialists then cut through the separating walls of several houses along the western wall of Vilshofen to reach the gate under cover. A grenadier coy (90 men) of Guido Starhemberg Infantry then climbed the wall and threw grenades into the town.
- Major von Bartel gave up resistance and capitulated. His regular troops were allowed free withdrawal under the condition that they should not fight against the Imperialists or the Saxons for four months. They also had to abandon their 9 guns. The militia had to deposit arms and to return to their respective villages. The town of Vilshofen had to pay a contribution of 15,000 Gulden.
On 5 April
- FML Schlik and the Baron von Schulenburg entered into Vilshofen. They find themselves in no small embarrassment about the continuation of the operations. The original intent of Schlik’s incursion into Bavaria was to effect a junction with the Corps of Field Marshal Count Limburg-Styrum operating in Upper Palatinate. This junction was now very easy to accomplish but, for political reasons, Schlik and his generals hesitated to penetrate in the region of Regensburg where the Holy Roman Empire held its assemblies. Another possibility was to cross to the other bank of the Danube at Deggendorf and to march by Cham towards the Nab. However, for this new plan to succeed, Schlik would first have to establish a bridgehead at Deggendorf and Limburg-Styrum would have to pin down the troops of the Elector while Schlik would march to effect a junction. Furthermore, Schlik had no news of recent development in Upper Palatinate.
On 7 April
- Major-General Marquis de Maffei at the head of the Elector’s vanguard appeared on the left bank of the Danube in front of Regensburg.
- Major-General von Tattenbach passed to the right bank of the Danube at Kelheim with 1,400 men and the park of heavy artillery to blockade Regensburg from the south.
- The Elector, then at the head of more than 8,000 men, forced to defenceless city council to 2 Bavarian bns to occupy the Danube Gate and to seize control of the three strong bridge towers.
- In the afternoon, Schlik’s Army evacuated Vilshofen and marched towards Passau, destroying part of the walls of Vilshofen before leaving. Schlik had heard that the vanguard of Limburg-Styrum had been defeated at Emhofen and that his main body was evacuating Upper Palatinate, making any junction impossible.
At about this time, the Bavarian garrison (1,400 men) of the Fortress of Rothenberg made forays into the neighbouring region of Nuremberg and raised contributions from numerous villages and towns.
On 8 April (Easter)
- In the morning, Maffei was about to bombard the seat of the German Reichstag when negotiations with the chamberlain and the city council finally came to a conclusion. A Bavarian garrison of 1,600 men under Colonel Santini occupied the bridge-towers and the Danube Gate.
On 9 April
- The Elector ordered the detachments still posted on the left bank of the Danube to cross the river near Donaustaufen, leaving 2,000 men to observe Limburg-Styrum who was still laying idle at Neumarkt. The Elector then hastened with some 10,000 men towards Straubing on his way to recapture Vilshofen.
- Another Bavarian detachment of 4,000 men was transported aboard ships and rafts.
On 10 April
- Limburg-Styrum, reacting to the recent Bavarian raid in the region of Nuremberg, decided to take repressive measures. He set off from Neumarkt and marched northeastwards by Lauterhofen against Amberg to raise a contribution of 200,000 Thalers.
- FML Johann Count Pálffy with part of the cavalry marched southwards against Berngau and Sulzbürg to cover the flank of Limburg-Styrum’s Army.
The put an end to the depredations of the garrison of Rothenberg, the Franconian estates sent General Baron Janus with 2,000 Franconian militias, to which FM Styrum added 1 bn, 1 dragoon sqn and 1 cuirassier sqn, against Rothenberg.
On 11 April, the Elector sent a letter to Villars, informing him that a Bavarian detachment would wait for Villars' relief army with provisions at Villingen at the beginning of May.
On 12 April
- The Elector arrived at Vilshofen and immediately started to reconstruct the city walls. He was hesitating between following Schlik’s Army which had taken position between Passau and Neuburg; or returning to Upper Palatinate where Limburg-Styrum was still threatening his estates. However, when the Elector received confirmation that Villars was preparing to cross the Rhine, he decided to remain on the defensive until he could effect a junction with Villars’ Army.
- Pállfy’s detachment, finding no enemy in the area of Sulzbürg, rejoined Limburg-Styrum’s Army.
On 15 April, the Elector of Bavaria set off from Vilshofen with the main body of his army and marched towards Ulm where he planned to effect the junction with Villars’ Army.
On 17 April, Lieutenant-General von der Schulenburg, who had been ordered to reinforce Limburg-Styrum’s Army in Upper Palatinate, set off from the region of Passau with the entire Saxon Contingent. He had been instructed to march, in a wide sweeping movement around the Bavarian positions, by Cham, Neukirchen (present-day Neukirchen bei Sulzbach-Rosenberg), Nuremberg and Nördlingen to Nürtingen, near Stuttgart.
On 20 April
- Baron Isselbach returned to his regiment, which had meanwhile been newly formed in Kaiserslautern.
On 22 April
- During the night, Baron Janus tried to surprise the garrison of Rothenberg. However, his attempt was thwarted by the vigilance of the Bavarian outposts and the clumsiness of the untrained Franconian militia.
By 23 April, Limburg-Styrum had abandoned his enterprise against Amberg, destroyed the walls of Neumarkt and retired to Hahnbach, north of Amberg to wait for the arrival of the Saxon Contingent. During the night, Limburg-Styrum was informed that the Elector of Bavaria was assembling a large force on the Danube and intended to cross the river at Donauwörth, Maxheim or Ingolstadt.
On 24 April
- At daybreak, Limburg-Styrum set off from Hahnbach and marched for 22 hours by Sulzbach, Lauterhofen and Neumarkt, reaching Freystadt during the night after a march of 58 km.
- The Saxon Contingent reached Nördlingen. It then remained in camps near Brenz and Haunsheim.
On 25 April in the afternoon, Limburg-Styrum detached FML Duke of Württemberg with 800 horse from Freystadt to the old mill near Eichstätt. But he gave a day’s rest to his infantry.
On 26 April, Limburg-Styrum resumed his march towards Nördlingen from where he could cover the Duchy of Württemberg.
On 27 April, Villars reached Offenburg. In the evening, he then sent forward M. de Blainville with 18 bns and 20 sqns along the Kinzig Valley to attack a fort at Hausen (unidentified location). On his way, Blainville made himself master of Gegenbach and Biberach. Meanwhile, Villars' Army sojourned two days in Offenburg.
Across Villars' way to Villingen stood the FZM Prosper Count von Fürstenberg with a few bns, some cavalry and several militia from Württemberg.
In the evening of 28 April, Blainville reached Haslach, a better defended town. He established his guns in front of the town whose garrison (180 men) soon surrendered as prisoners of war.
On 29 April
- Blainville marched to Hausach which was defended by a fort with five bastions surrounded by a wide and deep ditch. The fort was garrisoned by 300 peasants and 1 regular coy. Blainville stormed the fort before the Imperialists had time to throw additional troops in it. Blainville then encamped near this fort to wait for Villars' Army.
- Villars had bread for six days distributed to his troops. He had left 4 bns and 24 sqns at Offenburg to reinforce Tallard's Army.
- At 4:00 p.m., Villars’ supply convoy set off from Strasbourg.
- FZM von Fürstenberg retired towards prepared entrenched positions near Hornberg by way of Schiltach and the defile of Gutach with his 7,000 men (including peasant militia)
- Limburg-Styrum’s Army finally reached Nördlingen and encamped near Baldingen.
On the morning of 30 April, leaving Tallard alone to defend Alsace and Lorraine against Margrave Louis of Baden, Villars set off from Offenburg with 25 bns, 30 sqns and 44 pieces and plunged into the defiles of the Black Forest to effect a junction with the Bavarian Army and walk on Vienna. By noon, Villars personally joined Blainville's Corps at Hausach.
At the beginning of May, the Franconian Baron Janus reappeared in front of Rothenberg with fresh troops.
On 1 May
- Villars assembled part of his troops at Hausach before marching on Hornberg, a small fortified town protected by a castle located on a steep rock.
- Engagement of Hornberg
- The road from Hausach to Hornberg followed a narrow pass where the Count von Fürstenberg had thrown some 750 men. Furthermore, an entrenchment defended by 4,000 men extended on both sides of Hornberg.
- Villars detached all his grenadiers to the heights on each side of the pass. The grenadiers easily drove back the Imperialists from the heights and reached Hornberg where they attacked the rear of the entrenchments while the Dauphin Brigade, leading the march, attacked them frontally.
- The Imperialists were put to flight after a brief resistance and retired towards Lauterbach.
- In this action, the French lost only 3 officers and 20 soldiers killed or wounded, taking 150 prisoners. **Villars then marched on the town and on the castle which both surrendered without opposing any resistance. He also sent a detachment forward to seize the crest of the mountain near Gremmelsbach. This detachment occupied an abandoned redoubt securing the pass.
On 4 May, Limburg-Stryrum retired from Baldingen towards Esslingen, to the southeast of Stuttgart.
By 5 May, all of Villars' Army was assembled and rested at Hornberg. Villars had already sent advanced parties beyond Tuttlingen to obtain information about the Bavarian corps who should rendezvous with his army.
On 6 May
- Villars' Army marched from Hornberg to Villingen, a walled town surrounded by two ditches and defended by 350 men under Colonel Count Mercy. Villars summoned Mercy who refused to surrender. The French bombarded the place for four hours. Villars then left this town behind and resumed his advance, encamping at Donaueschingen at the debouché of the pass giving access to the Danube Valley.
- Villars also sent forward M. d'Usson at the head 1,200 horse to Tuttlingen. Upon his arrival there, d'Usson was informed that the Bavarian Major-General Weikhel was approaching with 5,000 men and a supply convoy for the French.
- The Elector, after driving Schlik back to Passau once more, had marched upstream along the Danube to Ehingen.
On 7 May
- The Bavarian Colonel Count Montigny with 300 horse of the vanguard, escorting a supply train destined to Villars’ Army, effected a junction with d’Usson’s vanguard.
- The Elector informed Villars that he was waiting for him at Ehingen where he stood with 5,650 men.
- A Bavarian Reserve of some 3,000 men was still assembling at Ulm.
- Part of the other Bavarian troops held the passages of the Danube, or were posted in observation in front of Schlik’s and Limburg-Styrum’s Army, or defended the Tyrolean passes .
- FZM Count Fürstenberg, had received reinforcements. He was posted at Wolfach at the head of 14,000 regulars and 1,000 Swabian peasants.
On 8 May
- Villars' Army marched to Möhringen near Tuttlingen.
- The Elector marched to Riedlingen.
- Baron Janus, who had just received a few cannon from Franconia, started the formal siege of the Fortress of Rothenberg which was defended by Colonel Sanbonifacio.
- At 11:00 a.m., Limburg-Styrum, who had reached Nürtingen, set out with 1,800 musketeers and 300 grenadiers for a coup-de-main against Ulm.
- At 1:00 p.m., FML Johann Count Pálffy and FML Duke Eberhard von Württemberg marched from Göppingen at the head of 1,600 horse towards Ulm.
On 9 May
- Villars had a conference with the Elector of Bavaria at Riedlingen.
- At midnight, Pálffy’s cavalry detachment arrived near Ulm.
- At daybreak, Limburg-Styrum’s infantry detachment also reached Ulm, too late to take the place by surprise.
- Limburg-Styrum and Pálffy abandoned their design against Ulm and retired towards Nürtingen.
On 10 May
- Villars, at the elector's request, submitted his view for the incoming campaign. As his army had to recover from the very arduous march undertaken since two weeks, Villars suggested to distribute it in quarters along the Danube from Tuttlingen to Riedlingen for a few weeks. Meanwhile, the elector would distribute his own army form Ehingen to Ulm and give it some rest in preparation for the campaign. Their first goal would then be the capture of Passau.
- General Maffei, who was encamped near Ulm, received orders to send a detachment of 2,000 men (1 bn of Maffei Infantry, 2 bns of Spielberg, 1 militia bn, 2 sqns of Monasterol Dragoons and 4 x 3-pdr regimental guns) to relieve Rothenberg.
- The Saxon Contingent was at Süssen.
On 12 May, Maffei set off from Amberg after assembling his detachment, marching by Sulzbach and Plech.
On 13 May, the Saxon Contingent under Lieutenant-General von der Schulenburg effected a junction with Limburg-Styrum’s Army at Nürtingen near Stuttgart.
By mid-May, Imperialist detachments belonging to Fürstenberg’s Corps reoccupied the passes in the Black Forest and cut communications between Villars and Tallard. At about the same time, the Margrave of Baden, who was still on the Rhine, was informed that the Elector of Bavaria was preparing an offensive against Passau and that the army of FML Count Schlik was too weak (12 bns, Jung-Hannover Cuirassiers, Schlik Dragoons and 3 coys of Raab Hussars for a total of 8,000 men with 20 artillery pieces) to oppose the advance of the Franco-Bavarians. The margrave refused to despatch part of Limburg-Styrum’s army to reinforce Schlik, considering that Franconia and Swabia were too seriously threatened to deplete Limburg-Styrum’s forces.
On 16 May
- The Elector of Bavaria reviewed Villars' Army and then left for Munich.
- The Bavarian Army (34 bns, 45 sqns and 64 guns) remained encamped between Ehingen and Riedlingen under the command of the Count von Arco.
- Villars detached 5 bns to join the Bavarian Army and 3,000 men under M. de Chamarande to capture the Castle of Bregenz.
On 19 and 20 May
- Villars distributed his army (30,000 men with 45 artillery pieces) along the Danube from Tuttlingen to Riedlingen and established his headquarters at Messkirch.
- The Bavarian Army marched downstream along the Danube towards Ulm where work was under way to prepare the embarkation of the army on boats.
Villars received intelligence about the Imperial corps of Styrum (13,000 men) who had marched away from the Danube towards the Neckar to protect the lines of communication of the Margrave of Baden.
When Maffei reached Schnaitach with his detachment, he learned that the small Imperialist force of Baron Janus counted 1,000 men more than his own force. He was reluctant to attack such a large force, retired behind the Pegnitz at Neuhaus and asked for reinforcements to FM Count Arco. However, Janus, who had learned of the approach of Maffei, left only a small detachment in front of Rothenberg and marched with 2,600 men to attack him.
On 23 May, Janus surprised Maffei’s detachment at Krottensee near Rothenberg. In this action the Bavarians lost 300 men and most of their baggage. Maffei retired southwards to Hohenstadt.
On 25 May, the Elector of Bavaria began the embarkation of his army at Ulm. He also asked Villars to march to Ulm with his own army.
On ?? May, the Elector of Bavaria sailed on the Danube with his infantry (including 5 French bns). He had left 14 sqns behind at Ulm.
On 27 May
- Villars detached M. de Lannion (10 bns, 24 sqns and some artillery) who marched from Messkirch to Ruelfingen (unidentified location) near Mengen.
- At the news of the engagement near Rothenberg, the Elector of Bavaria suddenly abandoned his design against Passau and decided to advance on Nuremberg instead, even instructing the cavalry left at Ulm to join him at Ingolstadt.
On 28 May
- Lannion's Corps marched to Neufra near Riedlingen where he was joined by 2 dragoon rgts.
- Villars and his headquarters went to Riedlingen; and M. d'Usson marched with 21 bns and 12 sqns to Ruelfingen.
- M. de Chamarande had been unable to capture the Castle of Bregenz but had made himself master of Ravensburg where he had left 300 foot and 100 horse to protect the line of communication with Schaffhausen in Switzerland. He then took position at Pfullendorf along this line of communication with the rest of his detachment.
On 29 May
- D'Usson's Corps marched to Neufra where it established itself, its right to the village and its left on the Danube. Meanwhile, M. de Marivault, who had been left behind at Sauldorf with 5 bns, 13 cavalry sqns and 1 dragoon rgt, marched to Denkingen (unidentified location) near Pfullendorf.
On 30 May
- Marivault effected a junction with Villars’ army at Neufra. Mengen was occupied by 1 infantry rgt and 1 cavalry rgt, while Riedlingen was occupied by 1 infantry rgt and the hussars encamped nearby. **Lannion's Corps (10 bns, 24 sqns) marched from Neufra to Emerkingen.
- Villars was informed that the Elector of Bavaria had changed his mind and now wanted to march on Nuremberg. Needless to say, he was very upset to see the elector suddenly change his entire plans and immediately wrote to him, enjoining him to come back to his initial design.
On 31 May
- Lannion marched downstream along the right bank of the Danube and encamped near Altbierlingen, opposite Ehingen.
- Villars, escorted by 2 dragoon rgts and 1 cavalry brigade, marched from Riedlingen and joined Lannion's Corps at Altbierlingen.
- D'Usson marched from Neufra with the rest of the army, the artillery and the train and went to Emerkingen.
- FML Margrave of Bayreuth was sent to the relief of Nuremberg with 5,000 men.
- Baron Janus, who was still besieging Rothenberg, received reinforcements bringing his force to some 4,000 men. He was instructed to march on Nuremberg.
- FML Count Pálffy was also sent towards Nuremberg with 1,000 horse.
- Count Schlik ceded command at Passau to Major-General Count Solari.
At the end of May, the Austrian districts on the right bank of the Danube were ordered to supply one fighting man for each five households. Some 6,000 militiamen were thus raised and organised in companies of 500 men each. They had to train on each Sunday and Holiday. They were soon placed under the command of Colonel Count Liebgott von Kufstein.
At the beginning of June, the Margrave of Bayreuth was at the head of some 10,000 men (his own corps plus Janus’ and Pálffy’s detachments).
On 1 June
- Villars at the head of 3 infantry brigades 2 cavalry brigades and 2 dragoon rgts marched to Göcklingen (unidentified location) near Ulm. D'Usson effected a junction with Villars' main army at Göcklingen.
- Lannion remained at Altbierlingen with 10 bns and 24 sqns.
- Riedlingen was still occupied by 1 bn; and Ravensburg by 300 foot and 100 horse.
- Villars also sent M. de Kercado with 400 horse to meet M. de Massembach coming back from Switzerland. On his way, Kercado bumped into a detachment of 800 men of Imperial troops which he forced to retire, bringing back M. de Massembach to camp.
- M. de la Tour was detached with 200 horse, 100 dragoons and 15 hussars northwards to reconnoitre the neighbouring of Blaubeuren. De la Tour located an Imperial detachment of 500 hussars and attacked them in their camp, driving them back into the mountains.
On June 2, Count Schlik marched by way of Neukirchen am Wald to Baierbach (unidentified location), leaving Solari at Passau approx. 3,000 men (1 bn of Holstein Plön Infantry, 1 bn of Albon Infantry and 5 other bns) with 12 artillery pieces. At Baierbach, he was joined by 2 other bns sent by Vienna.
On ?? June, 6,000 Prussians and Franconians entered into Nuremberg.
Villars made a second attempt to influence the Elector of Bavaria and to convince him to redirect his offensive towards Tirol. His envoy, the Comte du Bourg, along M. de Ricous finally managed to persuade the Elector to march against Tirol.
Imperial militias in Tirol were under the command of FML Johann Martin Gschwind Baron von Pöckstein since 1698. However, he had not taken his post until 1702 when the region became threatened. Gschwind was assisted by the Defensions-Rath (Council of Defence) who had its seat in Innsbruck. Half of the costs for armaments of these militia was supposed to be paid by the government. Late in 1702, Gschwind had already formed four militia regiments (a total of 8,311 militiamen):
- the 1ts Regiment, raised in the Inn Valley, consisted of 2,350 militiamen under the command of Colonel Maria Max Count von Althann
- the 2nd Regiment, raised in the valleys of Wipp and Puster and in the region of Eysack, consisted of 2,016 militiamen under the nominal command of Colonel Ludwig Xaver Count zu Lodron (he was abroad and did not assume command)
- the 3rd Regiment, raised in Nons, Sulz, the Adige, Burgraviate and Vintschgau, consisted of 2,054 militiamen under the command of Colonel Count Georg Friedrich von Spauer
- the 4th Regiment, raised in the Vlach confines, consisted of 1,891 militiamen under the command of Colonel Franz Sebastian Count zu Lodron
As danger increased, a large number of volunteers (including hunters) joined the Imperial Tyrolean militias. In the Fall of 1702, the militias of Austria proper had also begun to assemble.
On 3 June 1703
- Villars was informed that the Imperial corps assembled at Nuremberg (now counting 9,000 after integrating Imperial troops who had lifted the siege of Rothenberg) had marched to Lauffen on the Neckar.
- In the evening, the Margrave of Baden marched from Bühl with part of his Imperial army (16,000 men), leaving the rest (13,000 men) under the command of Field Marshal Thüngen to guard the entrenchments and the Lauter. The Margrave planned to effect a junction with Limburg-Styrum on the Neckar.
On June 4, FM Count Limburg-Styrum encamped at Gross-Süssen near Göppingen to wait for the arrival of the Margrave of Baden.
On June 5, FML Count Schlik marched from Baierbach to Neumarkt (maybe Neumarkt im Hausruckkreis)
The Elector of Bavaria sent a detachment to the left bank of the Danube at Ingolstadt and detached 10 sqns to reinforce Villars.
On 8 June
- Villars' Army marched for Altbierlingen towards Donauwörth to cover the right bank of the Danube while the Elector was campaigning in Tirol.
- Villars passed the Danube at Göcklingen with 2 cavalry rgts and 2 dragoon rgts and marched to Ulm where he repassed the river and encamped at Günzburg. Meanwhile, equipages followed the right bank of the Danube and passed the Iller at Unterkirchberg (probably Illerkirchberg); 3 infantry brigades under M. de Chamarande also followed the right bank, passed the Iller at Oberkirchberg and encamped at Leipheim.
- M. d'Usson with the rest of the army, the artillery and caissons set off from Dellmensingen, followed the same road as Chamarande and encamped at Nersingen.
On 9 June
- Villars marched from Günzburg with 2 dragoon rgts, 5 cavalry rgts (two who were with him the previous day and three sent forward from Leipheim and d'Usson's cavalry. He encamped on the right bank of the Danube, opposite Lauingen.
- D'Usson marched from Nersingen to Offingen with the main body, the artillery and caissons.
On 10 June at daybreak, Villars' Corps and d'Usson's Corps passed the Danube on the bridge of Lauingen and encamped at Gundelfingen with the Brenz River behind their camp. Villars resolved to remain in this camp to confront the Margrave of Baden.
Bavarian invasion of North Tirol
On 14 June
- The Elector set off from Munich for Tirol, reaching Rosenheim where his army was assembling.
- FML Schlik advanced from Neumarkt to Riedau and put the region to contribution.
On 15 June
- The 10 Bavarian sqns sent as reinforcements to Villars arrived at Gundelfingen.
- The Elector of Bavaria reviewed his army (8,000 foot, 700 horse) at Rosenheim. His forces consisted of:
- Colonel Count von Verità was left behind with 2 cavalry rgts and approx. 2,000 militia between Braunau and Schärding to observe Schlik’s Corps and if, possible to harass troops posted on the frontier with Upper Austria.
|Order of Battle|
|Imperialists troops at Gross-Süssen on 17 June|
On 17 June
- In the evening, the vanguard (100 grenadiers, 400 fusiliers under Colonel Chevalier de Montmorency) of the Elector’s Army stood on the Austrian border at Windshausen where there was a square blockhouse with a palisade guarded by 1 corporal, 10 soldiers and 30 militiamen. Montmorency summoned the garrison but the corporal refused to surrender. Montmorency then occupied a height to the south of the blockhouse.
- The Margrave of Baden effected a junction with Limburg-Styrum’s Corps at Gross-Süssen. After this junction, his army counted 22,000 men (28 bns, 81 sqns and 41 artillery pieces).
- Major-General Baron Aufsass at the head of 3,000 men had recently invested the Fortress of Rothenberg for a second time.
- FML Margrave of Bayreuth was at Nuremberg with 10,000 men.
- The 1st Tyrolean Militia Regiment (approx. 2,000 men), under Colonel von Althann assembled in a camp near Innsbruck.
On 18 June
- In the morning, Montmorency received the capitulation of the defenders of Windshausen. The soldiers became prisoners of war while the militiamen were sent back to their homes after promising not to serve against the Bavarians.
- The Elector of Bavaria set off from Rosenheim with the main body of his army and marched to Erl.
- The 1st Tyrolean Militia Regiment marched from Innsbruck to Schwaz where it was reinforced with 250 militiamen.
- The city of Kufstein was defended by 150 men of the Gschwind Infantry (mostly recruits) and 150 militiamen under the command of Captain Count Peter von Wolkenstein of the militia; while 170 men of the Gschwind Infantry and 30 militiamen with 8 artillerymen under Captain Franz Josef von Cornau garrisoned the citadel. These troops had provisions for five weeks and there 70 pieces of artillery in the castle and on the walls.
On 19 June
- In the morning, the main body of the Elector’s Army reached Ebs, 5 km north of Kufstein.
- The Elector then rested his army, sending FM Count Arco with Ingenieur-Major Tardif, a few ingenieur-officers, 60 hussars, 200 dragoons and 100 grenadiers towards Kufstein to reconnoitre the place.
- Around 10:00 a.m., FM Arco arrived in front of Kufstein. He sent General-Adjutant von Lontheim to vainly summon the Count Wolkenstein to surrender. The latter set fire to the suburbs to clear his field of fire. However, the wind pushed the flames towards the town where many houses caught fire and the garrison was unable to extinguish the conflagration. However, the flames spread to the castle itself. Seeing that the entire town was burning, Wolkenstein decided to seek refuge in the citadel. The ammunition depots of the citadel exploded. Finally, around 4:00 p.m., a heavy rain extinguished the fire.
- The Elector retired to Ebs where he encamped, leaving only a few bns and sqns in front of Kufstein.
- At his arrival at Kufstein FML Baron Gschwind arrived in Kufstein and ordered Major Cornau to defend the citadel to the last man. He then left for Rattenberg.
- The 1st Tyrolean Militia Regiment was broken down into detachments:
- 2 coys and some volunteers marched by Achental to the Achenpass.
- 1 coy with a few pieces was sent to Kitzbühel.
- 3 coys marched to Rattenberg, intending to mach to Kufstein the next day.
On 20 June
- At 4:00 a.m., the Elector of Bavaria set off from Ebs and advanced on Kufstein.
- At 8:00 a.m., The Elector arrived in front of the Northern Gate, the whole town had been abandoned. A grenadier coy occupied the gate despite the lively fire from the defenders of the citadel.
- Ingenieur Tardif found a way to access a tower and launch an attack with a few men. The surprise was so complete that he managed to enter into the place and to take Major Cornau prisoner.
- By 3:00 p.m., the Bavarians were masters of Kufstein. Colonel Baron Seefeld was appointed commandant of the place and occupied it with a garrison of 350 men.
On 21 June
- In Tirol, part of the troops of the Elector approached Wörgl. After the evacuation of the place, the Elector established his new headquarters there. Some Bavarian sqns reached Kundl.
- In Tirol, the garrison of Wörgl (3 coys of the 1st Tyrolean Militia Regiment) retired to Rattenberg which was garrisoned by 319 regulars (mostly recruits) under Captain Rudolf Wilhelm Jahnus von Eberstorf and 3 coys (700 men) of militia under Colonel Count Althan. The Imperialists also had some 30 pieces to defend the place.
On 22 June
- In Tirol, the Elector’s vanguard appeared in front of Rattenberg, driving the militia out of the suburb, inside the walled town. Upon arrival, the Elector decided to make a formal siege, opening the trench of the first parallel at 9:00 p.m. at some 150 m. from the walls.
- In Tirol, the garrison of Rattenberg was rapidly reduced to only 300 men through desertion. Meanwhile, Captain Count Wolkenstein took position on the hills on the left bank of the Inn near Mariatal. Finally some 75 miners under Ingenieur-Captain Hildebrandt were erecting entrenchments in front of the bridge at the mouth of the Ziller.
- After the arrival of the Bavarians, the defenders of Rattenberg set fire to the suburb.
- In Bavaria, FML Schlik received orders to send Solari back to Tirol with 6 bns (2 bns of Guido Starhemberg Infantry, 1 bn of Solari Infantry. 2 bns of Daun Infantry, 1 bn of Kriechbaum Infantry).
On 23 June
- In Bavaria, Villars was informed that the Margrave of Baden had effected a junction with Styrum's Army; and that the Imperial corps who had occupied Nuremberg was still stationed there under the command of the Margrave of Bayreuth.
- In Württemberg, the Margrave of Baden marched with 22,000 men from Gross-Süssen to Lonsee.
- In Tirol, at daybreak, the defenders of Rattenberg opened such a lively fire that the besiegers interrupted their work. The latter were quite surprised when the defenders hoisted a white flag. The capitulation was signed in the evening. The garrison obtained free withdrawal.
- In Tirol, FML Gschwind reached Rotholz on the left bank of the Inn.
On Sunday 24 June
- In Bavaria, Villars decamped from Gundelfingen and marched downstream along the Danube to occupy new positions which he had already reconnoitred between Lauingen and Dillingen in Bavaria. His front was covered by the Swerck Stream. Villars anchored his right wing on Dillingen, where he established his headquarters, and his left wing on Lauingen. Work immediately started to entrench the left wing of these new positions.
- In Tirol, the main body of the Elector’s Army reached Schwaz.
- In Württemberg, the army of the Margrave of Baden marched from Lonsee to Langenau. Parties advanced up to the gates of Ulm.
- In Tirol, before daybreak, FML Gschwind set off from Rotholz with 280 men. At noon, he passed the bridge at Rotholz, and his men had enough time to remove part of the bridge and dig the road before the arrival of the Bavarian vanguard (200 horse) led by the Lieutenant-Colonel Count Tauffkirchen. Gschwind then marched towards Ambras.
- In Tirol, at 5:00 a.m., the garrison of Rattenberg set off for Salzburg.
On 25 June
- In Tirol, the main body of the Elector’s Army reached Hall where a deputation from Innsbruck. The Elector required the daily supply of provisions for 18,000 men and 5,000 horses and a contribution of 120,000 Gulden for the month of July. He also asked to immediately recall the regulars and militia defending the northern frontier passes.
- In Württemberg, the entire Imperial army took position in the plain of Langenau where the Margrave of Baden remained idle for a while.
- In Tirol, Gschwind’s small detachment arrived at the Castle Ambras in the morning to remove part the treasury and bring in in safety. Some 300 Tyrolean peasants and militia took position on a height to delay the Bavarian vanguard, allowing Gschwind to escape with the treasury.
On the night of 25 to 26 June, the administrators of Innsbruck ordered Captain Schöps to retire from Scharnitz. However, the troops remained at their posts.
On 26 June
- In Tirol, the main body of the Elector’s Army reached Mühlau. The Elector established his headquarters near Arzl. In the evening, he went to the Castle of Ambras where he seized what was left of the treasury.
- In Tirol, Gschwind resumed his march towards the Brenner Pass.
- In Tirol, as General-Adjutant advanced towards the Brenner Pass, the Tyrolean militia of the valleys of the Adige and Eisack were called to arms. Major-General Count Guttenstein at the head of 200 men of the Guttenstein Infantry, 350 men of the Nigrelli Infantry and 50 dragoons set off from Rovereto and advanced towards Brixen (present-day Bressanone).
On 27 June
- In Tirol, the Elector sent detachment against the Imperialists still posted at Scharnitz and Leutasch.
- In South Tirol, General-Adjutant Pol reached Sterzing (present-day Vipiteno) with 2 sqns.
On June 28
- In Tirol, the vanguard (some 200 men of the Monasterol Dragoons and 110 French foot) led by Lieutenant-Colonel Count Tauffkirchen and Colonel Novion reached Landeck unopposed in the evening. The Marquis de Novion immediately occupied the town, the bridge and the castle.
- In Tirol, Major-General Lützelburg with 1,000 men and 4 artillery pieces made himself master of the Castle of Hörtenberg near Pfaffenhofen which was defended by a small detachment of 40 militiamen. Lützelburg left 1 coy to garrison the castle.
- In South Tirol, General-Adjutant Pol reached the “Brixner Kläusel” with 2 sqns. It found the place occupied by Tyrolean peasants, 50 dragoons and 2 coys of Guttenstein Infantry.
- In South Tirol, the detachment of Nigrelli Infantry took position on the heights at the mouth of the Jaufen Valley. He was soon joined by Count Brandis and Baron von Flugi at the head of a few hundreds militia from the region of Meran (present-day Merano).
On 29 June
- In Bavaria, Villars, realizing that the Margrave of Baden intended to attack his positions, made what he could to draw him into a battle.
- In Tirol, Lützelburg’s column reached the Fernpass which was defended by 30 peasants who surrendered with opposing any resistance. Lützelburg let a small detachment to defend the pass.
- In South Tirol, Pol retired to Sterzing where he raised a contribution of 7,000 Gulden. He then once more took the direction of the Brenner Pass.
- In Württemberg, the Imperial army decamped from the neighbourhood of Langenau, advanced to Sontheim/Brenz and threw bridges on the Brenz.
- In Tirol, a few regular coys and the militia, threatened to be isolated, abandoned their positions at Scharnitz and Leutasch and retired into the mountain, leaving 20 cannon and some ammunition behind.
- FML Schlik arrived at Ried where he was informed that a small Bavarian detachment under Colonel Count Verità was posted nearby at Altheim. Schlik decided to attack this detachment with his superior forces.
- In South Tirol, the Imperialist detachment posted in the Jaufen Valley marched to Gasteig to threaten Pol’s line of retreat.
On 30 June
- In Bavaria, Villars was informed that the Margrave of Bayreuth was on the march from Nuremberg towards Nördlingen, intending to effect a junction with the army of the Margrave of Baden.
- In Bavaria, a French detachment (50 foot and 150 horse) under M. de la Tour, sent to raise contributions at Donauwörth, was attacked by 100 hussars but managed to escape.
- In Tirol, Lützelburg advanced with 700 men and 4 artillery pieces by Lermoos towards the Ehrenberg Pass while the small detachment which he had left behind at the Fernpass entrenched itself above the Blindsee. The Ehrenberg Pass was strongly defended by a large fort on the Schlossberg, about 3 km south of Reutte. The Imperialist garrison comprised 300 militiamen under the command of Lieutenant-Colonel Baron von Rost. Furthermore, a second defensive work, the Claudi Fort, defended by 60 peasants, stood on a terrace of the opposite Tauernberg. The Schlossberg Fort was 40 cannon and 4 mortars mounted on its walls. And was well supplied in provisions and ammunition. In the evening, when Lützelburg’s vanguard got close to Fort Claudi, the garrison of this small fort ran away without firing a single shot. Lützelburg then took measures to cut the lines of communication of the Schlossberg Fort and wrote to the Elector of Bavaria, asking for two 24-pdr guns. However, his courier was intercepted by the Tyrolean peasants.
On the night of June 30 to July 1 in South Tirol, the Imperialist detachments coming from the Jaufen and the “Kläusel” effected a junction at Sterzing.
On 1 July
- Engagements on the Inn River
- In Tirol, the Marquis de Novion set off from Landeck with his 200 dragoons and 110 foot and marched under pouring rain in the direction of Prutz. On their way, they fell into an ambush laid by 500 Tyroleans near the bridge of Pontlazt. At noon, the remnants of Novion’s detachment reached the bridge of Landeck where a second detachment of Tyrolean militia stood in their way. Finally, the Marquis de Novion along with Count Tauffkirchen, Major de Blanzy and only 20 men managed to escape this new ambush. They rode to the bridge of Zams. But the access to this bridge was also blocked by armed peasants. After a desperate attempt to break through, Novion and the other survivors surrendered. In this action, the Franco-Bavarians lost 60 men killed, 150 wounded and 100 taken prisoners. Not a single one escaped. For their part the Tyroleans lost 1 men killed and 8 wounded.
- In Tirol, Captain Koppenhagen arrived at Landeck from Feldkirch with a company of 80 men. Prompted by Sterzinger, almost 4,000 peasants from the immediate vicinity gathered within an hour, who along the regulars immediately marched on Nassereith.
- Combat of Mühlheim
- FML Count Schlik attacked and defeated Verità’s detachment (2 cavalry rgts and approx. 2,000 militia) entrenched behind breastworks near Mühlheim
- In Tirol, Lützelburg’s 4 guns opened on the Schlossberg Fort which answered with a lively fire.
- In South Tirol, in the evening, 1 coy of the 2nd Tyrolean Militia Regiment, under the command of Count Brandis, advanced to Lueg near the Brenner Pass to observe and follow Pol’s Bavarian cavalry detachment. They killed some stragglers and captured others. The Brenner Pass is located at an altitude of 1,897 m. and measures some 280 paces wide. It is so flat that its highest point that its highest point is hardly perceivable.
On the night of 1 to 2 July, a few Imperialist detachments under Captain Koppenhagen reached Nassereith while Sterzinger marched by Petersberg and Hörtenberg to rally additional peasants.
On 2 July
- In Tirol, Captain Koppenhagen marched on Fernstein.
- In South Tirol, a large number of militia reinforced the detachment posted at Sterzing. Part of them joined Brandis near the Brenner Pass. Brandis was also reinforced with 350 men of the Nigrelli Infantry and a second coy of the 2nd Tyrolean Militia Regiment. Brandis started to work at an entrenchment on the Brenner Pass.
- In Tirol, the Elector of Bavaria entered into Innsbruck.
- In Tirol, alarmed by the recent news, Lützelburg marched on Reutte in the evening with 60 horse and 200 foot while his artillery continued to bombard the Schlossberg Castle. Lützelburg made himself master of Reutte and forced the burghers to write a letter to Baron Rost, who commanded at the Schlossberg Fort, informing him that if he did not surrender, the town of Reutte would be burned and its population executed.
- In South Tirol, Pol’s cavalry detachment had entrenched near Pfruntsch (unidentified location) during the night.
- In South Tirol, around noon, Maréchal de Camp Dubordet at the head of 3 bns (Condé Infanterie, Guyenne Infanterie and Lannoy Infanterie) effected a junction with Pol’s cavalry detachment near Pfruntsch. He pushed his outposts in the direction of the Brenner Lake
On 3 July
- In Bavaria, Villars sent orders to M. de Fontbeausard, posted near Ulm with 800 horse, to launch an incursion into Württemberg. He also detached M. du Héron at Donauwörth and retired Legall's detachment from Ulm to secure the Lower-Danube from Dillingen to Ulm. Villars estimated that the Imperial army counted some 5,500 men more than his own army (25,000 men). He also estimated that the Imperial army would count 40,000 men when the Margrave of Bayreuth would have effected his junction.
- In Tirol, Lützelburg returned from his raid on Reutte and transmitted the letter of the burghers to Baron Rost who commanded the Schlossberg Fort. During the day, 200 men of the garrison of the fort deserted.
- In South Tirol, Dubordet and Pol erected a second entrenchment near the Brenner Pass.
- In Bavaria, the Imperial army marched from Sontheim, passed the Brenz and took positions on the heights, 2 km from Villars' positions, establishing its headquarters in the Castle of Haunsheim, its left at Wittislingen Only the Swerck Stream now separated the two armies.
- In South Tirol, Brandis posted his troops on the heights bordering the Brenner Pass.
- In Bavaria, the army of the Margrave of Baden crossed the Brenz River near Gundelfingen. It then encamped facing south behind the Egau on the heights of Wittislingen.
- Solari’s detachment (6 bns) set off from Passau for Tirol.
On 4 July
- In Bavaria, the Margrave of Baden ordered the construction of eight redoubts in front of his camp near Wittislingen.
- In Tirol, Baron Rost who commanded the Schlossberg Fort hoisted the white flag.
- In Tirol, when Captain Koppenhagen and Sterzinger heard that the Schlossberg Fort had surrendered, they retired by Fernstein to Imst.
- In South Tirol, Major-General Count Guttenstein arrived at the entrenchments of the Brenner Pass. After reconnoitring the surrounding, Guttenstein gave orders to abandon the entrenchments and to retire to Sterzing.
On 5 July in Tirol, the Schlossberg Fort capitulated.
On 6 July
- In Tirol, the remains of the garrison of the Schlossberg Fort evacuated the place.
- In South Tirol, a reinforcement of 1,000 men (including 500 Hayducks), sent by the Marquis de Vaubonne from Monte Baldo, arrived at Brixen. Major-General Guttenstein was now at the head of 1,500 regulars which he used to defend the Eisack Valley.
- In Bavaria, the Margrave of Baden reported to the emperor that he had given command of a cavalry corps (2,300 horse 400 hussars) to FML la Tour with instruction to advance from Ulm, eventually cross the Danube and cut Villars’ line of communication with Switzerland.
- In Tirol, Baron Lützelburg occupied the Ehrenberg Pass with 300 men.
On 8 July
- In Bavaria, Villars extended his positions along the Danube, occupying the town and the Castle of Höchstädt (150 men) and sending the 10 Bavarian sqns towards Regensburg.
- The Elector of Bavaria chose this moment to recall 4,000 men (4 bns and 6 sqns) from Tölz (present-day Bad Tölz) in the region of Augsburg to reinforce his own army operating in Tirol. General Maffei penetrated into Tirol at Mittenwald, marched across the Scharnitz Pass by Seefeld and Zirl.
- In Tirol, the heavy artillery park sent from Braunau arrived at Innsbruck.
On 9 July
- In Tirol, General Maffei effected a junction with the main army at Innsbruck. The Elector was now at the head of 15,800 men.
- In Bavaria, the Margrave of Bayreuth finally arrived at Nördlingen. There he received new orders from the Magrave of Baden, instructing him to continue his march towards the Danube up to Ballmertshofen, 6 km north of Wittislingen
On 10 July
- In Bavaria, the Imperial army started to entrench itself around Haunsheim. Meanwhile, the Margrave of Bayreuth attacked the small town of Veubling (unidentified location).
On 11 July
- In Tirol, leaving 300 men to occupy the Ehrenberg Pass, Baron Lützelbug marched with 400 men by Nassereith to Innsbruck.
In Tirol, the Franco-Bavarians had now made themselves masters of Kufstein, Rattenberg, Scharnitz, the Leutasch Pass and the Ehrenberg Pass. They were also entrenching themselves at the Brenner Pass. Meanwhile the Imperialist defender were still waiting for relief forces sent from Passau (Solari with 6 bns totalling some 3,000 men) and from Italy but these forces were still faraway.
On 12 July
- In Bavaria, the Margrave of Bayreuth set off from Nördlingen and marched to wards Ballmertshofen.
On 14 July
- In Bavaria, the Margrave of Bayreuth encamped between Balmertshofen and Dattenhausen on the Egau at 4 km of the main Imperial army. An Imperial detachment was in the area of Donauwörth and another was approaching from Regensburg.
On 15 July
- In Bavaria, the Prussian Wartensleben Horse (5 sqns) and the Upper Saxony District Crassau Dragoons (2 sqns) arrived at the camp of Haunsheim.
- On the Rhine, a Prussian corps (3 infantry rgts, 1 horse rgt, 1 dragoon rgt, and 6 x 3-pdrs) and Hanoverians set off from Geldern, on its way to effect a junction with the Imperial army at Haunsheim.
- In Bavaria, Villars recalled M. de Legall from Donauwörth and sent him to Ulm, leaving only Héron's detachment at Donauwörth. He also sent M. de Fontbeausard to occupy a castle on the Iller between Ulm and Memmingen. One of his detachment (80 horse and 30 sqns) made itself master of Aichstetten which was defended by 200 men.
Even after the arrival of reinforcements, the Margrave of Baden remained idle in his camp. However, his cavalry was running short of forage and had to go up 30 km from the camp to find proper forages.
On 17 July
- In Tirol, Baron von Flugi managed to drive the Franco-Bavarians out of their entrenchment near the source of the Eisack, forcing them to retire to the Brenner Pass.
- In Tirol, the Elector of Bavaria was informed that Vendôme was preparing to launch his offensive in South Tirol The Elector was now anxious to keep the Brenner Pass open to make a junction possible. He decided to take the offensive and to march towards the Brenner Pass with the main body of his army from his present camp near Wiltau (unidentified location), just south of Innsbruck.
On 18 July
- In Tirol, Major Johann Franz Baron von Heindl arrived at Landeck with 1 bn of Gschwind Infantry after marching from Bozen by Meran. After the junction with the company of Captain Koppenhagen, Heindl was at the head of 680 men and 2 guns.
- In Tirol, approx. 2,000 peasants were requisitioned to build entrenchments at Hall. However, only 160 showed up.
On 19 July
- In Tirol, Colonel Count Arco set off from Wiltau during the evening with the vanguard (3 bns) of the Bavarian army.
On 20 July
- In Tirol, the Elector set off from Wiltau in the morning with 3,000 men, leaving Colonel von Verità with 500 horse and 6 artillery pieces. The Franco-Bavarian force already defending the Brenner Pass consisted of some 6,500 men with several batteries.
- In Bavaria, a cavalry detachment recalled from the Rhine, where it was formerly attached to Thüngen's Army, arrived at the camp of the Margrave of Baden.
- In Tirol, Solari’s force (6 bns for a total of 4,000 men including recruits) arrived to the south of the Brenner Pass. Militia detachment were immediately sent forward to skirmish with the Franco-Bavarian outposts in the Lueg Pass.
- In Tirol, Imperial detachments occupied Nassereith and Telfs. A few hundreds militia and 1 coy of Gschwind Infantry entrenched itself on a height near Nassereith to cut communication between the Franco-Bavarian garrison of the Ehrenberg and Innsbruck.
On 21 July
- In Bavaria, Villars sent 400 horse under MM. de Bouzols and de Kerkado against a detachment of 500 horse guarding pastures to the left of the army. The French horse drove the Imperialists back to their main camp, capturing a standard. Villars was also informed that Allied troops were marching by Tübingen towards the Danube and that the Margrave of Baden had several boats built at the Castle of Albeck. Some 8 km from the Danube.
- In Tirol, the Bavarian bns, who had been driven of their outposts on the Lueg Pass, recaptured these outposts.
- In Tirol, Brigadier Dubordet maintained his position at the Brenner Pass with 3 French bns while 1 bn of Maffei Infantry took position at Matrei to protect the line of communication with Innsbruck. All other troops were instructed to retire to Wiltau.
- In Tirol, leaving a detachment at Nassereith (1 coy of Gschwind Infantry and a few hundreds militia), Heindl marched in three column with the rest of his force (the other coys of Gschwind Infantry and 1,500 peasants) marched against the passes of Leutasch and Scharnitz and the Bavarian outpost at Zirl. Heindl personally led the column (3 regular coys and the peasants of Telfs, Seefeld and Imst) which advanced against the Porta Claudia fort defending the Pass of Scharnitz. The fort was garrisoned by 1 Bavarian coy and a few dragoons with 18 artillery pieces. After a few hours the Bavarians, threatened to be encircled by Heindl’s column, evacuated the Porta Claudia and blew up part of the fort. Heindl’s second column easily made itself master of the Leutasch Pass. Around noon, the third column attacked the Bavarian detachment (240 foot and dragoons) at Zirl. Only 18 Bavarian dragoons managed to escape.
- In Tirol, the Imperialists also made themselves master of Rattenberg and Hall.
On 22 July
- In Tirol, 1,600 men set off from Hall and marched in the direction of Innsbruck.
- In Tirol, Heindl marched with 3 coys of Gschwind Infantry from Scharnitz to Zirl. The rest of his force was left behind to garrison Leutasch and Scharnitz.
- In Tirol, 2 bns (approx. 1,000 men) were encamped near Wiltau not far from Innsbruck. At noon, they were joined by the Monasterol Dragoons. At 3:00 p.m., the rest of the troops previously posted at the Brenner Pass arrived at Wiltau.
By 23 July
- 1,600 Tyroleans had assembled at Arzl, 800 on the Martinswand, 400 peasants and 150 Imperialist soldiers at the “Black Cross” near Völs, and 400 Imperialist soldiers at Zirl. Furthermore, there were 400 peasants in Hall.
- After the departure of the Bavarians from Wiltau, the Tyroleans advanced from Arzl and attacked the village of Mühlau, occupied by 50 Bavarians.
- In Bavaria, part of the cavalry corps of FML de la Tour crossed the Danube near Munderkingen while the rest of the corps remained at Ehingen, crossing the river a few days later. The horse sqns were then sent towards Wiblingen near the mouth of the Iller, while the hussars, supported by a small infantry detachment, occupied Biberach and roamed the country from there to Ravensburg.
- In Tirol, the Elector of Bavaria decided to attack the Imperialist positions on both banks of the Inn.
- Engagements along the Inn
- At 5:00 a.m., a column of 2,500 men under the command of Lieutenant-General Count Ricour and Major-General Baron Lützelburg advanced along the right bank. The Elector personally accompanied this column. Meanwhile, another column of 3,000 men (5 bns and the entire cavalry) under Lieutenant-General Saufré marched along the left bank. The rest of the Bavarian force remained in reserve the camp of Wiltau under General Maffei.
- Ricour’s column vainly tried to dislodge the peasant defending the entrenchments at the Black Cross. The Elector then recalled his cavalry from the left bank. The cavalry passed the Inn and attack the rear of the entrenchments at the Black Cross. The defenders managed to escape, making their way through the ranks of the Monasterol Dragoons and taking position on the heights of Axams.
- On the left bank, the Bavarians attacked an entrenchment at Meilbrunnen and captured it after suffering heavy casualties. The defenders retired to another entrenchment at the “Plattele” where they joined 150 Imperialist soldiers. The Bavarians were unable to dislodge them from these positions, losing 60 men in their attempt.
- General Maffei then marched with 2,000 men from Wiltau to reinforce Saufré on the left bank, leaving Major-General Monasterol behind with a small detachment. Furthermore, the Elector sent some artillery pieces from the right bank.
- Saufré launched a second attack and made himself master of the entrenchment of the “Plattele.”
- A Bavarian dragoon sqn caught up with the defenders as they were retiring on Zirl and routed them. The dragoons killed a large number of men and made several prisoners. The Imperialist soldiers posted at Zirl under the command of Heindl tried to support the peasants but were overwhelmed, losing 80 men killed and 100 taken prisoners while the militia lost 50 men killed and 70 taken prisoners.
- Combats ended around 11:00 a.m.
- The Bavarians set fire to the towns and villages of Zirl, Unter-Perfuss, Kematen, Afling and Völs.
- The Elector gave orders to Ricour to send a few bns and 8 artillery pieces back to Innsbruck.
On 24 July
- In Tirol, Heindl, who had retired to Telfs where he had recalled the garrisons of Scharnitz and Leutasch, set off before daybreak with 300 soldiers and 400 militia.
- In Tirol, Sanfré’s column marched by Seefeld to Scharnitz where it arrived around 6:00 p.m. Sanfré was informed that the entrenchments defending the pass had been evacuated. He threw 3 bns into these entrenchments.
On 25 July
- In Tirol, after making himself master of the Scharnitz Pass, Sanfré returned to Innsbruck. The same day, sick and wounded were transported from Innsbruck to Scharnitz on their way to Bavaria. In the afternoon, they were followed by the heavy artillery. In the evening, the Bavarians set off from their camp near Wiltau and marched to Hötting where they encamped.
- Maffei took position with 3 bns at the foot of the Isel to wait for the arrival of Dubordet's exhausted detachment which had retired from the Brenner Pass.
- In Bavaria, Villars was informed that the Duc de Bourgogne had been advancing on Kehl on the Rhine and that the Elector of Bavaria was marching from Innsbruck to Brixen to effect a junction with Vendôme's Army arriving from Northern Italy (he still ignored the latest developments in Tirol).
In Tirol, Major-General Solari, left 3 bns under Major-General Guttenstein to follow the retiring Bavarians and marched with 3 other bns towards South-Tirol.
On 26 July in Tirol, the Franco-Bavarians resumed their retreat, marching from Hötting to Zirl while Maffei’s and Dubordet’s detachments acted as rearguard.
On 27 July
- In Tirol, at 7:00 a.m., the Franco-Bavarians reached Seefeld.
- In Tirol, at 9:00 a.m., Imperialist hussars and dragoons triumphantly entered into Innsbruck. They were soon followed by the South-Tyrolean militias of Meran and Bozen. In the afternoon, Count Guttenstein at the head of 3 bns also arrived at Innsbruck.
On 27 July
- In Tirol, 2 Imperialist sqns set off, supported by a few detachments, to follow the retiring Franco-Bavarians. Around noon, they caught up with the French rearguard near Martinswand, taking several prisoners.
On 28 July
- In Tirol, in the morning, Colonel Baron Wetzel who had been detached by Major-General Count Guttenstein with 1 bn (400 men) and ½ dragoon sqn, reached Seefeld. The dragoons caught up with the Franco-Bavarian rearguard under Major Marquis Beauveau at the Castle of Milser. However, seeing that the Franco-Bavarian detachment was much too large to be attacked by their small numbers, they retired on Seefeld. Wetzel then advanced against the castle with his bn and made himself master of the place after a combat of 30 minutes. Wetzel established his camp between Seefeld and the Castle of Milser to wait for reinforcements before advancing on the Scharnitz Pass.
- In Tirol, Major-General Guttenstein, who was in Innsbruck, posted 2 bns in the entrenchments of the “Plattele” near Martinswand.
- In Tirol Major Baron Heindl set off from Imst with the remnants of his bn (350 men).
- The Elector of Bavaria crossed the frontier between Bavaria and Tirol with the main body of his army and marched to Mittenwald. In his unfortunate expedition in Tirol, he had lost approx. 3,000 men both French and Bavarians, and 14 artillery pieces. However, the Ehrenberg Pass, the Scharnitz Pass and Kufstein were still occupied by Bavarian troops.
On the night of 28 to 29 July, hunger drove several Imperialist soldiers belonging to Wetzel’s detachment to desert.
On 29 July
- In Tirol, Major Baron Heindl with the remnants of his bn effected a junction with Wetzel’s detachment near Seefeld. Wetzel was now at the head of 2 bns totalling 800 men but he estimated that he was not strong enough to attack the Franco-Bavarians at the Scharnitz Pass.
- The Elector of Bavaria was informed that Vendôme had finally advanced in South Tirol. He then decided to renew his offensive in North Tirol and gave orders to Major-General Maffei to recall to Scharnitz the troops cantoned in the region of Mittenwald.
On 30 July
- In Tirol, Major-General Baron Lützelburg advanced from the Scharnitz Pass with 1,800 men and 2 artillery pieces against Wetzel’s outpost near the Castle of Milser but was repulsed. However, Lützelburg received 2 fresh bns sent by Major-General Maffei. With these reinforcements, he renewed his attack and drove the Imperialists back. In the afternoon Bavarian cavalrymen reached Leithen and the Castle of Fragenstein.
- In Bavaria, Villars was informed that Tyrolean peasants had revolted against the Bavarian invaders and seized Hall and the forts of Scharnitz while the Elector was preparing to attack a post defending the Brenner Pass. The Elector had had to force his way back to Innsbruck to re-establish communications with his line of supply. He had also sent a detachment who had re-occupied Scharnitz. At these news, Villars decided to reinforce Legall's detachment at Ulm, sending him Héron's detachment from Donauwörth where it was replaced by the 10 Bavarian sqns previously posted towards Ingolstadt and Regensburg. Legall had just received these reinforcements when he learned that the Count de la Tour had passed the Danube at Munderkingen with an Imperial corps of some 4,500 horse.
- In Tirol, the inhabitants of Reutte disarmed the Bavarian garrison.
- In Tirol, Captain Koppenhagen with his coy (100 men) advanced from Bregenz to the Ehrenberg Pass. In the evening, assisted by 1,500 peasants and militia, he invested the Fortress of Ehrenberg which was defended by 270 Bavarians under Major Baron Haydon.
- In Württemberg, the cavalry corps of FML de la Tour encamped near Emerkingen and sent out detachments in various directions.
In the night of 30 to 31 July in Bavaria, Maréchal de Camp Legall assembled 2 bns (700 foot), 18 sqns and 500 detached horse (a total of some 3,000 men) near Offenhausen and marched against de La Tour's Corps. Legall crossed the Iller near Wiblingen and marched all night, his infantry riding pillion.
On 31 July
- In Bavaria, after marching all night, Legall attacked the cavalry corps of FML de la Tout and defeated it in the Combat of Munderkingen.
- In Tirol, Imperialist detachments occupied the entrenchments of Gallas to the north of Eichelwang, the Windhausen Pass and the Thiersee Hermitage but their raid against Kufstein failed.
- In Tirol, around noon, the artillery of the Fortress of Ehrenberg opened on the Tyrolean militia posted near the Katzenmühle. However, the militia managed to seize an overlooking height where they established 4 artillery pieces.
At the end of July, FML Count Schlik set off from Passau with half of his 2 cavalry rgts for Pressburg (present-day Bratislava) on his way to curb Rákóczi Uprising in Hungary. He left some 2,000 men in Passau under Major-General Baron Ritschan as interim commander until the arrival of FML Christian Count Reventlau.
On ?? August, Count Reventlau arrived in Austria with 6,000 Danes. He then effected a junction with the 2,000 men that Count Schlik had left at Passau when leaving for Hungary.
On 1 August
- In Tirol, Major-General Marquis Maffei set off from Scharnitz with 7 bns, 4 dragoon sqns, 1 hussar sqn and 4 guns. He effected a junction with Lützelburg’s column at the Castle of Misler and reached Seefeld where he encamped, sending strong detachments against Zirl and Telfs to raise contributions.
- The Elector remained at Mittenwald to wait for the arrival of regiments which he had recalled from the Danube.
- In South Tirol, FZM Count Sigbert Heister assembled a force of 1,400 men (1 bn of 5 coys of Molnár Hayduck and 1 bn of 4 coys of Jung-Daun Infantry) at Brixen. These troops were destined to reinforce the Imperialists in the Inn Valley. Heister himself would replace FML Gschwind Baron von Pöckstein as commander in Inner-Austria and Tirol.
On 2 August
- In Tirol, the Elector sent 2 bns forward to occupy the Scharnitz Pass and the outlet of the Karwendel Valley to cover the flank and rear of Maffei’s Corps.
- In Tirol, Guttenstein evacuated the entrenchments of the “Plattele” and concentrated his 1,500 regulars in entrenchments near Innsbruck.
- The Prussian corps (3 infantry rgts, 1 horse rgt, 1 dragoon rgt, and 6 x 3-pdrs) under Lieutenant-General Leopold von Anhalt-Dessau effected a junction with the army of the Margrave of Baden after marching from Geldern on the Rhine by way of Cologne, Nassau, Franconia and Swabia. The Margrave of Baden was now at the head of 39 bns and 107 sqns for a total of 31,000 men with 75 artillery pieces.
On the night of August 4 to 5, in Tirol, the Tyrolean militia made themselves master of an outpost of the Fortress of Ehrenberg.
On 6 August
- In Tirol, the garrison of the Fortress of Ehrenberg made an unsuccessful sortie where it lost 30 men killed or wounded.
- From Dillingen in Bavaria, Villars wrote to the king, presenting him the poor situation of his army and asking to redirect Tallard's Army to Villingen to establish an uninterrupted line of communication between the Rhine and the Danube.
- The Elector of Bavaria wrote to Villars from Mittenwald, informing him that Vendôme was in the area of Trento and that the Elector planned to make another attempt for a junction.
On August 8, in Tirol, the Imperialist force besieging the Fortress of Ehrenberg received reinforcement (1 coy of Jung-Daun Infantry under Lieutenant-Colonel Count Buol von Rietberg) from Bregenz.
On 9 August
- The garrison of the Fortress of Ehrenberg (5 officers and 250 men) surrendered and was escorted to the frontier with Bavaria.
- The Elector of Bavaria was informed, in his headquarters at Mittenwald, of the capitulation of the Fortress of Ehrenberg and of the march of the Imperialist Corps posted at Passau towards Schärding. He gave orders to assemble more bns at Rosenheim from where they would be transported by boats on the Inn to Braunau.
- In Bavaria, a detachment of 370 hussars under Lieutenant-Colonel Lehoczky appeared in front of the Fortress of Ingolstadt.
In the nights of 9 August and 10 August, the Imperialists made unsuccessful attempts to make themselves masters of Höchstädt.
On 10 August in Bavaria, Lehoczky’s hussar detachment raided the vicinity of Gaimersheim.
On 15 August, FZM Heister who wanted to drive the Bavarians out of the Inn Valley before turning against Vendôme in South Tirol, asked for all districts of Mid-Tirol and North-Tirol, which had not yet supplied militia for the defence of the country, to do so immediately.
By mid-August, the Imperialist corps of Count Herbéviller, posted in Western Bohemia, comprised only 2,000 foot and 1,500 horse with 4 three-pdr guns.
|Order of Battle|
|Allied corps under Goor, August 1703|
On 17 August
- In South Tirol, Heister’s regulars set off from Brixen towards Innsbruck.
- In Bavaria, the Dutch Contingent (12 bns, including 8 Dutch units) under Lieutenant-General van Goor arrived at the camp of the Margrave of Baden near Haunsheim. With these reinforcements, the margrave was now at the head of 54 bns, 107 sqns, for a total of approx. 36,500 men with 80 artillery pieces (these figures also include some detachments). He now planned to leave half the army (31 bns, 57 sqns) in the present camp between Haunsheim and Balmertshofen under the command of Field Marshal Count Limburg-Stryrum while he would turn Villars’ positions with the other half of his army (23 bns, 50 sqns once joined by various detachments) by marching by way of Ehingen and Mindelheim and capturing Augsburg.
- In Bavaria, Count Reventlau moved his Danish Contingent, along with Schlik Dragoons and Hanover (unidentified unit), to Passau.
On the night of 17 to 18 August, Reventlau’s column (2,000 foot, 800 dragoons) and Arnau’s column (2,000 foot, 300 dragoons) stormed the Bavarian entrenchments, defended by approx. 600 men, in front of Passau. In this action, the Imperialists lost 30 men killed and 20 wounded.
On 18 August
- In Bavaria, Colonel d’Arnau remained on the right bank of the Danube to observe Vilshofen and cover Passau.
- The Bavarians sank all the boats they had at Vilshofen on the Danube to prevent their capture by the Imperialists.
On 19 August
- In Bavaria, Reventlau bombarded Neuburg/Inn and forced the small garrison (80 men) to surrender.
- In Bavaria, Villars was informed that the Margrave of Baden had received reinforcement since the affair of Munderkingen.
On 20 August
- In Tirol, the corps of FML Count de La Tour and 10 coys of Bayreuth Dragoons effected a junction with Guttenstein’s Corps at Innsbruck.
On 21 August
- In Tirol, the Imperialist forces (La Tour’s, Guttenstein’s and Heister’s) effected their junction at Innsbruck. Together, they could now field:
- Heister’s Corps (2,000 men)
- Molnár Hayduck (1 bn of 5 coys)
- Jung-Daun Infantry (1 bn of 4 coys)
- Converged coys (1 bn)
- Guttenstein’s Corps (1,500 men) in the entrenchments in front of Innsbruck
- Unidentified infantry unit (1 bn of 400 men) former Wetzel’s detachment
- Unidentified infantry unit (1 bn of 350 men) former Heindl’s detachment
- Unidentified infantry units (700 men)
- Unidentified dragoon unit (½ sqn)
- Bayreuth Dragoons (10 coys for a total of 800 men)
- Artillery (12 pieces)
- Militia (12,000 men)
- Heister’s Corps (2,000 men)
- Furthermore, the Imperialists had 2 coys and 2,000 militia in front of Kufstein.
- In Bavaria, Reventlau’s Corps appeared in front of Schärding which was defended by Colonel Count Tattenbach with a garrison of 650 men. Tattenbach declined Reventlau’s summons. The Imperialists then established a battery (20 pieces).
- In Bavaria, the Margrave of Baden set off from the camp of Haunsheim and marched southwestwards. He left command of the rest of the army (28 bns, 52 sqns with 52 artillery pieces for a total of approx. 20,000 men) to Field Marshal Count Limburg-Styrum
- In Tirol, the Imperialist forces (La Tour’s, Guttenstein’s and Heister’s) effected their junction at Innsbruck. Together, they could now field:
- Maffei evacuated the entrenchments at Seefeld and retired to Bavaria, leaving only a few outposts at the Scharnitz Pass.
- The Elector of Bavaria broke out his camp near Mittenwald and marched towards Munich.
|Note: from this point, we will mention two different armies:
On 22 August
- In Bavaria, Reventlau’s bombarded the city of Schärding.
- In Tirol, the Bavarians evacuated their outposts at the Scharnitz Pass after blowing out all defensive works. In Tirol, they now occupied only Kufstein.
On 23 August
- In Bavaria, Reventlau abandoned his design against Schärding and marched to Fürstenzell.
- In Bavaria, informed of the new situation, Villars sent 6 sqns towards Regensburg to assist the Elector in the defence of the place.
On 24 August
- In Tirol, FZM Heister set off from Innsbruck and marched in two columns in the direction of the Scharnitz Pass. His main column (12,000 men) advanced through the Scharnitz Pass while the other column (approx. 5,000 men) climbed the Achen Pass. Finding the Scharnitz Pass undefended, Heister’s vanguard advanced up to Mittenwald.
- In Bavaria, Reventlau’s column effected a junction with Arnau’s column in front of Vilshofen.
- In Bavaria, the army of the Margrave of Baden reached Westerstetten.
- In Bavaria, the last troops of the Prussian Contingent arrived at the camp of Field Marshal Limburg-Styrum at Haunsheim.
On 25 August
- The Margrave of Baden sojourned at Westerstetten with his army, waiting for the arrival of 4 Dutch bns under Major-General Wilkens.
- The small garrison of Vilshofen capitulated, obtaining free withdrawal.
- Major-General Maffei reached Munich with his corps after marching by way of Walchensee and Wolfratshausen. Shortly afterwards, 4 bns and a few artillery pieces were sent to Braunau to reinforce FM Count Arco. Continuous rain delayed movements.
On 26 August
- The army of the Margrave of Baden, still advancing southwestwards, reached Seißen.
- Now master of Vilshofen, Count Reventlau sent his hussars to raise contributions in the region between the Danube, the Vils and the Isar.
- Villars learned that the Margrave of Baden was marching upstream along the Danube. Villars then resolved to make everything possible to engage this army.
- 1 bn embarked at Munich. It was transported to Landschut/Isar on its way to reinforce the Bavarian garrison of Regensburg.
On 27 August
- The army of the Margrave of Baden reached Ehingen where it effected a junction with the corps of FML Count La Tour. The margrave was now at the head of 23 bns and 50 sqns with 28 artillery pieces for a total of approx. 17,000 men.
- Heister’s main column reached Partenkirchen where a Bavarian militia bn under Colonel Kotlinski had entrenched itself. Heister’s vanguard, led by Colonel Baron Wetzel made itself master of these entrenchments after a brief engagement.
- Heister’s second column successfully engaged a Bavarian detachment near Tegernsee.
Bavaria was now threatened by Heister’s Corps on its southern frontier, Reventlau’s Corps on its eastern frontier, Styrum’s Army on its northern border and Baden’s Army advancing on Augsburg.
On 28 August
- Heister raised contributions (including 8,000 cattle and 136 horses) in Oberammergau and Unterammergau and in the villages on the shores of the Walchensee and Tegernsee. However, he retired when he learned that a French force was advancing in South Tirol (Vendôme’s Army).
- The Bavarian Colonel Santini with 3 bns and 4 dragoon sqns finally occupied Regensburg.
On 29 August
- The Bayreuth Dragoons, who were part of Heister’s Army, reached Wolfratshausen.
- FZM Heister, whose headquarters were in Partenkirchen, was informed that in South Tirol, the French had reached Trient (present-day Trento). Heister immediately departed for Innsbruck, instructing his generals to retire to Tirol. All militia coming from South Tirol were sent back.
- Villars learned that the Margrave of Baden had just reached Ehingen. Villars immediately detached the Comte du Bourg with 3 infantry brigades (15 bns) and 40 sqns to prepare the passage of the Iller at the Wiblingen Monastery.
- The Elector of Bavaria had to stop the advance of Reventlau's Corps, who had passed the Inn; and to defend Regensburg, threatened by another Imperial corps. He gave priority to an offensive against Reventlau, leaving 3 bns and 20 sqns near Munich.
On 30 August
- The army of the Margrave of Baden crossed the Danube and advanced southwards to Biberach.
On 31 August
- The army of the Margrave of Baden marched to Medeberg (unidentified location), near the Monastery of Münchroth, initiating a wide sweeping movement to reach Augsburg.
- Du Bourg’s Corps took positions between Ulm and Wiblingen.
At the beginning of September, Count d’Herbéviller at the head of his small Imperialist army entered into Bavaria, and advanced up to Cham which he vainly summoned.
On 1 September, the Elector of Bavaria arrived at Villars' camp at Dillingen. They held a council of war. Villars was unable to convince the Elector to make himself master of Augsburg nor to join him to attack the Margrave of Baden. However, they came to a compromise by which the Elector would increase du Bourg's Corps at Wiblingen to 20 bns and 44 sqns and would personally advance in the direction of Augsburg with some Bavarian units.
On 2 September
- The army of the Margrave of Baden marched by way of Memmingen to Dickenreishausen.
- FZM Heister left for South Tirol at the head of the Bayreuth Dragoons and the Molnár Hayduck with 8 artillery pieces to relieve Trient. He left the rest of his corps (some 3,000 regulars) in North Tirol under the command of Guttenstein.
- Field Marshal Count Arco marched from Dillingen towards Augsburg by way of Rain with 4 bns, 8 sqns and 6 guns.
- The Elector set off from Dillingen with the other half of the Bavarian army and went to Burgau.
- Villars marched with reinforcements (14 bns, 62 sqns, 22 guns) for Lieutenant-General du Bourg by way of Leipheim towards Wiblingen, leaving 30 bns and 16 sqns at the camp of Dillingen under the command of Maréchal de Camp d'Usson.
On 3 September
- The army of the Margrave of Baden marched to Mindelheim.
- Informed that the Margrave of Baden had passed the Danube at Ehingen, the Elector force marched towards Memmingen to pass the Iller in an attempt to prevent the capture of Augsburg. He had a new discussion with Villars at Günzburg and finally consented to move closer to the Lech.
On 4 September
- The army of the Margrave of Baden crossed the Wertach River near Ettringen and encamped near Hiltefingen.
- At daybreak, the Elector of Bavaria marched from Burgau, closely followed by Villars advancing from Leipheim.
- In the evening, Count Arco’s Corps arrived in the vicinity of Augsburg and summoned the magistrates to hand the city over.
- 26 French bns (including du Bourg's infantry), 2 Bavarian bns and 48 sqns assembled at Biberach.
- Ulm was still occupied by 5 French bns, 2 Bavarian bns and 700 horse under M. de Blainville.
On 5 September
- Around 1:00 p.m., the army of the Margrave of Baden reached Göggingen near Augsburg.
- At 9:00 p.m., the Imperialists occupied the Göggingen Gate of Augsburg.
- Arco’s Corps retired to the hills along the Lech River near Friedberg. It was quickly reinforced by 4,000 Bavarian militia. Arco also assembled a large quantity of boats, trestles and other material to be ready to throw a bridge across the Lech River. The main body of his corps was concentrated in Friedberg and he had outposts holding the bridges on the frontier.
- The Elector of Bavaria crossed the Schmutter, Around noon, as he reached Wöllenburg, he could see the vanguard of the Imperialists near Göggingen on the opposite bank of the Wertach River.
On 6 September
- Arco cut the supply of water of Augsburg.
- The troops of Villars and of the Elector recrossed the Schmutter and reached Biberbach, encamping between this town and the village of Markt.
- Du Bourg’s Corps effected a junction with the main army at Biberbach. He had left behind Lieutenant-General Blainville with 5 bns and 7 sqns to reinforce the weak garrison (2 bns, 2 sqns) of Ulm.
- In the evening the Franco-Bavarian army assembled at Biberbach consisted of 24 French bns, 55 French sqns, 5 Bavarian bns and 8 Bavarian sqns with 34 guns for a total of only 16,000 men.
- At 6:00 p.m., the Margrave of Baden detached FZM Count Prosper von Fürstenberg and FML Baron Bibra with 2,000 picked foot, 2 dragoon rgts and 8 cannon against the bridge on the Lech to seize the conduct of water of Augsburg. They accomplished their mission and re-established water supply.
The Imperialists now had two armies opposing the Franco-Bavarians: one at Haunsheim, under the Count von Styrum; and another one at Augsburg, under the direct command of the Margrave of Baden. The Imperialists also occupied Ehingen, Riedlingen, Biberach, Ravensburg, and Memmingen.
On 7 September
- The main Franco-Bavarian army sojourned in its camp between Biberbach and Markt while the Elector and Villars held a war council. The Elector advocated an immediate attack against Augsburg with a coordinated attack by Arco. Villars was against this attacked and proposed to take advantage of inner lines and to march back to Dillingen and to attack Styrum’s Army at Haunsheim. He argued that, once Styrum defeated, d’Usson’s Corps (30 bns, 16 sqns) could join the main army which would then be strong enough to attack the Margrave of Baden. The Elector firmly rejected this proposal because it exposed his homeland to an Imperialist offensive.
On 8 September
- The Franco-Bavarian Army (28 bns, 48 sqns), which had assembled at Biberbach marched towards Augsburg. Around 10:00 a.m., the head of its columns reached Gertshofen where the sinuous Wertach River flowed into an arm of the Lech. The troops crossed the Wertach in combat readiness and deployed with their right wing anchored on the Schmutter River near Hirblingen, and their left on the Lech.
- The Count von Arco was supposed to be waiting for this army on the opposite bank of the Lech with bridging material. However, the Elector of Bavaria had secretly ordered Arco to retire and part of Arco's troops had already taken the road to Munich. He had left only a weak detachment (282 men under Captain Bonetti) in Friedberg.
- Informed of the march of the Franco-Bavarians, the Margrave of Baden took his troops out of their camp of Göggingen and deployed in two lines between the Wertach and an arm of the Lech.
Both armies remained in order of battle throughout the night.
On 9 September
- The Margrave of Baden was informed that d’Arco had abandoned his positions at Friedberg and was marching towards Rain.
- The Margrave of Baden gave orders to establish a bridge on the Wertach at Pfersee and solid earthworks in front of the bridges of the Lech.
- In the morning, judging Baden’s positions unassailable, the Franco-Bavarian Army retired northwards by way of Biberbach up to Nordendendorf, on the road from Augsburg to Rain.
On 10 September
- The Franco-Bavarian army crossed the Lech and encamped at Rain.
- Villars wrote to Louis XIV, asking him to be relieved of his command since he could not be of any help under the command of the Elector.
Each day, at his camp near Rain, the Elector of Bavaria received reports of the devastation of his homeland by Imperialists party sent from Augsburg.
The Margrave of Baden then urged Styrum to attack d’Usson’s Corps at Dillingen.
On 17 September at 5:00 p.m., Villars was informed by d'Usson that Styrum was preparing to march from Haunsheim. Villars immediately set off from Nordendorf with 2 cavalry brigades (Massembach and Anlezy) and marched during the night to Donauwörth.
On 18 September
- At daybreak, Styrum’s Army crossed the Egau River in silence at Dattenhausen and Wittislingen. Styrum had left 3,000 men in the redoubts of the camp of Haunsheim.
- Around noon, Styrum’s Army reached Schwenningen where Count Styrum established his headquarters. The army encamped in two lines between the Danube and the neighbouring wooded heights with baggage between the lines. Outposts were established to the north-east up to the Kesselbach, and to the southwest up to Sonderheim. The pontoon train lagged behind.
- Upon his arrival at Donauwörth, Villars was informed that Styrum was encamped along the Danube downstream from Höchstädt. Villars immediately enjoined the Elector of Bavaria to march from Nordendorf to Oberndorf on the Lech with the rest of their army. Villars also asked M. d'Usson, encamped at Dillingen with 20 bns, 17 sqns and 16 guns, to take disposition to be within sight of Styrum's Army at daybreak on 20 September, and to announce his arrival with three cannon-shots. Villars would then sound the same signal when his own army would be ready to launch an attack on Styrum's positions.
- The Elector marched to Oberndorf as requested.
On 19 September
- In the morning, Count Styrum was still waiting for his pontoon train to arrive. He decided to postpone his advance to the next day.
- Some bridging material was gathered on the bank of the Danube between Höfen (unidentified location) and Gremheim.
- The Fortress of Rothenberg, which was besieged by the Imperialist Major-General Christoph Wilhelm Count Aufsass since mid-June, capitulated. Count San Bonifacio was allowed to retire to Amberg with the Bavarian garrison (1 free coy, 1 bn of Spielberg Infantry, 1 coy of Perquer “march-battalion”). The Imperialists captured 4 cannon, 1 mortar and 1 howitzer in the fortress.
- The Elector of Bavaria arrived at Donauwörth with the main body of the Franco-Bavarian army.
At 10:00 p.m. in the night of September 19 to 20, the Franco-Bavarian army marched from Donauwörth, passed the Danube and the Wernitz.
On 20 September, the army led by Villars and the Elector of Bavaria won a great victory at the Battle of Höchstädt. The Franco-Bavarians lost 1,000 men to Styrum's 11,000. After the battle, the Franco-Bavarian army encamped on the battlefield. The Elector established his quarters at Höchstädt and Villars at Donauwörth. The Count von Styrum assembled the remnants of his army at Nördlingen.
On 21 September
- The Franco-Bavarian army was so tired by the night march before the Battle of Höchstädt that it did not pursued the Imperialists. The Elector of Bavaria gave these troops a rest day.
- The Elector was informed that the Fortress of Rothenberg had capitulated and that G.d.C. Count Herbéviller was bombarding the town of Chams.
- Styrum’s Army was encamped near Nördlingen, totally unfit for combat. It had no money, no bread, almost no ammunition and no cannon.
On 22 September
- The Franco-Bavarian army marched back to Donauwörth. This army and its various corps were deployed as follows in Bavaria:
- Lieutenant-General Blainville’s French Corps (5 bns, 7 sqns) in Ulm
- Lieutenant-General d’Usson’s French Corps (30 bns, 16 sqns) near Dillingen
- Maréchal Villars and the Elector of Bavaria with the main army (19 French bns, 16 Bavarian bns, 61 French sqns, 12 Bavarian sqns) near Donauwörth
- Several Bavarian detachments totalling 8 bns, 16 sqns, 100 free coys in the fortresses of the Danube at Ulm, Pfalz-Neuburg, Ingolstadt, Regensburg, Straubing and Deggendorf, in Munich and in places on the Inn at Schärding, Braunau, Rosenheim, Kufstein, and in Rothenberg and near Landsberg on the Lech River.
- The Franco-Bavarian army marched back to Donauwörth. This army and its various corps were deployed as follows in Bavaria:
- A detachment of the army of the Margrave of Baden passed the Lech and made itself master of Friedberg. The 282 men of the garrison under Bonetti was allowed free withdrawal.
The Elector, upon hearing that a detachment the Margrave of Baden had captured Friedberg, decided to march on Augsburg against Villars' advice. The latter would have preferred to wait for French reinforcements before confronting the Margrave of Baden in his well entrenched camp near Augsburg.
On 24 September, the Elector of Bavaria was informed that Reventlau’s Imperialist corps was at Deggendorf.
Villars now had a great opportunity of finishing the war at one blow. But even Villars saw no better use for this victory than the unimpeded junction of his own army and Tallard's and winter-quarters in Württemberg, and the Elector on the other hand was principally anxious to evict the Margrave's army from his dominions.
On 29 September
- The Elector of Bavaria repassed the Danube at Donauwörth with the combined army (49 bns, 77 sqns) and marched to Nordendorf on its way to Augsburg. Lieutenant-General d’Usson was left behind near Dillingen with 16 bns and 12 sqns.
- The Margrave of Baden sent Lieutenant-Colonel von Boyneburg with a message for Field Marshal Count Limburg-Styrum, who was still encamped at Nörlingen, asking him to send a detachment on the Iller to harass the French.
On 30 September, the Elector's Army reached Gersthofen, only 7 km north of Augsburg. However, the Margrave of Baden remained in his well entrenched and abundantly supplied camp.
Villars, who had not received a single letter from the king since five weeks, wrote to the Court to describe the desperate situation in which his army was despite its recent victory. Indeed, Styrum had already been reinforced by 5,000 men arriving from Bühl, by Aufsass’ Corps who had captured Rothenberg and by Herbéviller's Corps coming from Palatinate.
At the beginning of October, Major-General Count Reventlau, who was ill, was replaced by G.d.C. Count Gronsfeld.
On October 1, the Imperialist began the demolition of the fortifications of Rothenberg. It would last until 14 October.
On 3 October
- Lieutenant-Colonel von Boyneburg arrived at Styrum’s camp near Nördlingen with the message of the Margrave of Baden.
- In Upper Palatinate, the city of Cham surrendered to Count Herbéviller and the 250 men of the garrison became prisoners of war and were escorted to Passau. After placing a garrison in Cham, Herbéviller was not strong enough to immediately advance on the city of Amberg. He asked the District of Franconia for reinforcements.
On 4 October
- Count Styrum detached FML Baron von der Schulenburg with the Saxon Contingent (6 bns, 15 sqns for a total of approx. 3,500 men) from Nördlingen to advance on the Upper Danube. Schulenburg marched by way of Neresheim, Heidenheim, Sontheim and Ennabeuren towards Unter-Marchtal on the Danube.
- With the reinforcements which he had recently received, Styrum was still at the head of 11,000 men with 20 artillery pieces (excluding the Saxons).
In the first days of October
- In Tirol, FZM Count Heister, who had returned from South Tirol after Vendôme’s retreat, appeared in front of Kufstein with 3 bns (1 bn each of Hasslingen Infantry, Gschwind Infantry and Jung-Starhemberg Infantry) which he had brought back with him. Heister also sent 1 bn of Jung-Daun Infantry and 2 militia coys to cover the passes leading from Bavaria to Tirol.
On 6 October
- Villars sent M. de Legall with 1,500 horse from the camp of Gertshofen towards Villingen to assemble provisions near this place, hoping to receive reinforcements from Tallard.
- In Tirol, Heister started to build batteries in front of Kufstein.
On 8 October, Schulenburg’s Saxon Corps reached Unter-Marchtal on the Danube. At Ennabeuren, it had been reinforced by 2 sqns of Völkerlin Dragoons and 1 sqn of Ostein Dragoons (two unidentified units) contributed by the District of Swabia. Schulenburg was now at the head of 3,900 men. He re-established the bridge on the Danube at Unter-Marchtal.
On 10 October
- Schulenburg’s Corps crossed to the right bank of the Danube, marched by way of Riedlingen and reached the small town of Mengen.
- Villars was informed that part of Styrum's Army was advancing on Villingen to prevent the arrival of reinforcements destined to Villars. The Elector finally accepted to leave 8 French bns to the Count of Arco and to march towards Ulm.
- D’Arco set off from the camp of Gertshofen with 8 bns and 16 artillery pieces and marched towards Rain where he intended to cross the Lech and to take position near Aichach.
On 11 October, the Franco-Bavarian army decamped from Gersthofen and marched towards the Lower Iller. Detachments had been made to occupy Höchstädt, Dillingen, Lauingen, Günzburg, Leipheim, Aichen, Munderkingen and Ulm. The latter requiring a large garrison because of the sympathy of its inhabitants for the Imperialists and of the large number of prisoners held there.
On 12 October
- In Tirol at 1:00 p.m., Heister’s artillery opened against Kufstein which was defended by Bartholomäus Baron von Seefeld. The bombardment would last until 17 October.
On 13 October
- The Franco-Bavarian army repassed the Iller and encamped at Wiblingen where it was joined by d'Usson's Corps previously posted at Dillingen.
- D’Usson informed Villars and the Elector that no French reinforcements were in sight on the Upper Danube and that an Imperialist force under Field Marshal Baron Thüngen made the roads through the Black Forest very dangerous.
- Schulenburg’s Corps reached Waldsee where the former garrison of Breisach (3,270 men) joined it. Schulenburg was now at the head of 7,000 men.
Since his march through the Black Forest, Villars had not received a single recruit; and desertions and marauding were increasing. Furthermore, the Elector was threatening to leave Bavaria or to negotiate with the Emperor if a new French army was not immediately sent to his support. Villars once more asked the king to be recalled.
On 14 October
- The Franco-Bavarian army marched from Wiblingen to Rißtissen.
On 17 October
- Schulenburg’s Corps set off from Waldsee, as instructed by the Margrave of Baden, and marched by way of Memmingen and Mindelheim towards Wiedergeltingen on the Wertach River.
On the night of 17 to 18 October in Tirol, Hasslingen Infantry made an unsuccessful attempt to seize and occupy the bridgehead of the Bavarians in front of Kufstein.
On 18 October
- According to the instructions received from Vienna urging him to take a more active stance, the Margrave of Baden marched out of his camp near Augsburg to Gennach with 10,000 men. He intended to send part of his army to effect a junction with Schulenburg’s Corps. He left FML Baron Bibra in charge at Augsburg with 7,000 men (9 bns, 550 dismounted cavalrymen and 9 sqns).
- Count Limburg-Styrum, who had been charged to make a demonstration against Ulm, marched from Nörlingen.
- In Tirol, Heister continued the bombardment of the Kufstein.
At about this time, d’Arco’s detachment advanced from Aichach to Landsberg on the Lech River.
On 19 October
- The army of the Margrave of Baden marched to Wiedergeltingen where it effected a junction with Schulenburg’s Corps. The Margrave was now at the head of 17,000 men with 32 artillery pieces.
On 20 October
- The Franco-Bavarian army marched from Rißtissen to Groß-Laupheim.
- Styrum’s Army arrived at Geislingen where it remained until the end of the month.
On 21 October
- Fearing for Memmingen, the Franco-Bavarian army set off from Groß-Laupheim and marched to Erolzheim where it was subdivided into four corps, the farthest being within 12 km of Memmingen.
On 22 October
- The army of the Margrave of Baden advanced up to Eggenthal.
On 23 October
- The army of the Margrave of Baden reached the Iller River near Reicholzried, opposite Altusried. It encamped between the River and the road leading to Memmingen.
- The Elector of Bavaria placed a corps of 6,000 men in Memmingen.
On 25 October
- Villars received a letter from Louis XIV authorising him to return to France but declining to send further reinforcements to Bavaria before 1704.
On 28 October
- The Elector detached 2,000 men from his army at Memmingen to join a small force assembling at Fischbach to relieve the Castle of Kufstein in Tirol which was besieged by FZM Heister.
On 29 October
- The Margrave of Baden relocated his camp at Dietmannsried.
- In Upper Palatinate, G.d.C. Count Herbéviller, who had recently received a reinforcement of 2,500 men from Franconia under Major-General Count von Hohenzollern, arrived with 4,000 men in front of the City of Amberg, which was defended by Count San Bonifacio. Herbéviller surrounded the place and established his headquarters at Kümmersbruck.
On the night of 29 to 30 October in Tirol, Heister launched an assault on the town of Kufstein and made himself master of the town. In this action, the Imperialists lost 51 men killed and 50 wounded; while the Bavarians lost 80 men killed, 70 wounded and 174 taken prisoners. However, Heister still had to take the Castle of Kufstein.
On 30 October
- The Margrave of Baden (25 bns, 55 sqns) marched from Dietmannsried, passed the Iller and reached Altusried, encamping on the wooded heights to the north of that town.
- In Upper Palatinate, Herbéviller opened the trench in front of Amberg.
- The Franco-Bavarian army (46 bns and 84 sqns) marched to Memmingen.
- The Elector sent a message to Field Marshal d’Arco, instructing him to rejoin the army near Memmingen with his detachment.
In the last days of October, Starhemberg, who was operating in Lombardy, received orders from Vienna, instructing him to send the Danish Contingent to effect a junction with the army assembling in Tirol to campaign against Bavaria. Upon the arrival of the Danes, Gschwind Infantry, which was already posted in Tirol, would advance against Kufstein. Meanwhile, Zumjungen Infantry, which had just been brought back to a strength of more than 1,000 men with recruits, would guard the passes of South Tirol together with the 2 bns of Mallenich Hayducken.
At the end of October, the small Imperialist corps under Count Gronsfeld gradually retired towards Passau.
On 1 November
- In Tirol, Heister, who had managed to bring mortars within range of the Castle of Kufstein, opened against this stronghold.
On 2 November
- The army of the Margrave of Baden marched to Leutkirch on the Eschach. The margrave garrisoned Leutkirch with 6 bns and sent detachments to occupy Wurzach and Waldsee as well as a few places on Lake Constance.
On 3 November
- In Upper Palatinate, the artillery of Count Herbéviller started the bombardment of Amberg.
On 8 November
- In Tirol, Heister was informed that a Bavarian force was on its way from Fischbach to relieve the Castle of Kufstein. He immediately lifted the siege and retired behind the Glembach, leaving his mortar behind.
- The relief forces reached Kufstein.
After his retreat from Kufstein, FZM Heister was sent to Hungary to curb Rákóczi Uprising and Major-General Count Guttenstein assumed command in Tirol.
The Bavarians soon resumed their raids in Tirol, using Kufstein as their base.
On 9 November
- The Elector of Bavaria and Villars detached M. de Lannion with a corps of 10,000 men and 16 artillery pieces to recapture several places on the Iller River.
- Lannion made himself master of the castles of Kronburg and Grönenbach on the right bank of the Iller between Memmingen and Kempten.
On 10 November
- Lannion then marched to Kempten which was occupied by a 400 men strong bn under Colonel Baron von Egeneck without any artillery piece. Lannion immediately started to work on batteries.
On 11 November
- Lannion’s artillery opened on Kempten.
The Margrave of Baden sent 1,000 horse to attack Lannion but Villars supported him and they retired.
On 13 November
- The garrison of Kempten surrendered to Lannion.
- The army of the Margrave of Baden marched from Leutkirch to Tautenhofen.
On 14 November
- The garrison of Kempten marched out and joined the army of the Margrave of Baden near Tautenhofen.
On 15 November
- The army of the Margrave of Baden returned to Leutkirch.
On 16 November
- Villars was informed that part of Styrum's troops were marching towards the Rhine while the other part was returning to Nördlingen.
On 17 November
- The Elector marched with the Franco-Bavarian army from Memmingen to Ochsenhausen.
- The Elector provided an escort of 2,000 horse under Lieutenant-General Legall to Villars who left for Schaffhausen where he would be met by his successor Ferdinand, Comte de Marsin.
On 18 November
- Villars reached Ruhestetten.
- The Elector marched from Ochsenhausen to Elbwangen (unidentified location) with the Franco-Bavarian army.
- The army of the Margrave of Baden marched from Leutkirch by way of Wurzach, where a strong garrison was left, to Waldsee.
On 19 November
- The Elector marched from Elbwangen by way of Winterstetten to Schussenried with the Franco-Bavarian army.
On 20 November
- The Elector marched from Schussenried to Waldsee with the Franco-Bavarian army.
- Villars arrived at Schaffhausen, having left Legall's escort on the Swiss border. Villars briefly met Marsin on the road. The latter then joined Legall's escort and reached Möskirch (probably Messkirch) the same day.
- The army of the Margrave of Baden marched from Waldsee to Althausen.
- In Upper Palatinate, Herbéviller’s sapeurs reached the counterscarp of Amberg. Breaching batteries were prepared and all was reading for a general assault.
On 21 November
- Marsin arrived at Mengen where he met a large detachment sent by the Elector of Bavaria.
On 22 November
- The Franco-Bavarian army captured the town of Biberach.
- Marsin met with the Elector of Bavaria. Marsin was then informed that he had been promoted to Maréchal de France on 12 November. Furthermore, the Elector informed him of his decision to lay siege to Augsburg.
On 23 November
- The Franco-Bavarian army advanced to Saulgau where a French convoy carrying 2 million Francs in gold was received.
On 23 November
- The Franco-Bavarian army advanced to Saulgau where a French convoy carrying a large sum in gold was received.
On 25 November
- The Elector and Marsin returned to Biberach with the Franco-Bavarian army.
On 26 November
- In Tirol, Colonel Baron von Seefeld appeared in front of St. Johann with 700 men and 12 artillery pieces.
On 28 November
- In Tirol, Colonel Baron von Seefeld unsuccessfully tried to storm the entrenchments of St. Johann. The colonel was mortally wounded during the attack.
- The City of Amberg capitulated to Count Herbéviller. The garrison obtained free withdrawal. Major-General Count von Hohenzollern was appointed commander of the place.
On 29 November
- The army of the Margrave of Baden marched from Althausen to Saulgau.
On 1 December
- Part of the Franco-Bavarian army set off from Biberach and marched to Erolzheim while the other part marched to Memmingen.
- MM. d'Usson and de Cheyladet were charged to hold Ulm, Biberach, Memmingen and Kempten with 14 bns and 9 sqns.
- The army of the Margrave of Baden marched from Saulgau to Mengen.
|Order of Battle|
|Imperialist Winter-Quarters in December 1703|
On 2 December
- The Franco-Bavarian army passed the Iller and the Günz and reached the banks of the Wertach at Türkheim. Some Bavarian sqns even reached Schwabmünchen.
On 3 December
- All the French cavalry to the exception of 1 cavalry brigade and 2 dragoon rgts was sent to quarters on the Rottum because it could be very useful for the siege of Augsburg. Thus the Elector of Bavaria and Marsin were now at the head of 36 French bns, 13 French sqns, 14 Bavarian bns and 28 Bavarian sqns for a total of approx. 23,000 men. The army reached Göggingen where the Elector established his headquarters while his army encamped between Haunstetten and Göggingen.
- The City of Augsburg was surrounded by walls and a moat and was defended by 7,000 men (9 bns and 15 sqns) and ample artillery (128 cannon, 34 howitzers and 19 mortars) all under the command of General Bibra.
On 4 and 5 December, the Franco-Bavarian army plundered the vicinity of Augsburg and set all sawmills and mills along the Lech on fire.
On 7 December
- The Elector opened the trenches in front of Augsburg and established 3 gun batteries and 3 mortar batteries.
On 8 December
- The besiegers managed to plant artillery pieces at only 150 paces from the moat of Augsburg. By the afternoon, they had already placed 12 cannon and 8 mortars in battery. They opened on Augsburg the same day.
On 10 December
- The besiegers set the Klinker Gate of Augsburg on fire.
- The sappers advanced to 50 paces of the counterscarp of Augsburg.
- The artillery of the defenders of Augsburg dismounted 6 sixty-pdr mortars and 3 twelve-pdr guns of the besiegers.
- The defenders erected two palisades behind the Klinker Gate.
- In the night, Colonel Pettendorf lead an unsuccessful sortie at the head of 400 men.
In the night of 11 to 12 December
- The trenches siege of the besiegers reached the moat.
By 12 December, fire was raging in several part of the City of Augsburg and water was lacking (the besiegers had cut the water conducts.
On 13 December, Bibra asked to capitulate.
On 15 December
- The garrison came out out of Augsburg with the honours of war and marched towards Nörlingen.
- 16 French bns and 10 French sqns occupied Augsburg.
The Franco-Bavarian army could now winter in Imperial territory between the Lech and the Iller. Marsin himself remained at Augsburg and distributed the rest of his army in its winter-quarters.
On 17 December
- The Elector set off from Augsburg and returned to Munich.
The Margrave of Baden took his winter-quarters in a still unexhausted district between the Upper-Iller, the Upper-Danube and Lake Constance.
The Emperor was forced to retire troops from Passau to face Rákóczi Uprising in Hungary. The Elector of Bavaria was soon informed of the situation and decided to act against Passau as soon as possible.
On 1 January 1704, Marsin went to Munich to confer with the Elector of Bavaria about the planned expedition against Passau. It was decided that the Elector would directly advance on Passau at the head of 15,000 men while Marsin would make a diversion with his French corps.
On 4 January
- The Elector of Bavaria set off from Munich to join his army.
- Johann Franz, Count von Bronkhorst-Gronsfeld was on the Enns River with 1,276 foot and 577 horse:
- Herberstein Infantry (a detachment of 160 men)
- Reventlau Infantry (a detachment of 280 men)
- Guttenstein Infantry (a detachment of 202 men)
- Alt-Daun Infantry (a detachment of 259 men)
- Gschwind Infantry (a detachment of 216 men)
- Albon Battalion (a detachment of 159 men)
- Danish Dittmarsch Cuirassiers (336 men) probably Ditmersens Cuirassiers
- Pfalz-Neuburg Cuirassiers (a detachment of 164 men)
- Esterházy Hussars (a detachment of 77 men)
- From the above force, some 1,100 men were posted in Passau with 4 artillery pieces, while the rest, under Major-General Christoph Wilhelm von Thürheim, was posted in entrenchments neat St. Willibald and Riedau.
- Johann Franz, Count von Bronkhorst-Gronsfeld was on the Enns River with 1,276 foot and 577 horse:
|Order of Battle|
|Bavarian troops assembled for the expedition against Passau
Leib-Regiment (3 bns for a total of 2,125 men)
On 5 January
- Lieutenant-General Count Arco arrived at Varmbach (unidentified location) to take command of the Bavarian troops assembled for the expedition against Passau.
- 7 sqns of Bavarian cavalry appeared in front of the entrenchments of St. Willibald.
- The militia was called to man the entrenchments at St. Willibald and Riedau.
- The Danish rgts under Lieutenant-General Count Trampe marched by way of Salzburg to St. Georgen (St. Georgen im Attergau).
By 6 January, there were already some 2,000 militamen assembled under Hohenegger von Hohenegg near Riedau. They marched towards St. Willibald.
On 7 January
- The Elector arrived at Varmbach and then marched with his army to Molerhof (unidentified location) in front of Passau, leaving only 1 bn in front of the Castle of Neuburg to observe the small garrison (100 men).
- The first Bavarian troops appeared on the Mariahilfberg, in front of “Innstadt” of Passau, and worked at entrenchments.
- As a diversion, Marsin's passed the Danube at Donauwörth with 2,000 foot and 2,000 horse to levy contributions in Franconia.
- Blainville made another diversion, passing the Danube at Ulm to levy contributions in Swabia with 2,500 foot and 1,000 horse.
In the night of 7 to 8 January, the Bavarians established batteries in front of Passau, which was defended by only 1,800 men.
On 8 January
- At 6:00 a.m., the Bavarian artillery opened against Passau.
- The Bavarian cavalry took quarters between Vilshofen and Schärding, and an artillery reserve was established in Schärding.
- Marsin reached Dietfurt and sent detachments against Oellingen, Pleinfeld, Papenheim and Mörnsheim. Marsin’s cavalry vainly summoned the places of Weissenburg and the Fortress of Wülzburg to surrender, before continuing its advance towards Rheinfeld.
On 9 January
- The bombardment with 20 cannon and 8 mortars continued until 2:00 a.m.
- Marsin’s infantry reached Dietfurt and attacked the Castle of Treuchtlingen. The small garrison (70 men) surrendered without firing a shot.
- Without consulting Gronsfeld, the bishop of Passau opened negotiations with Field-Marshal Arco and they agreed on the terms of capitulation.
On 10 January
- One of Marsin's detachments made itself master of Pappenheim, the garrison (150 men) surrendering after a few shots and was allowed to withdraw to Weissenburg.
- Another of Marsin’s detachments, made itself master of Mörnsheim, taking its garrison (40 men) as prisoners of war.
- The Imperial garrison set off from Passau, escorted to the frontier by Bavarian troops. These troops then retired to Griessbach.
- Trampe’s Danish contingent (1,205 foot in 3 rgts, 273 mounted cavalrymen, 267 dismounted cavalrymen) assembled at Neumarkt (probably Neumarkt im Hausruckkreis). However, only 477 foot and 273 cavalrymen were fit for duty.
On 11 January, Bavarian troops entered Passau.
The Court in Vienna gave orders to Field-Marshal Thüngen and Colonel Wetzel to make a diversion in Bavaria from Tyrol. Furthermore, the Danish Contigent was instructed to place itself under the command of G.d.C. Gronsfeld.
On 12 January
- The Elector left Major-General Count Tattenbach behind to occupy Passau, while Lieutenant-General Marquis de Maffei occupied the banks of the Danube from Vilshofen to Regensburg with a few cavalry rgts, to prevent the crossing of the frozen river to the Imperialist troops posted in Palatinate.
- The Elector crossed the Inn River with the rest of his army (approx. 9,000 men) and encamped at Zell (probably Zell an der Pram).
On 13 January
- Marsin retired to Dietfurt and sent M. Danlezy against Wemding where they took 120 foot and 200 hussars prisoners.
- The Elector advanced against the Imperialist entrenchments at Reidau and St. Willibald. Captain von Kleys of Solari Infantry defended Riedau with 182 men of his regiment and 111 men of Alt-Daun Infantry. The Bavarians set fire to the suburb of Riedau and the Elector sent 1 dragoon sqn across the Pram stream to threaten the line of retreat of the defenders. At about this time, 470 militiamen undr Captain Willinger arrived from Neumarkt and the Bavarian dragoons retired behind the Pram.
- Meanwhile the Bavarian column sent againt St. Willibald took position at Wamprechtsham and vainly summoned Captain Baron von Häckelberg of Kriechbaum Infantry to surrender. The Bavarians then opened against the entrenchments
- Engagement of St. Willibald
- G.d.C. Gronsfeld and his cavalry made a junction with the Danish corps of Lieutenant-General Trampe. When Gronsfeld heard of the attacks against Riedau and St. Willibald, he gave orders to Lieutenant-General Trampe to advance to Neumark with the Danes, where he was joined by 2,000 militiamen under Commissar Hohenegger. They then advanced towards Breitau. Meanwhile, Gronsfeld advanced towards St. Willibald with his Imperialist cavalry. He also instructed the Imperialist infantry to join him at St. Willibald.
- At his arrival at Breitau with the Danes and the militia, Trampe received new orders from Gronsfeld, instructing him to advance on St. Willibald.
- At 4:00 p.m., Trampe’s and Gronsfeld’s troops made a junction near St. Willibald.
- The Bavarian artillery then redirected its fire against Gronsfeld’s forces.
- Gronsfeld had a horse killed under him. With a weak artillery unable to oppose the Bavarians, he decided to retire in the Salatholz.
- At nightfall, only half of Gronsfeld’s little army had reached Salaholz. Gonsfeld ordered to retire to Baierbach (unidentified location). He also instructed to evacuate Riedau. However, Captain Häckelberg was encircled at St. Willibald, but he managed to obtain free withdrawal in exchange for his capitulation.
On 14 January
- The Elector advanced towards the “Landl” (the country west of the Traun River), while rising contribution in the region of the Enns River. He marched by way of Baierbach to Waitzenkirchen (unidentified location) and sent a detachment towards Eferding. The Elector planned to capture Linz.
- Marsin’s and Blainville’s small corps had returned to their winter-quarters.
- Gronsfeld retired eastwards to Eferding. In a war council, it was decided to defend the crossing of the Traun River. Nevertheless, Gronsfeld’s Corps continued its retreat towards Alkoven, while he personally went to Wilhering on the Danube.
On 15 January, Gronsfeld decided to march to Wels on the Traun River with his corps, leaving a detachment of Kriechbaum Infantry at Wilhering. To defend the passage of the Traun, Ebelsberg was occupied too, and bridges dismantled. The City of Linz was left to itself. The artillery of the neighbouring castles was assembled at Wels, and the militia of the region of the Traun was called upon.
On 17 January, Marsin returned to Augsburg.
On 18 January, the Elector received news from Munich, informing him that Imperialist troops stationed in Tyrol were threatening Bavaria. He left for Munich, ceding command of the army to Lieutenant-General von Lützelburg.
On 20 January, the Bavarian army established its quarters between the Inn and the Lines of Riedau.
On 23 January, a detachment (infantry with 2 cannon under Colonel d’Arnan) sent by Gronsfeld captured the Castle of Starhemberg.
On 27 January
- Colonel Wetzel with 1,000 foot, a few hundred militia and 500 men of Mercy Cuirassiers advanced against the Bavarian outposts at the Scharnitz Pass.
- Gronsfeld had retaken the region of the Traun. He distributed his troops along a line from Wartenburg, Wolfsegg, Aistersheimt, Neumarkt, Baierbach and Weesenufer, The Danish rgts deployed in the southern part of this line and the Imperials, in the northern part. Lieutenant-General Trampe established his headquarters in Aistersheim and G.d.C. Gronsfeld in Wels. The towns of Rannariedl and Marsbach, located on the left bank of the Donau were occupied.
On 30 January, when Wetzel was informed of the arrival of Bavarian troops in Munich, he retired to Tyrol.
On 14 February, the main body of the Bavarian army under Colonel de Wendt advanced from Riedau on Kalham and Neumarkt, which they plundered and burnt.
On 16 February, all armed inhabitants of the region of the Traun and Hausruck were called to join the militia. They assembled at Wels, Eferding, Grieskirchen and Schwanenstadt.
On 24 February, Gronsfeld’s small army and the militia concentrated at Baierbach.
On 25 February, Gronsfeld advanced against the entrenchments of St. Willibald, which he surrounded. He then established batteries, which soon opened on the entrenchments. The defenders capitulated, obtaining free-withdrawal with their cannon. 1,500 peasants were requisitioned to raze the defensive works of St. Willibald. Facing a general upheaval, Lieutenant-General von Tattenbach assembled all Bavarian troops in Passau, Schärding and Ried.
Thus in Germany, though the grand advance on Vienna had come to nothing, the French had won two important victories and established an army in Bavaria. More than this, under the prevailing conditions of warfare, it was impossible to expect.
This article incorporates texts from the following books which are now in the public domain:
- Abtheilung für Kriegsgeschichte des k. k. Kriegs-Archives: Feldzüge des Prinzen Eugen von Savoyen, Series 1
- Vol. 5, Vienna 1878, pp. 11, 13, 111-117,123-124, 135-136, 244, 291, 380-597, Anhang 18a, 18b
- Vol. 6, Vienna 1879, pp. 314-325
- Vault, François Eugène de: Mémoires militaires relatifs à la Succession d'Espagne sous Louis XIV, Vol. 3 pp. 159, 167, 494-719; 739-741
- Bezzel, O.: Geschichte des Kurpfälzischen Heeres, Bayrisches Kriegsarchiv, IV. File, part 1 and 2, Munich 1925
- Franke: Geschichte der Sächsischen Armee. I. file, Leipzig 1885
- Book No. 8, pp. 174-200, Vienna 1846
- Book No. 10, p. 85, Vienna 1846
- Book No. 12, pp.. 252-257, Vienna 1846
- Pizzighelli, C.: Geschichte des k. u. k. Ulanen-Regiments Kaiser Joseph II. No. 6, Vienna 1908
- Staudinger, Karl: Das Königlich Bayerische 2. Infanterie-Regiment Kronprinz 1682 bis 1882, Part 1. Munich 1885, p. 469
- Spanish Succession, War of the, in Encyclopaedia Britannica (c1910-1922), Vol. 25, p. 601
- Fortescue, J. W.: A History of the British Army, Vol. I, MacMillan, London, 1899, p. 411
Jörg Meier for the order of battle of the Bavarian army in January 1704