1706 – Campaign in Lombardy

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Hierarchical Path: War of the Spanish Succession (Main Page) >> Campaigns >> 1706 – Campaign in Lombardy

The campaign lasted from April 1706 to April 1707

Introduction

This is a very preliminary version of the article which will be later improved by integrating details from the work of the Vienna War Archive.

The Imperialists, repulsed by Vendôme in 1705 in the Battle of Cassano, had retired to Brescia and Lake Garda, Vendôme following up and wintering about Castiglione and Mantua.

As in previous years, the Duc de Vendôme commanded the Franco-Spanish army in Italy for the campaign of 1706. His goals were to submit the Duchy of Savoy while preventing an Imperialist army under Prince Eugène de Savoie from making a junction with the Savoyard Army in Piedmont. Vendôme had to divide his forces in two armies: one operating at the source of the Po River; the other, on the banks of Lake Garda. Vendôme was once more seconded by the Duc de La Feuillade, who was charged of operations in Piedmont and of the planned siege of Turin. Meanwhile, Vendôme directly confronted Prince Eugène in Lombardy.

Description

Map of North Italy in 1700 published in Wikimedia Commons by user Rebel Redcoat under the Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 3.0 Unported License
Order of Battle
Order of battle of the Imperialist Army of Lombardy in January

On 16 March, the Duc de Vendôme set off from Versailles to rejoin his army in Lombardy.

On 31 March, Vendôme arrived at Milan, after having traveled by sea from Antibes to Genoa.

On 1 April, the Duc de Vendôme, the Prince de Vaudémont and the Duc de La Feuillade held a conference in Milan where they agreed that, from the 25 Spanish bns, 13 bns would guard the places of the Duchy of Milan, 8 bns would join the Army of Lombardy and 4 bns would campaign in Piedmont. The Prince de Vaudémont also promised that the Duchy of Milan would provide 4,000 pioneers and 1,200 wagons and some guns for the siege of Turin. Meanwhile, Vendôme would do his best to drive the Imperialists out of the region of Brescia but would avoid to give battle as long as the siege of Turin had not come to a conclusion.

All news indicated that the army of Prince Eugène would be considerably reinforced by Austrian troops and by German troops in British and Dutch pay. Intercepted letters indicated that Marlborough even intended to detach 20,000 men from the Army of Flanders to send them to Italy.

On 6 April, Vendôme went to Mantua, planning to execute a surprise attack on the Imperialist quarters in the region of Brescia. At Mantua, he learned that FZM Count von Reventlau, who commanded in these quarters, had received only 3,000 recruits and 1 rgt (approx. 800 men) with remounts as reinforcements, so that his total forces amounted to only 17,000 men. From these:

  • 10,000 foot and 1,000 horse were quartered in the region of Brescia; the infantry in one line, part between Montichiari and Gavardo, part on the shores of Lake Garda up to Gargnano; the infantry forming another line in the plain between Brescia and Gavardo
  • 6,000 men in the Polesella Valley and along the left bank of the Adige from Pescantina downstream.

The main quarters of the Imperialists were Montichiari, Calcinato, Carsago (unidentified location), Rezzato, Castenedolo, Virle, Gione (unidentified location), Gavardo and Salò. The castles of Drugolo and Padenghe were each occupied by a small garrison of 100 foot. The field artillery was at Rezzato and the heavy artillery at Virle. There were also some entrenchments along the Lonato Canal between Lonato and Montichiari.

In Lombardy, Vendôme had 67 bns and 72 sqns, an army vastly superior to the small Imperialist army of Reventlau (17,000 men, including 1,700 horse). The first line of Vendôme’s quarters had its right at Desenzano on Lake Garda, its centre at Castiglione delle Stiviere and its left at Carpenedolo on the Chiese River. All posts of the first line were entrenched. His second line, much more extended, had its right at Lazise and Bardolino on Lake Garda and its left at Ostiano on the Oglio River. Several posts of the second line, between Rivoltella, Medole and Castel Gofreddo were also entrenched. Some troops were distributed along the Mincio and in the places of the regions of Mantua and Modena. During the last winter, the entrenchments along the Mincio and the Fossa Maestra had been improved. M. de Guerchois with 6 bns and 7 sqns occupied the island of Villabona on the Mincio and the town of Badia on the island of Rovigo (unidentified town and island). He had made a bridge on the Adige near Badia, and another on the Tartaro. The Duc de Vendôme had another bridge thrown across the Mincio between Valeggio and Borghetto. The Chevalier de Laubepin commanded a squadron of barks posted in the island of Sermione on Lake Garda to threaten the communications of the enemy on this lake. The Spanish troops occupied the Duchy of Milan and the entrenchments on the Upper Oglio from Lake Iseo to Soncino. These entrenchments were extended from Cassano up to Canneto.

Profiting by Eugène's temporary absence when he was recalled to Vienna, Vendôme decided to attack Reventlau’s small force in its entrenched camp of Montechiaro-Calcinato. Accordingly, Vendôme sent orders to 58 bns and 65 sqns to come out of their quarters on 17 April for the planned expedition against the Imperialist quarters.

On 14 April, Prince Eugène arrived from Vienna at Rovereto.

On 18 April, the 58 bns and 65 sqns were assembled in the plain of Castiglione with 14 field artillery pieces.

In the night of 18 to 19 April, Vendôme’s troops set off in two columns from their assembly places (Carpenedolo and Castiglione) at midnight, The right column was led by the Marquis de Bissy; the left column, by the Count de Medavi. These columns advanced towards the canal leading from Canneto to Montichiari.

On April 19

  • Battle of Calcinato
    • When day came, Vendôme noticed that he could give battle to the enemy's left wing at Calcinato before their right from Montechiaro could intervene. His onset broke up the defence completely (Battle of Calcinato). After the battle, Vendôme’s Army encamped near Calcinato.
  • Franco-Spanish
    • M. de Toralba, according to Vendôme’s orders, advanced on Brescia.
    • M. de Guerchois, crossed the Adige on the bridge of Badia (Badia Polesine) and marched upstream to Begosso were an engagement took place with the Imperialist corps of General Battée (7 bns and some cavalry). Guerchois was forced to retire to Badia.

On 20 and 21 April, Vendôme’s Army sojourned at Calcinato.

Prince Eugène had assembled the remnants of the Imperialist army in the camp that he had occupied on the previous year.

On 22 April

  • Franco-Spanish
    • Vendôme’s Army marched from Calcinato in two columns (one of cavalry, the other of infantry) towards Salò by way of Gavardo.
    • Vendôme learned of Eugène’s arrival and redirected his march to his right and encamped with his right at Manerba on Lake Garda and his left at Polpenazze.

On the night of 22 to 23 April, Eugène’s Army decamped from the heights and marched to Salò. It then retired from Salò. Prince Eugène sent his cavalry towards the Rocca d’Anfo on Lake Idro while his infantry took the road leading to Riva.

On 23 April

  • Franco-Spanish
    • M. de Laubepin with his small flotilla blocked the barks of the Imperialists in the harbour of Gargnano and cannonaded their troops which were marching along the shore.
    • At 6:00 a.m., Vendôme was informed that Eugène’s Army had retired to Salò.
    • In the morning, Vendôme marched towards Salò with all the grenadiers of his army, 1,000 horse and 600 dragoons to reconnoitre its vicinity. On his way, a peasant informed him that the Imperialists had evacuated Salò and that their rearguard had already reached Gargnano, on its way to Riva. Vendôme sped up the march and soon reached Salò. He then sent d’Albergotti and Dillon at the head of the grenadiers and dragoons to follow the retreating Imperialists. He also sent back his cavalry to his camp.
    • D’Albergotti and Dillon caught up with the Imperialist rearguard (2,000 foot) which had taken position along a ravine. They drove back the rearguard behind the ravine but were unable to dislodge it from this new position which was covered by a tower. The skirmish lasted until night. In this action, the Franco-Spanish lost 50 men killed or wounded.
    • M. de Toralba set off from Brescia to follow the Imperialist cavalry retiring towards Rocca d’Anfo, but he had only 4 grenadier coys and a few armed peasants. He could not catch up with the enemy but captured some baggage and 6 cannon that they had thrown into the lake near Maderno.
  • Imperialists

On 25 April

  • Franco-Spanish
    • Medavi and Dillon marched with 12 bns to Salò and Rocca d’Anfo to block the passes, break roads and make every path impracticable.
    • Albergotti and Saint-Pater marched with 29 bns, 2 cavalry rgts, 1 dragoon rgt and 1 artillery brigade to occupy all posts on the right bank of the Adige between Ferrara (Ferrara di Monte Baldo) and Rivoli. Furthermore, 3 bns and 2 dragoon rgts were sent to Badia to reinforce Guerchois’ Corps and to guard the Adige River from its mouth up to Carpi. Saint-Fremont and d’Estrades were sent to command in these quarters.
    • The Duc de Vendôme encamped at Desenzano with 9 bns and cantoned his cavalry from Carpenedolo and Goito to Mantua.

On 28 April, d’Albergotti arrived in the vicinity of Ferrara but he found this post and the Monte Baldo occupied by 10 Imperialist bns. After cannonading their position for a whole day, d’Albergotti retired to Rivoli where he encamped.

On 29 April, Vendôme marched from Desenzano with the infantry he had there to Castelnuovo.

On 30 April, Vendôme’s reinforcement made a junction with d’Albergotti’s Corps at Rivoli. He was soon joined by the cavalry under MM. De Forsat, de Rennepont and de Bissy, so that the largest part of his army was now assembled at Rivoli.

At the beginning of May, Hochkirch Cavalry and Vehlen Dragoons were recalled to Battée's Corps. Battée was now at the head of 4 infantry rgts and 4 cavalry rgts.

On 1 May, Vendôme advanced in the direction of Ferrara to reconnoitre Eugène’s positions. He soon realised that the Imperialists were posted in unassailable entrenchments and decided to erect his own entrenched camp between the farmstead of La Sega on the Adige near Pontone (more probably Porton) and the Rocca del Garda, with its centre at Cavaion. The position was very strong, established as it were on a series of heights. While these entrenched positions were being erected, Vendôme occupied Bussolengo and sent cannon to destroy the 80 boats that the Imperialists had concentrated nearby on the Adige.

Meanwhile Guerchois, who was not at the head of 7 bns, 3 dragoon rgts and 1 cavalry rgt, worked at the entrenchments of Badia and of the Rovigo Island. He also built entrenchments at the village of Masi to cover his bridgehead and threw another bridge across the Canal Bianco at Castagnaro to establish communication with Vendôme’s Army.

Medavi advanced into the mountains of the region of Brescia with 12 bns and encamped at Toscolano with his right at Gargnano on Lake Garda and his left at the Rocca d’Anfo. He entrenched his positions and broke all roads leading from Tyrol to the region of Brescia between Lake Garda and Lake Idro.

In Lombardy, the Prince de Vaudémont convinced the Duke of Massa to let Spanish troops occupy his Castle of Lavenza on the Magra River. The Spaniards already occupied the Castle of Ulla.

With these dispositions, Vendôme and Vaudémont considered that they had blocked all roads allowing the Imperialists to send reinforcement to Duke Victor Amadeus II of Savoy in Piedmont.

On 5 May, Vendôme sent 18 sqns, including 10 Spanish sqns, to reinforce the Duc de la Feuillade in Piedmont.

On 8 May, Battée's Corps marched to Marega, where it would remain until mid-June.

During this time the Imperialist cavalry, which had wintered in the region of Brescia was arrived in the Polesella Valley. The infantry was in the vicinity of Brentonico on the left shore of Lake Garda. Prince Eugène had established his headquarters at Ala and had just received a reinforcement of 3,000 men. He could also count on 6,000 armed Tyrolean peasant to guard the frontier of the Trentino.

On 15 May, Vendôme was informed that Prince Eugène had joined part of his troops at San Michele near Verona. Vendôme sent Saint-Fremont to assume command on the Lower Adige and ordered him to sent Saint-Pater with 2 dragoon rgts to the mouth of that river. However, there were only 10 bns and 34 sqns between Bussolengo and the the island of Villabona. Saint-Fremont requested reinforcements, but Vendôme preferred to build new redoubts on the right bank of the Adige at the points of passage. He intended to leave only 31 bns and 6 sqns between the Adige and Lake Garda and to place the rest of his army between Lazareth (unidentified location) and Castagnaro.

On 16 May, upon his arrival at Badia, Saint-Fremont was informed that the Imperialists had 600 horse and some cannon at Terrazzo, Marega and Begosso; and that a corps of 3,000 Imperialists was entrenching itself in front of a bridge which had been broken near Masi. According to his orders, Saint-Fremont detached Lautrec Dragons and Belabre Dragons to the mouth of the Adige where they occupied the villages of Tornova, Cavarzere, Loreo and Retinella. Saint-Fremont also re-established the bridge on the Po River at Stellata, which was guarded by a detachment of the garrison of Mirandola.

On 22 May, Vendôme took dispositions to post the 73 bns and 71 sqns forming his army (including the Spanish troops with the exception of 2 Spanish bns, which had been left in the entrenchments on the Upper Oglio):

  • 13 bns under M. de Medavi in the mountains of the region of Brescia from the Rocca d’Anfo on Lake Idro up to Gargnano and Salò
  • 31 bns and 6 sqns under M. d’Albergotti in the entrenched camp between the Adige River and Lake Garda, and along the river down to Bussolengo
  • 13 bns and 53 sqns under the Duc de Vendôme, encamped along the Adige from the heights of Verona down to Castagnaro on the Canalbianco with the headquarters at Opeano
  • 7 bns and 12 sqns under M. de Saint-Fremont on the Lower Adige
  • 9 bns posted at Mantua, Modena, Mirandola and other places

Soon afterwards, 2 bns were transferred from Mirandola and Modena to Saint-Fremont’s Corps at Badia.

To face the positions of the Franco-Spanish, the Imperialists had only 20,000 regulars, including 4,000 horse, deployed as follows:

  • 600 regulars and 1,400 peasants between Lake Idro and Lake Garda
  • 3,000 regulars and 3,000 peasants under Harrach in the vicinity of Ferrara di Monte Baldo
  • 7,000 men under Prince Eugène between San Martino, near Verona and Bonavigo. The 3 sqns of Savoyen Dragoons, the Sinzendorf Dragoons, Pálffy Cuirassiers, Visconti Cuirassiers and Breuner Cuirassiers were posted on the line San Michele-Tomba-Casareto-Pantina-Formigo under command of Major-General Marquis Visconti.
  • 9,000 men under Battée between Bonavigo and the Lower Adige with headquarters at Castelbaldo

On 2 June, 6 bns and 9 sqns under M. de Muret set off from the camp of Rivoli and took position opposite Verona where they established redoubts. M. d’Estrades did the same opposite Legnano. The Duc de Vendôme, fearing that the Venetians would align with the Imperialists, threatened to cut the dykes of the Adige and flood their country.

On 10 June, Vendôme personally rode from Rivoli to inspect the positions of M. de Muret near Verona. He had previously reinforced Muret with 8 bns and 13 sqns. Vendôme left 23 bns and 4 sqns at Rivoli under M. d’Albergotti.

On 13 June, Prince Eugène received a reinforcement of 2,500 foot and 800 horse. Furthermore, 2,500 foot had just arrived at the camp of Ferrara and the Palatine Contingent was on its way to join him.

On 15 June, Vendôme arrived at Castagnaro to inspect the defensive works. M. de Saint-Fremont, who was charged of the defence of a vast tract of land with 11 bns, 20 sqns and 6 cannon, once more vainly asked Vendôme for reinforcements. M. de Saint-Fremont also argued that the army should abandon the Adige and take position behind the Mincio. However, Vendôme thought that this would only cede a rich country to the Imperialists and allow them to cross the Po.

On 19 June, the Duc de Vendôme established his headquarters at Santa Maria near Zevio on the Adige. He had been informed that the king was recalling him to assume command in Flanders after the crushing defeat inflicted to Villeroy at Ramillies.

On 27 June, the Imperialist corps under Generals Pálffy and Battée, which was encamped on the Fratta-Rabbiosa, was increased to 10,000 men with 40 boats. A detachment passed the Fratta and went to Piacenza, opposite Masi, where the Adige was so narrow that a bridge could be established with only eight boats. M. de Saint-Fremont, who had only 1 bn and 1 cavalry rgt in this area, sent M. de Saint Pater with a detachment of cavalry and dragoons to reinforce them and to build new entrenchments at the most probable crossing places.

On ?? June, the Venetians retired all their troops from Este, thus leaving free all passages of the Adige in the region of Padua for the Imperialists. Furthermore, the Venetians sent a galliot and four barks loaded with stone to the Lower Adige. M. de Saint-Fremont cannonaded one of these barks to force the Venetians to retires these boats from the area.

On 1 July, the Duc d’Orléans left Versailles for Italy where he would replace the Duc de Vendôme at the head of the Army of Lombardy.

By 4 July

  • Imperialists
    • Battée's Corps marched to Piacenza d'Adige.
  • Franco-Spanish
    • M. de Saint-Fremont estimated that Battée’s Corps counted 15,000 men.

On 5 July

  • Imperialists
    • Prince Eugène joined the troops that he had assembled on the Lower Adige. He visited the post of Castelbaldo.
    • Isselbach Infantry and Sachsen-Meiningen Infantry were posted near San Michele.
    • Rehbinder had been left behind at Bonavigo with 4 bns.
  • Franco-Spanish
    • M. de Saint-Fremont personally rode to Santa Maria near Zevio to inform the Duc de Vendôme of the situation on the Lower Adige.

On the night of 5 to 6 July

  • Passage of the Adige River
    • Prince Eugène sent a corps of 6,000 men downstream on the Adige to Pettorazza. The Venetians let them pass their outposts and supplied them with barks loaded with equipment to build bridges.
    • The Marquis de Creil, colonel of Bassigny Infanterie, was charged with 1 bn of his regiment and 1 sqn of the defence of the Adige in the region of Pettorazza. As soon as he heard of the arrival of this Imperialist force, he assembled a few coys at Boara and opened fire on the enemy.
    • Meanwhile, a detachment of about 450 Imperialists crossed the Adige downstream between Boara and Anguillara and captured one of Creil’s posts. The same detachment then marched upstream and forced Creil to retire.
    • The Imperialists immediately established a bridge at the Rotta-Nuova near Pettorazza.

On 6 July

  • Franco-Spanish
    • At 4:00 p.m., M. de Saint-Fremont, who was at Castagnaro was informed of the passage of the Adige by an Imperialist force. He immediately informed the Duc de Vendôme and sent M. du Boscq with 1 bn and 4 sqns to reinforce M. de Creil. Together they contained the Imperialists as much as they could but finally retired to Badia.

On 7 July

  • Imperialists
    • 200 horse of Hatzfeld's vanguard caught up with the French rearguard at Lusia in the early morning, capturing 2 officers and 18 men and many horses.
  • Franco-Spanish
    • In the morning, Creil’s detachment arrived at Badia.
    • The Duc de Vendôme went to Castagnaro, followed by part of his troops, which were posted along the Adige. There he learned that the Imperialists already had 12,000 men at Pettorazza, he contented himself to guard the Canalbianco and detached M. de Senneterre with 15 bns and 15 sqns to occupy the Canalbianco between Villa-Canda (unidentified location) and Polesella.

On 8 July

  • Imperialists
    • The Imperialist marched upstream along the right bank of the Adige towards Badia.
  • Franco-Spanish
    • Vendôme ordered to evacuate Badia and Masi. These troops crossed the Adigetto and the Malopera.
    • The Duc d’Orléans arrived at the Franco-Spanish camp near Turin.

On 9 July

  • Imperialists
    • The Imperialists established two bridges at Badia and made a few unsuccessful attempts on the Upper Adige, near Verona.
    • Battée's cavalry found the country between the Adige River and Canalbianco completely cleared of French troops.
  • Franco-Spanish
    • The troops coming from Badia and Masi reached the Canalbianco. There were now 21 bns and 30 sqns to guard this canal from Carpi to Polesella under the command of the Prince Pio. M. de Saint-Pater and the Chevalier de Broglie, who had their troops working at new redoubts and entrenchments.
    • M. de Senneterre crossed the Po with 2 bns and 9 sqns to prevent the crossing of that river by the Imperialists between Polesella and its mouth.
    • The Duc de Vendôme gave orders to move the bridge, which had been built at Stellata to Polesella.
    • Vendôme received Chamillart’s letter, which urged him to retire behind the Mincio River. However, Vendôme resolved to hold his present positions, considering them better than those he could take behind the Mincio.

On 11 July, after giving instructions to M. de Chamarande for the continuation of the siege of Turin, the Duc d’Orléans left for Milan.

On 12 July

  • Passage of the Canalbianco
    • An Imperialist detachment (1,200 foot) crossed the Fratta Canal and then followed the Canalbianco up to Carpi (unidentified location) near Paolino, before an outpost defended by 20 men under a lieutenant. They landed without meeting any resistance, the defenders having fled after firing a single salvo. The bn to which the defenders belonged was too far from the canal and could not reach it before the Imperialists had established themselves on its right bank.
    • The Imperialists were soon strong enough to cut communication between the forces of M. de Saint-Pater and those of the Chevalier de Broglie. The latter retired behind the Po at Polesella to make a junction with Senneterre’s detachment. He then broke the bridge.

On the night of 12 to 13 July around midnight at Castagnaro, Vendôme was informed of the passage of the Canalbianco by the Imperialists. He immediately sent M. de Chemerault to assemble all troops posted between Castagnaro and Castelguglielmo. Chemerault was soon joined by M. de Saint-Fremont. Saint-Fremont was now at the head of 13 bns and 15 sqns.

On 13 July

  • Franco-Spanish
    • At 11:00 a.m., M. de Saint-Fremont advanced with his 13 bns and 15 sqns against the Imperialists who were deployed near Paolino. He was preparing to launch an attack when he received orders from Vendôme, instructing him to retire and informing him that the army was retreating behind the Mincio.
    • In the evening, Vendôme’s Army began its retreat towards the Mincio River.

During Vendôme’s retreat, the Allies captured the boats which had been used to establish the bridges on the Tartaro and the Canalbianco, along with 200 sick. The French managed to sink the bridge of boats at Polesella. They had now no bridge left on the Po River.

By 15 July, Vendôme’s Army had reached the Mincio.

On 16 July

  • Imperialists
    • Prince Eugène went to Castelbaldo. He had organised his army in two corps: one (24,000 men) to act in the direction of the Po River; the other, towards the Mincio.
    • The 4 Palatine rgts left at Bonavigo as well as Isselbach Infantry and Sachsen-Meiningen Infantry and marched to Castelbaldo.
    • The bridge linking Masi to Badia was now completed
  • Franco-Spanish
    • Vendôme’s Army gradually crossed the Mincio River. 44 bns and 52 sqns encamped between Peschiera, on the shores of Lake Garda and Goito; 2 bns occupied Governolo; 5 bns, Mantua; and 4 bns, Ostiglia. The headquarters were established at Volta. The Chevalier de Forsac was charged of the defence of the river from Goito to Volta; M. d’Albergotti, from Volta to Borghetto; and M. de Murcey, from Borghetto to Peschiera. M. de Saint-Fremont was destined to second the Duc d’Orléans.
    • M. de Medavi with his 9 bns continued to occupy the Rocca d’Anfo between Lake Garda and Lake Idro.
    • Lord Galmoy, a Spanish general, was sent to the right bank of the Po with a few bns and sqns to make a junction with the detachment under M. de Senneterre. Galmoy was now at the head of 10 bns and 16 sqns.
    • Overall, Vendôme’s Army consisted of 73 bns and 71 sqns.

On 17 July, on his arrival at Volta, Vendôme was informed that the Hessian Contingent (approx. 9,000 men) would soon join the army of Prince Eugène. He then wrote to the Duc de La Feuillade to ask for a reinforcement of 6 bns and 28 sqns. However, La Feuillade agreed to send only 20 sqns.

On 18 July

  • Passage of the Po
    • The largest Imperialist corps crossed the Po on a bridge at Polesella without meeting any resistance from Galmoy’s small corps. Galmoy retired behind the Panaro River. The Imperialists encamped with their right near their bridge and their left towards Ferrara.
  • Franco-Spanish
    • The Duc d’Orléans, accompanied by the Maréchal de Marsin, arrived at Vendôme’s headquarters at Volta. At that time his army was deployed as follows:
      • M. de Médavi with 9 bns between Lake Garda and the Rocca d’Anfo
      • MM. d’Albergotti, de Murcey and de Forsat with 44 bns and 52 sqns behind the Mincio
      • 5 bns in Mantua
      • 4 bns in Ostiglia
      • 2 bns in Governolo
      • Lord Galmoy with 10 bns, 12 dragoon sqns and 7 cavalry sqns on the right bank of the Po River
    • The Duc d’Orléans ordered to establish a new bridge on the Po at Cremona. Another one was already being built near Mirasole, at the mouth of the Mincio.
    • The 30 sqns (??) destined to reinforce Vendôme’s Army set off from Chieri and Moncalieri in Piedmont under the command of M. d’Aubeterre.

On 19 July

  • Imperialists
    • Prince Eugène marched in two columns from Ferrara and encamped close to Bondeno and Finale Emilia.
  • Franco-Spanish
    • The Duc de Vendôme left the headquarters at Volta and went to Milan where he rested a few days before undertaking his return to France to take command of the Army of Flanders.
    • The Duc d’Orléans detached M. de Cappy with 1,500 horse to observe the Imperialist positions on the Upper Adige; and M. de Saint-Fremont and M. de Muret with 2 infantry brigades and 2 cavalry brigades to cross the Po River.
    • Lord Galmoy, informed that Imperialist detachments had been spotted near Ostiglia, retired with most of his troops to Revere, leaving only detachments in his outposts of Bondeno, Finale Emilia and Bomporto behind the Panaro.

On the night of 19 to 20 July, Saint-Fremont and Muret crossed the Po on barks at San Benedetto.

On 20 July

  • Imperialists
    • The vanguard (6,000 men) of Prince Eugène marched to Palata Pepoli, only 9 km from Camposanto.
    • Hatzfeld Cavalry and Vehlen Dragoons were detached from Batt/e's Corps and joined the main army.
  • Franco-Spanish
    • Saint Fremont took position at Bondanello.
    • The Duc d’Orléans sent orders to Lord Galmoy to immediately reoccupy his outposts behind the Panaro.

On 21 July

  • Franco-Spanish
    • Lord Galmoy reoccupied his outposts behind the Panaro, taking position at Bondeno with 8 bns and 4 dragoon rgts; and posting the rest of his infantry and cavalry at Bomporto and Finale Emilia.
    • Saint Fremont marched from Bondanello to Mirandola and sent 2 bns to Finale Emilia, 1 cavalry brigade to Camposanto, and 1 dragoon rgt and 1 bn to Buomporto on the Panaro.
    • The Duc d’Orléans sent a reinforcement of 2 bns to the garrison of Ostiglia; 2 bns to Modena; 2 bns to Mirandola; 1 bn to Guastalla; and 1 bn to Reggio.
    • The Duc d’Orléans recalled M. de Médavi and his 9 bns from the region of Lake Garda to take charge of the defence of the Mincio, leaving him 6 bns and 12 sqns of his own army for this purpose.
    • The Duc d’Orléans, doubting of the loyalty of the Duke of Mantua, decided to leave 10 bns in this city.

On 21 and 22 July, the Duc d’Orléans gradually moved his army (now only 44 bns and 50 sqns including the troops already posted on the right bank of the Po) closer to his future bridge near Mirasole.

On 22 July

  • Imperialists
    • The vanguard of Prince Eugène marched from Palata Pepoli to the nearby fords on the Panaro and tried to cross the river but was repulsed by M. de Courtade.
  • Franco-Spanish
    • M. de Saint-Fremont informed the Duc d’Orléans that the entire army of Prince Eugène had now crossed to the right bank of the Po. Considering that, because of the drought, the Panaro was fordable almost everywhere between Finale and Bomporto and that the river was a mere stream from there to the mountains, and that the Secchia was in the same state, the Duc d’Orléans instructed Saint-Fremont to retire towards Sermide and Revere.
    • The Duc d’Orléans sent orders to the Duc de La Feuillade to be in readiness to march from Turin to Stradella with 20 bns and join d’Aubeterre’s 30 sqns which had been ordered to take position there. He also instructed the Prince de Vaudémont to work actively at the entrenchments of Stradella.

On 23 July

  • Franco-Spanish
    • Early in the morning, the Duc d’Orléans marched to Corregioli, where he assembled his army in preparation for the crossing of the Po. On his arrival at Corregioli, he was informed that the Imperialists had marched upstream along the Panaro, and that the various detachments of Saint-Fremont had retired between the Secchia and Parmiggiana rivers: Lord Galmoy and M. de Muret at Sermide and Revere, the 2 bns occupying Bomporto at Modena, the bn posted at Finale to Mirandola, and M. de Courtade, who had covered the retreat from his post at Camposanto. Saint-Fremont’s forces (8 bns, 1 dragoon rgt, 5 Spanish sqns) finally assembled at Mirandola.
    • M. de Médavi marched with 5 Spanish bns to join the 12 French bns and 12 French sqns left on the Mincio by the Duc d’Orléans.
    • The Duc d’Orléans decided to follow the army of Prince Eugène along the right bank of the Po while keeping close to the river.

On 24 July

  • Imperialists
    • Prince Eugène’s Army encamped at Palata Pepoli.
  • Franco-Spanish
    • At daybreak, Saint-Fremont set off from Mirandola, crossed the Secchia at Concordia and encamped with his right at Concordia and his left on the Parmiggiana.
    • The Duc d’Orléans, the Maréchal de Marsin and M. de Saint-Fremont held a council of war at San Martino where it was decided to assemble the army between the Po and the Secchia with its right at Bondanello and its left at Mirasole, on a distance of 16 km; and to move the bridge, which had been established at Corregioli, upstream to San Benedetto.

On 25 July

  • Imperialists
    • Prince Eugène marched to Finale, leaving only a corps under General Battée at Palata Pepoli.
  • Franco-Spanish
    • The Duc de La Feuillade came to the camp of the Duc d’Orléans to explain that it was impossible for him to spare 20 bns to occupy Stradella while continuing the siege of Turin. The Duc d’Orléans was also informed by M. de Colmenero that the Versa River which was usually making Stradella such a strong position was almost entirely dry. Colmenero suggested to occupy Ciatello instead of Stradella to stop the advance of the Imperialists. La Feuillade proposed to send 50 sqns instead of 20 bns to assist the Duc d’Orléans and the latter finally accepted his proposal.

On 27 July

  • Franco-Spanish
    • All the troops of the army of the Duc d’Orléans, which were still on the left bank of the Po (with the exception of the detachment under M. de Medavi on the Adige) crossed the river.
    • The corps of Saint-Fremont and Lord Galmoy retired from Revere and Mirandola and joined the rest of the army. Saint-Fremont left only 2 bns in Mirandola and 2 bns in Modena.
    • The Duc d’Orléans re-established outposts at Moglia and Reggiolo on the Parmiggiana to protect his right flank. The headquarters were established at San Benedetto. Work began to entrench various passages of the Secchia.

On 30 July

  • Imperialists
    • A corps crossed the Secchia near San Martino and Motta.
  • Franco-Spanish
    • The Duc d’Orléans moved his left wing closer.
    • 50 sqns belonging to the army of the Duc de La Feuillade set off from Chieri and Moncalieri to reinforce the army of the Duc d’Orléans, leaving only 26 sqns under the Comte d’Estaing at Moncalieri to cover the siege of Turin.

On the night of 30 to 31 July, Prince Eugène’s Army crossed the Secchia, leaving only a few detachments at Finale and Bomporto on the Panaro to guard the field bakery and the sick.

On 31 July

  • Imperialists
    • The army of Prince Eugène crossed the Parmiggiana at Rolo, thus threatening the right flank of the Franco-Spanish. A bridge was established on the Tagliata and some troops advanced towards Moglia.
  • Franco-Spanish
    • The Duc d’Orléans moved his left wing to Moglia to cover his right flank. M. de Senneterre was already posted at Moglia. The Duc d’Orléans deployed his cavalry on the plain along the Tagliata while the infantry of the right wing received orders to take position along the Parmiggiana. While the army was moving to its new positions, the Chevalier de Luxembourg at the head of a few grenadier coys marched against the bridge that the Imperialists had established on the Tagliata and forced them to abandon it. The Franco-Spanish army redeployed along the Parmiggiana, behind the dyke, between Bondanello and Moglia, establishing outposts along the Tagliata. M. de Senneterre went to Reggiolo with 2 bns and 2 dragoon rgts and took post at Botta (unidentified location). A few dragoon rgts encamped “en potence” on the right flank of the army.

On 1 August, Prince Eugène made several demonstrations along the Parmiggiana while the main body of his army was advancing to the plain of Carpi near Modena. The village of Carpi was occupied by 1 bn.

On the night of 1 to 2 August, fearing to be cut from Piedmont, Duc d’Orléans set off with his army in two columns in order of battle, abandoning Bondanello and marching upstream along the Tagliata in the direction of Reggiolo, on his way to the Crostolo River. Meanwhile, the bridge at Portiolo was moved upstream on the Po to Guastalla.

On 2 August

  • Imperialists
    • The Imperialists invested Carpi.
  • Franco-Spanish
    • In the morning, learning that the Imperialists were still at Carpi, the Duc d’Orléans interrupted his march to give some rest to his troops.
    • In the evening, the army of the Duc d’Orléans resumed its march towards the Crostolo River.

On 3 August

  • Franco-Spanish
    • In the morning, the army of the Duc d’Orléans (35 bns, 57 sqns) reached the Crostolo and encamped with its right on this river and its left on the Po, with Guastalla to its rear. The terrain being difficult, the infantry was posted in first line and the cavalry in second, with the dragoons on the flanks. The Duc d’Orléans recalled 3 bns from the Mincio River, replacing them by 3 bns taken from the area of Lake Garda. He also sent orders to the 50 sqns detached from the Army of Piedmont under M. d’Aubeterre to halt on the heights of Cremona.

On 4 August, 7 bns of the Hessian Contingent arrived in the vicinity of Verona.

On 5 August, the Imperialists made themselves masters of Carpi, the garrison (1 bn) surrendering as prisoners of war. Reggio was threatened too.

On 7 August

  • Franco-Spanish
    • The Duc d’Orléans was informed of the arrival of part of the Hessian Contingent in the region of Verona. He immediately sent 9 bns from his camp at Guastalla to reinforce Medavi on the Mincio. He also sent M. de Saint-Pater to urge the Duke of Parma to refuse the entry of Imperialist troops in Piacenza and he sent 2 dragoon rgts to encamp on the left bank of the Po within reach of Piacenza. Meanwhile, work continued to entrench the camp of Guastalla.

On ? August, the Duc d’Orléans sent orders to M. de Medavi to retire behind the Oglio River.

On 9 August

  • Imperialists
    • The army of Prince Eugène arrived at San Prospero de Reggio.
    • The rest of the 9 Hessian bns arrived at San Michele near Verona.
  • Franco-Spanish
    • M. de Medavi abandoned the Mincio and retired to San Martino dall'Argine.

On 10 August

  • Imperialists
    • The army of Prince Eugène (estimated at 52 bns and 10,000 horse by the French) was besieging Reggio.
    • General Wezel established a bridge on the Mincio at Borghetto, and a few detachments crossed the river.

On 11 August

  • Imperialists
    • General Wezel, who commanded the Imperialist corps on the left bank of the Po was still waiting for the arrival of the Hessian cavalry (2 dragoon rgts, 4 cavalry rgts). He would then be at the head of approx. 11,000 men.
  • Franco-Spanish
    • The Duc d’Orléans sent a reinforcement of 2 cavalry brigades to M. de Medavi. The latter was now at the head of 7,000 men which he deployed in three groups: one at Bozzolo, the other at Marcaria and the third at Ostiano. Because of the drought, the Oglio was fordable in several places and Medavi had to entrench many passages.

On 14 August in the evening, Reggio surrendered to the Imperialists.

On 15 August

  • Imperialists
    • After having captured Reggio, Prince Eugène reached the Lenza River near Parma.
  • Franco-Spanish
    • The Duc de La Feuillade informed the Duc d’Orléans that he intended to make a stand at Chieri against the army of Prince Eugène. He asked him to send back 39 sqns of his own cavalry along with the 6 dragoon rgts dragoons and 4 bns serving in Lombardy. The Duc d’Orléans immediately sent orders to M. d’Aubeterre to set off from Cremona and Pavia with his 39 sqns and to join the Duc de La Feuillade at Chieri. He also prepared to send 5 bns instead of the 4 which had been requested.

On 16 August in the evening, M. de Saint-Fremont crossed to the left bank of the Po River at Guastalla with 15 bns, 7 sqns and all the Spanish artillery.

On 17 August in the evening, Saint-Fremont’s Corps marched towards Cremona.

On the night of 17 to 18 August, the artillery and the rest of the army of the Duc d’Orléans passed the Po River.

On ???18??? August, Wezel’s Imperialist Corps established a bridge on the Mincio at Borghetto and crossed the river, marching towards Goito which was defended by only 6 coys of Labour Infanterie (a total of 200 men).

On 19 August

  • Imperialists
    • The Imperialist corps under General Wezel consisted of 22 bns (13 Hessian bns and 9 Imperial bns) and 3,500 horse (2,400 Hessian horse, 1,100 Imperial horse).
    • Prince Eugène's Army encamped near Cadeo on the road to Piacenza.
  • Franco-Spanish
    • In the morning, Saint-Fremont’s Corps reached Cremona. The Duc d’Orléans and the Maréchal de Marsin personally went to Cremona. After a brief halt, part of Saint-Fremont’s Corps advanced to Cave (unidentified location).
    • In the morning, M. de Medavi personally went to Cremona to receive instructions from the Duc d’Orléans. It was decided that Medavi would not wait for the Allies behind the Oglio but would rather march on Castellucchio to support the troops defending Goito. He was at the head of 13 bns and 16 sqns, excluding the 11 bns posted in Mantua; 3 bns and 300 horse in Modena; 2 bns in Mirandola; and 5 Spanish bns, totalling only 800 men, guarding the Upper Oglio under M. de Toralba. The Duc d’Orléans also sent 1 cavalry brigade to reinforce Medavi.
    • The Duc d’Orléans detached 1 dragoon rgt to join the 2 dragoon rgts and the 7 bns under M. de Muret already posted at Casa-Rossa (unidentified unit), opposite Piacenza.
    • In the evening, Medavi informed the Duc d’Orléans that Goito was under attack. The duke sent the Maréchal de Marsin with 14 cavalry sqns to join M. de Medavi.
    • In the evening, the Duc d’Orléans detached 500 foot to cross the Po in a bark upstream from Pavia and occupy Tortona.

On 20 August

  • Imperialists
    • Prince Eugène’s Army marched to Castel-Dosso (unidentified location).
    • After the capture of Goito, Wenzel’s entire corps crossed the Mincio River at Volta. The Prince of Hesse, who assumed command was now at the head of 22 bns and 3,500 horse.
  • Franco-Spanish
    • Early in the morning, the Chevalier de Luxembourg set off from Saint-Fremont’s camp with the 5 bns that the Duc d'Orléans had promised to send to the Duc de La Feuillade at Turin. 100 wagons transported these bns.
    • Saint-Fremont marched to Maleo near Pizzighettone with the rest of his corps. He had been instructed to detach 10 bns under M. de Senneterre from Maleo to cross the Po at Valenza and advance up to Alessandria, while he would march with 7 sqns and 1 dragoon rgt from Maleo to join M. de Muret at Casa-Rossa, in front of Piacenza.
    • The Maréchal de Marsin marched from Castellucchio with his 14 cavalry sqns and Medavi’s Corps towards Goito. The Duc d’Orléans personally rode from Cremona to take command of the operations near Goito. On his way, Orléans learned that Goito had surrendered on the previous evening. On these news, he returned to Cremona and from there to Saint-Fremont’s camp before Piacenza. He was soon joined by the Maréchal de Marsin with 9 sqns. He had left 5 sqns at Castellucchio with Medavi’s Corps which now counted 17 bns and 30 sqns.
    • The rest of the army of the Duc d’Orléans reached Cremona.

On 21 August

  • Imperialists
    • Prince Eugène’s Army marched to Castel San Giovanni, upstream from Piacenza.
  • Franco-Spanish
    • Saint-Fremont, when he saw that Prince Eugène was continuing his march towards Castel San Giovanni, took the road to Pavia with his 7 sqns.
    • The Duc d’Orléans marched to Pizzighettone with what was left of his army after his various detachments. He then personally rode to Pavia.

On 22 August

  • Imperialists
    • Prince Eugène’s Army passed the defile of Stradella and encamped at Broni. The vanguard reached Voghera and pushed advanced parties up to the Lower Bormida River between Alessandria and Tortona.
  • Franco-Spanish
    • The 500 men, who had been detached by the Duc d’Orléans to occupy Tortona, found their way blocked by the Imperialist vanguard and retired to join the 10 bns under M. de Senneterre, which were marching towards Alessandria.
    • Saint-Fremont reached Pavia.
    • M. de Muret set off from the camp before Piacenza and, his infantry being transported with wagons, reached Pavia on the same day.

On 23 August

  • Imperialists
    • Prince Eugène’s Army reached Castelnuovo Scrivia.
  • Franco-Spanish
    • The last elements of the army of the Duc d’Orléans reached Pavia. The duke interrupted the march of d’Aubeterre’s cavalry corps which had reached Valenza.
    • The Duke d’Orléans personally went to Valenza where he received a letter from the Duc de La Feuillade, asking for more reinforcements. He immediately sent all the sqns belonging to the Army of Piedmont which were at Valenza, with the exception of 2 brigades, which he kept at Valenza.

On 24 August, Prince Eugène’s Army sojourned at Castelnuovo Scrivia.

On 25 August

  • Imperialists
    • Prince Eugène’s Army marched to Bosco (probably Bosco Marengo) where a large provision of bread had been assembled.
  • Franco-Spanish
    • Now convinced that Prince Eugène planned to cross the Tanaro near Asti, the Duc d’Orléans sent the infantry of his army (27 bns) to camp along the Sesia River, leaving only 300 men in Valenza. M. de Senneterre had already reached Alessandria with his 10 bns.
From this date, the operation of the armies of Prince Eugène and the Duc de La Feuillade are described in our article on the campaign of 1706 in Piedmont.

On 28 August, the Prince of Hesse marched from Goito to Medole and Castel Goffredo.

On 31 August, the Prince of Hesse marched from Medole to Castiglione delle Stiviere where he encamped.

On 1 September, the Prince of Hesse began the siege of Castiglione delle Stiviere which was well supplied with ammunition and provisions and garrisoned by a weak bn.

On 2 September, M. de Medavi was informed that the Prince of Hesse had marched to Castiglione delle Stiviere where he was awaiting the arrival of some heavy artillery pieces sent from Torbole. Medavi intended to seize this opportunity to recapture Goito before relieving Castiglione. In this view, he had prepared six 24-pdr pieces at Mantua which were already on their way to join him. Medavi then changed his mind and decided to advance directly against the forces of the Prince of Hesse.

By 7 September, Medavi had placed small garrisons in all places on the Oglio and in the region of Mantua and assembled 20 French bns, 2 Spanish bns and 30 sqns for the planned attack against the positions of the Prince of Hesse.

On 8 September, M. de Medavi marched to Cerlongo where he was joined by troops taken from the various garrisons. He was now at the head of 25 bns and 35 sqns.

On 9 September

  • Battle of Castiglione
    • M. de Medavi advanced towards Castiglione delle Stiviere by way of the plain of Guidizzolo, driving back 500 Imperialist horse sent to reconnoitre his positions.
    • In the ensuing Battle of Castiglione, Lieutenant-General Medavi inflicted a severe defeat on the Imperialists who were still left in Lombardy.
    • After his victory at Castiglione delle Stiviere, Medavi relieved the place and the Imperialists evacuated Goito.
    • The Prince of Hesse managed to assemble only 4,000 men at San Michele near Verona.
    • M. de Medavi considered that he could now march to the region of Modena to recapture the places recently lost to Prince Eugène.

On 13 September, M. de Medavi marched from Castiglione delle Stiviere to Carpenedolo on the Chiese River, leaving M. de Toralba with 3,000 men on the Mincio to guard this river.

On 14 September, Medavi’s Army marched to ???.

On 15 September

  • Franco-Spanish
    • Medavi’s Army marched to Scandolara (Scandolara Ripa d'Oglio) to the northeast of Cremona. He intended to cross the Po on the bridge of Guastalla. Medavi had not yet reached Scandolara when he received a letter from the Prince de Vaudémont, informing him of the disastrous defeat of Turin, and ordering him to march to the Ticino River where he could be joined by the 1,500 horse posted at Pavia and Valenza.
    • M. de Medavi personally went to Milan to confer with the Prince de Vaudémont on the measures to take to preserve the Duchy of Milan until the Duc d’Orléans could re-enter into Italy. It was decided to leave 18 bns and 25 sqns on the Ticino, together with the 1,500 horse of M. de Châteaumourant.

On 17 September, the Franco-Spanish army posted near Scandolara under M. de Saint-Pater marched upstream along the Po.

From this date, the operations of the army of the Allies, when it returned to Lombardy after the victory of Turin, are described in the present article.

On 18 September

  • Allies
    • The Allied army reached Vercelli which had been evacuated by the Franco-Spanish. After their brilliant victory at Turin, Prince Eugène planned to make himself master of Lombardy while the Duke of Savoy would gradually reconquered Piedmont.
  • Franco-Spanish
    • Saint-Pater reached Pizzighettone where M. de Medavi rejoined the army. The latter assembled 18 bns and 25 sqns with 20 field pieces, 200 carts and 500 mules. He also sent forward the 1,500 horse of M. de Châteaumourant to the Ticino River. Another detachment of 1,500 men under M. de Dillon was sent to Ospitaletto (more probably Ospedaletto Lodigiano) to support Châteaumourant.

On 20 September, the Allied army invested Novara which was quickly surrendered by the bishop, the nobility and the burghers. The garrison (500 men) was disarmed.

On 22 September, the Allied army reached the banks of the Ticino River.

On the night of 22 to 23 September

  • Allies
    • The Allied army crossed the Ticino River at Sesto Calende and other fords.
  • Franco-Spanish
    • Unable to oppose the crossing of the Ticino by the Allies, M. de Châteaumourant retired with his detachment to Ospitaletto where he made a junction with another detachment.

On 23 September

  • Allies
    • The Allied army marched downstream along the left bank of the Ticino to Abbiategrasso.
  • Franco-Spanish
    • The two detachments under M. de Châteaumourant moved closer to Pizzighettone.

On 24 September

  • Allies
    • The Allied army marched to Corsico near Milan where the deputies of the city came to submit to Prince Eugène and pledged fidelity to Archduke Charles as king of Spain. Prince Eugène then entered into the city and placed a detachment to blockade the castle, which was defended by 2 French bns and 4 Spanish bns with some cavalry under the Marquis de la Florida, the Marquis de Valfuentes and the Prince Pio.
  • Franco-Spanish
    • The Prince de Vaudémont, whose headquarters were now at Pizzighettone, sent a reinforcement of 1 bn to the garrison of Pavia, bringing it to a total of 5 bns. He decided to make all efforts to preserve Alessandria, to communicate with the Duc d’Orléans; Tortona, to keep a line of communication with Genoa; Guastalla, to defend the Seraglio; as well as the castle of Milan and the places of Pizzighettone, Cremona, Sabionetta and Mantua. He recalled most of his troops to defend these places and left only weak detachments in Soncino, Bardolano, Gazzuolo and the Towers of the Oglio. The Castle of Castiglione was razed and its garrison was transferred to Guastalla. He also left garrisons in Modena and Mirandola, and 1 bn in Casale.

On 25 September, part of the Palatine troops (Isselbach's Brigade, and Battée with Breuner Cuirassiers, Hatzfeld Cavalry and Vehlen Dragoons) left the camp at Corsico to join Daun's Corps, which had been charged to lay siege to Pavia.

On 27 September, the Prince de Vaudémont was informed that the Allied army of Prince Eugène had marched to the Adda River and was encamped near Lodi. He placed a reinforcement of 300 French, 300 Swiss and 200 Spaniards to Pizzighettone, most of them convalescent from the army of the Duc d’Orléans.

On 28 September

  • Allies
    • The Castle of Lodi surrendered to the Allies.
  • Franco-Spanish
    • The Prince de Vaudémont abandoned Pizzighettone to its fate and marched towards the Oglio River, encamping under the walls of Cremona.

On 29 September

  • Allies
    • An Allied detachment under Count Daun opened the trench in front of Pavia.
  • Franco-Spanish
    • The Prince de Vaudémont marched to San Martino near Bozzolo with 9 French bns and 3,500 horse, leaving 4 French bns, 5 Spanish bns and 1,000 horse in Cremona to defend the place.

On 30 September, fearing for the Seraglio, which was threatened by the Prince of Hesse with 8,000 men, the Prince de Vaudémont sent his artillery to Borgoforte and moved his bridge from Guastalla to Borgoforte.

On 1 October, the Prince de Vaudémont sent his infantry under M. de Saint-Pater to repair the entrenchments in the Seraglio. His cavalry remained at San Martino near Bozzolo under the command of M. Dillon. Overall, Vaudémont could count on only 16 bns, 34 sqns and 400 horse detached from the Army of Piedmont to defend the Seraglio. The Prince of Vaudémont and M. de Medavi then personally went to Mantua.

On 2 October, the inhabitants of Pavia forced the garrison (2 French bn, 1 French dragoon rgt, 3,000 Spaniards under M. de Sartirane) to surrender to the Allies. The garrison obtained the honour of war and the French were escorted to Susa and the Spaniards to Cremona and Valenza.

On 4 October, Prince Eugène marched to Pizzighettone.

On 5 October, Prince Eugène made himself master of the Ghiera-d’Adda, and then laid siege to the part of Pizzighettone which was located on the left bank of the Adda.

On 10 October, Prince Eugène, who had left command of the troops besieging Pizzighettone to the Duke of Savoy, reached on Tortona which immediately opened its gates. The place had been defended by 800 men under the command of a Spanish lieutenant-colonel. However, the commander of the castle, Brigadier Don Ramiéres, refused to surrender. Field Marshal Isselbach with 2 infantry rgts and 2 cavalry rgts was instructed to lay siege the castle.

On 12 October, the artillery of Prince Eugène opened on the Castle of Tortona, which was defended by 200 men under M. de Ramiroix.

On 14 October, leaving General Isselbach in charge of the siege of the Castle of Tortona, Prince Eugène marched on Alessandria.

On 15 October, Prince Eugène invested Alessandria.

On 16 October

  • Allies
    • Prince Eugène opened the trench before Alessandria. The place was defended by 3,000 men (including 2 French bns) under the command of M. de Colmenero and M. de Croy.
    • The artillery of FM Isselbach opened against the Castle of Tortona.

On 17 October, the corps of the Prince of Hesse (approx. 10,000 men) crossed the Po at the mouth of the Adda River and joined the Duke of Savoy, who was besieging Pizzighettone.

On 21 October, M. de Colmenero, facing an insurrection of the inhabitants of Alessandria, surrendered the place. The French were sent back to Susa and the Spaniards became prisoners of war.

On 23 October, Isselbach, who was still besieging the Castle of Tortona, received reinforment.

On 29 October

  • Allies
    • The garrison of Pizzighettone surrendered to the Duke of Savoy. The French were allowed to retire to Cremona and the Spaniards became prisoners of war.
    • Isselbach's troops stormed the Castle of Tortona, the angry troops massacred most of the defenders, only 150 officers and men were taken prisoners. Colonel von Hundheim personally delivered the news of the fall of the fortress to Prince Eugene.

Meanwhile, Allied detachments had made themselves masters of Serravalle, Mortara, Lecco, Fort Fuentes, the entire Lake Como and Soncino on the Oglio River.

On 4 November, Prince Eugène with a Palatine infantry brigade (Aubach, Barbo and Bentheim), 800 Prussians and the Imperial Guido Starhemberg Infantry went to capture Casale.

On 15 November, Casale was handed over to the Allies, and the garrison withdrew to the citadel.

On 20 November, the Allies stormed the walls of Modena and the 2 bns forming the garrison took refuge in the citadel.

On 21 November, the Prince de Vaudémont sent M. de Saint-Pater and M. de la Javelière from Mantua to Milan to negotiate the retreat of the Franco-Spanish army from Italy.

The Prince de Vaudémont destroyed the fortifications of Guastalla and transferred the 2 bns previously posted there to the Seraglio.

On 6 December, the garrison of the Citadel of Casale surrendered to Prince Eugène as prisoners of war.

In December, the Duke of Savoy returned to Turin and sent his troops in quarters in Piedmont. Meanwhile, the army of Prince Eugène took up its winter-quarters in the Duchy of Milan, around Mantua and in the regions of Cremona, Piacenza, Parma and Modena. The blockades of Valenza and of the Castle of Milan were maintained.

On 9 December, the Palatine Corps of FZM Rehbinders left for winter-quarters. It consisted of:

  • Aubach Infantry (675 men)
  • Rehbinder Infantry (583 men)
  • Alt-Efferen Infantry (973 men)
  • Barbo Infantry (772 men)
  • Bentheim Infantry (769 men)
  • Schellart Cavalry (256 men, 227 horses)
  • Frankenberg Cavalry (252 men, 222 horses)
  • Wiser Cavalry (246 men, 183 horses)
  • Stolzenberg Cavalry (272 men, 186 horses)

In Milan, M. de Saint-Pater met with Prince Eugène to propose him the neutrality of Italy. The prince asked him for a written proposal and then sent it to Emperor Joseph I on December 22.

On 2 January 1707, the Prince de Vaudémont was informed that Prince Eugène was preparing to advance into the Seraglio. He recalled his cavalry stationed in the region of Brescia and the Count de Medavi went to Curtatone, where he assembled 4 bns and 1 cavalry brigade. M. de Saint-Pater was posted at Bisoldo with 3 bns and 1 cavalry brigade; M. de Dillon, at Borgoforte with 3 bns and 1 cavalry brigade; M. de Gonzaga, at Virgiliana with 1 bn and 1 cavalry brigade. Another bn occupied Governolo while the Prince de Vaudémont remained at Mantua with 6 bns and 2 cavalry brigades. In fact, this was just a demonstration because Vaudémont did not intend to defend the Seraglio, but planned to use all these troops to defend Mantua.

On 21 January, Prince Eugène authorised envoys sent by the Prince de Vaudémont to continue negotiation with him at Brescia.

On 2 February a small Allied force (4 bns and 400 peasants) laid siege to Modena which was defended by M. de Bar with 2 bns.

On 4 February, M. de Saint-Pater and M. de la Javelière went to Brescia to negotiate with General Wezel who represented Prince Eugène.

On 6 February at Modena, M. de Bar asked to capitulate. He obtained the honours of war and his garrison was escorted to Mantua. The Franco-Spanish now occupied only the Castle of Milan (defended by 6 bns under M. de la Florida), Mantua, Cremona, Sabionetta, Mirandola, Valenza and Finale.

On 12 February, M. de la Florida began to bombard Milan from his position in the castle because Prince Eugène had refused to authorise the inhabitants to supply provisions to the garrison of the castle. Prince Eugène decided to undertake a formal siege of the castle and assembled a corps of 10,000 men under Count Daun.

On 15 February, the Prince de Vaudémont despatched M. de la Javelière to Versailles to inform Louis XIV of the answers of Prince Eugène to his latest proposals.

On 26 February, Louis XIV answered to the Prince of Vaudémont, authorising him to accept the terms stipulated by Prince Eugène de Savoie and ordering him to evacuate the Castle of Milan, Valenza, Cremona, Sabionetta, Finale. The Gardes du Duc de Mantoue would be repatriated to France with the rest of the Franco-Spanish army and renamed Royal-Montferrat.

On 6 March, M. de la Javelière arrived at Milan with the orders of Louis XIV.

On 13 March, the Convention of Milan for the evacuation of Italy by the French and Spanish forces was signed by M. de Saint-Pater and M. de la Javelière for the Franco-Spanish and by Count Schlik and Count Daun for the Allies.

On 14 March, the convention was ratified by Prince Eugène; on 15 March, by the Prince de Vaudémont; and on 16 March, by the Duke of Savoy.

All French, Spanish and Swiss prisoners were exchanged for Imperialist prisoners. The Franco-Spanish troops still in Italy amounted to 49 bns and 50 sqns.

On 20 March, The Franco-Spanish garrison of the Castle of Milan evacuated it.

On 28 and 29 April, the last Franco-Spanish troops arrived at Susa and went to take up their quarters on the frontier.

Outcome

Despite the French victory at Castiglione, the Battle of Turin practically ended the war in Italy.

References

This article incorporates texts from the following books which are now in the public domain:

  • Pelet and François Eugène de Vault: Mémoires militaires relatifs à la Succession d'Espagne sous Louis XIV
    • Vol. 6, pp. 137-146, 152-164 175-180, 195-200, 207-218, 226-260, 298-301, 307322, 344-346, 360-371, 381-384
  • Wengen. F.: Geschichte des k. u. k. 12. Dragoner-Regiments Prinz Eugen v. Savoyen, Brandeis, 1879
  • Bezzel, O.: Geschichte des Kurpfälzischen Heeres, Bayrisches Kriegsarchiv, IV. File, part 1 and 2, Munich 1925
  • Dedekind, F.: Geschichte des k. k. Kaiser Franz Joseph I. Dragoner-Regimentes Nr. 11, Vienna 1879
  • Spanish Succession, War of the, in Encyclopaedia Britannica (c1910-1922), Vol. 25, pp. 603-604