Origin and History
The regiment was raised on 17 January 1625 by the Duc de La Force. However, it was disbanded on 26 May 1626 to the exception of its mestre de camp company.
On 27 March 1630, La Force's regiment was re-established and followed its owner in Piedmont. In 1631, the duke gave his regiment to his son: the Marquis de Castelmoron. The regiment then served in Lorraine. At the beginning of 1632, it was still posted in Lorraine but was soon transferred to Languedoc where it distinguished itself at the occupation of Alais, Lunel and Béziers before returning to Lorraine. In 1633, it took part in the storming of Freidembourg between Metz and Trier, and in the investment of Nancy; in 1634, in the sieges of La Mothe and Bitche.
In 1635, at the beginning of the Franco-Spanish War (1635–59), the regiment accompanied Normandie Infanterie in its numerous expeditions. In 1636, the regiment took part in the combat of Baccarat, in the siege of Oberhenheim, in the capture of Ruffach (only a detachment) and then garrisoned Louhans and other places in Franche-Comté. In 1637 and in the first part of 1638, the regiment served in Franche-Comté. In October 1638, it marched across Switzerland to effect a junction with the Duke of Saxe-Weimar besieging Breisach. In 1639, it was transferred to the Army of Flanders. In 1640, it was sent to Italy to the exception of a few companies left in Montbéliard, as garrison. Companies serving in Italy took part in the siege of Turin while the companies of Montbéliard made several incursions in Franche-Comté and captured the Castle of Bodencourt. In 1643, the companies left at Montbéliard took part in the sieges Thionville and Sierck. In 1644, the companies serving in Italy occupied Asti. In 1645, the companies serving in Italy were at the siege of Vigevano and fought in the Battle of the Mora. In 1646, the Marquis de Castelmoron ceded the regiment to the Comte d'Orval, Sully's son. The regiment was reunited in Italy by the end of the year. In 1647, the regiment was given to the Marquis de Cugnac and continued to serve in Italy.
In 1648, during the troubles of the Fronde (1648-1653), the regiment was recalled to France. In 1649, the Marquis de Cugnac sided against the Cardinal Mazarin and was deprived of his regiment who was relegated to garrison duty. He soon re-obtained his regiment to lose it definitely on 20 January 1650. The regiment remained without owner for more than a year. In 1651, it was given to the Comte de Duras, Turenne's nephew who continued to serve with the rebels under the Prince de Condé. Meanwhile, Lieutenant-Colonel de Bellecense assumed effective command of the regiment. In 1651, it served in Lorraine and took part in the siege of Chasté. In 1652, it fought in the Battle of the Faubourg Saint- Antoine. In 1653, it took part in the siege of Bellegarde in Burgundy; in 1654, in the siege of Belfort; in 1655, in the siege of Landrecies. It then assumed garrison duty in Corbie where it remained until August 1657. In 1657, it joined Turenne's Army at the sieges of Saint-Venant and La Mothe-aux-Bois. In 1658, the regiment took part in the siege of Dunkerque and in the Battle of the Dunes. It then garrisoned Menin till the Treaty of the Pyrenees.
In 1664, the regiment was attached to the Army of Italy but the Treaty of Pisa was signed with the Pope while the army was still on the march. In 1665, the regiment became the property of the Comte de Rauzan
In 1667, at the outbreak of the War of Devolution (1667–68), the regiment campaigned in Flanders, garrisoning Tournai and Douai. In 1669, it took part in the relief expedition sent to Crete to assist the Venetians against the Turks, and was almost annihilated during the defence of Candia. The remnants of the regiment then returned to France. On 20 January 1670, they were incorporated into the newly formed Duc d'Anjou Infanterie (raised on 19 December 1669) who inherited the seniority of the old regiment. The same year, the new regiment campaigned of Lorraine, taking part in the capture of Épinal, Chasté and Longwy. In 1671, after the death of the Duc d'Anjou, Louis XIV gave the name of the Province of Anjou to the regiment.
In 1672, at the beginning of the Franco-Dutch War (1672–78), the regiment was attached to Turenne's Corps. It then took part in the sieges of Orsoy, Rheinberg and Doësbourg before taking its winter-quarters in Holland. In 1673, it took part in the siege of Maastricht before being transferred to Germany; in 1674, in the conquest of Franche-Comté, in the siege of Besançon, in the Battle of Ensheim; in 1675, in the Battle of Turckheim. In the Spring, the regiment was transferred to Flanders where it was at the sieges of Liége, Dinant, Huy and Limbourg. In 1676, it took part in the submission of Landrecies, Condé, Bouchain and Aire; in 1677, in the siege of Valenciennes, in the Battle of Cassel, and in the siege of Saint-Omer. It was then transferred to the Rhine where it participated in the siege of Freiburg. In 1678, it returned to Flanders where it took part in the sieges of Ghent and Ypres, in the blockade of Mons and in the sanguinary Battle of Saint-Denis before ending the campaign on the Rhine with the capture of Kehl and of the Casle of Lichtemberg. It then took its winter-quarters in the County of Marck. In 1679, it fought in the Battle of Minden.
In 1684, the regiment participated in the siege of Luxembourg.
In 1688, at the outbreak of the Nine Years' War (1688–97), the grenadiers of the regiment contributed to the capture of Philisbourg. The same year, the regiment took part in the capture of Mannheim and Frankenthal. In 1689, it completed the submission of Palatinate and defended Mainz. In 1690 and 1691, the regiment continued to serve in Germany. In 1692, it initially campaigned on the Moselle before being transferred to the Low Countries where it served at the siege of Namur, fought in the Battle of Battle of Steenkerque and took part in the capture of Charleroi. In 1693, it was at the siege of Huy, fought in the Battle of Landen and in the siege of Charleroi. In 1694, it campaigned in Germany. In 1695, it returned to Flanders and was at the bombardment of Bruxelles. In 1696, it served on the Meuse. In 1697, it took part in the siege of Ath.
By the time of the War of the Spanish Succession, the regiment counted two battalions.
During the War of the Spanish Succession, the regiment was commanded by:
- since 8 January 1697: Jean-Baptiste-Louis Andrault, Marquis de Maulevrier-Langeron
- from 6 June 1710 until 16 September 1727: Philippe-Aymard de Clermont, Comte de Tonnerre
Service during the War
In 1701, the regiment was initially stationed on the Rhine. It was then transferred to Northern Italy. On 17 August, it was at the camp of Vaprio on the Adda. On 1 September, it fought in the Battle of Chiari (1 September) where it was deployed on the extreme left of the second line of the infantry centre.
In 1702, the regiment campaigned in Northern Italy under the command of the Duc de Vendôme. On 26 July, its grenadiers took part in the Combat of Santa Vittoria where Major de Marambut was wounded in a thigh. On 15 August, it fought in the Battle of Luzzara and then took part in the capture of Luzzara and Borgoforte. By 5 November, the regiment counted only 730 men.
In 1703, the regiment took part in the expedition in Tyrol and contributed to the submission of Bersello, Nago and Arco. A captain of the regiment was also instrumental in the capture of the Castle of Castelbarco. On 26 October, the regiment took part in the Combat of San Sebastiano where an Imperialist corps under the command of General Visconti was defeated. The regiment then took its winter-quarters in Monferrato.
In 1704, the regiment took part in the sieges of Vercelli, Ivrea and Verrua under the command of the Grand-Prieur de de Vendôme.
In 1705, after the surrender of Verrua on 7 April, the regiment was recalled to the main army. It then took part in the attack on the entrenchments of Prince Eugène de Savoie at Castelleone. On 16 August, it fought in the Battle of Cassano where it was briskly attacked by the Imperialists at the beginning of the engagement and forced to retire in good order on La Marine Infanterie, partaking in the glory of this regiment. On 16 October, Anjou Infanterie took part in the Combat of Gumbetto. It later contributed in the capture of Soncino and Montmélian. After this last operation which was completed by 11 December, the first battalion of the regiment took its winter-quarters in Valosc; and its second battalion, in Borghetto.
On 19 April 1706, the regiment took part in the Battle of Calcinato where its brigade was charged of the attack of the farmhouses. On 8 September, the regiment fought in the Battle of Castiglione and in the Battle of Turin where it was charged to guard part of the lines between the Dora Riparia and the Stura. Reduced to only 713 men, it then retired to Provence where it defended the frontier in Var during winter.
In 1707, the regiment took part in the relief of Toulon. It then entered into Savoy after the retreat of the Austro-Savoyard army and took position in the passes of the Alps where it remained till the Treaty of Ryswick (1713) to the exception of an expedition against Césanne in 1708.
At the beginning of 1714, the regiment was sent to Roussillon. In June, it went to Catalonia where it took part in the siege of Barcelona.
In 1715, the regiment returned to France. On 15 August, the soldiers of the disbanded Noë Infanterie were incorporated into Anjou Infanterie.
|Coat||grey-white with royal blue lining; copper buttons on the right side and 1 copper button on each side in the small of the back
|Waistcoat||royal blue with copper buttons|
|Stockings||royal blue fastened under the knee with a natural leather strap|
|Gaiters||none at the beginning of the war, white later|
Armaments consisted of a musket and a bayonet. Fusiliers carried a sword (brass hilt) while the grenadiers had a sabre.
The drummers of the regiment wore the Royal Livery: blue coat lined red; red cuffs, waistcoat and breeches; laced with the braid of the small Royal Livery.
Please note that in the accompanying illustration, the drummer carries a drum at the arms of Navarre. The drum barrel should be royal blue decorated with golden fleurs de lys.
Colonel Colour: white field with a white cross.
Ordonnance Colour: a white cross. Two cantons with yellow and crimson triangles; two cantons with blue and crimson triangles.
This article incorporates texts from the following books which are now in the public domain:
- Susane, Louis: Histoire de l'ancienne infanterie française, J. Corréard, Paris, 1849-1856, Tome 4, pp. 371-389, 399
Funcken, Liliane and Fred: Les uniformes de la guerre en dentelle, p. 55
Lemau de la Jaisse, P.: Abregé de la Carte Générale du Militaire de France, Paris, 1734, p. 108
Lienhart, Constant; Humbert, René: Les Uniformes de l'Armée Française de 1690 à 1894, Vol. III, Leipzig 1899 – 1902
Marbot, Alfred de and E. Dunoyer de Noirmont: Les uniformes de l'armée française, T1 "1439 à 1789"
Rousselot, Lucien: Infanterie française (1720-1736) (II)