Arco Cuirassiers

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Hierarchical Path: War of the Spanish Succession (Main Page) >> Armies >> Bavarian Army >> Arco Cuirassiers

Origin and History

The regiment was raised on 29 June 1682 by Elector Max Emanuel in Furth im Wald and Cham. It was composed of the old companies St. Bonifacio, Haraucourt, Perouse and Spinchal as well as the newly recruited companies "Rittmeister Franz Graf von Gabaleone" (Weilheim) and "Rittmeister Heinrich von Ponton" (Schrobenhausen). The first owner was General of Cavalry Karl Marquis of Haraucourt and Falkenberg, Count of Dalem, Baron of Torquin, who gave his name to the regiment. The first colonel commander was Lieutenant-Colonel Ludwig Count von St. Bonifacio. On 14 July 1683, Colonel Johann Baptist Count von Arco was appointed the owner of the regiment, which was then renamed the "Regimant of Horse Count Arco". At that time, the regiment numbered 600 men.

On 12 September 1683, during the Great Turkish War (1683–99), the regiment (8 companies for a total of 609 men and 649 horses) took part in the relief of Vienna. On 12 April 1684, the free-companies "Johann Karl Schwinghamer" and "Johann Wernhard Pilbiß von Sigenburg" were incorporated into the regiment. On 16 August 1685, the regiment (400 men) took part in the Battle of Gran, where it captured 31 guns and a number of flags. In 1685, it was stationed in and around Straubing. From 21 June to 2 September 1686, it was involved in the siege of Ofen. On 17 June 1687, it fought in the Battle of Jász Berény. On 20 June 1687, the regiment (9 companies) took part in an engagement at the bridge near Mohacz. On 12 August 12, it fought in an engagement on Mount Harsan, where it mounted an attack against Turkish forces. On 26 February 1688, it incorporated 53 men from the "Bielke Horse". From 9 August to 6 September, three squadrons of the regiment (600 men) took part in the siege of Belgrade. Later the same year, the regiment was quartered in the Oberland (Bad Tölz and surroundings).

In May 1689, the regiment was organised in 10 companies with a total strength of 769 men. At the end of June 1691, it was transferred to Italy. From 11 July 1691, it was designated as the "Cuirassier Regiment Graf Arco".

From 22 September to 9 October 1691, during the Nine Years' War (1688–97), the regiment took part in the siege of Carmagnola. After the defeat, it returned to Bavaria. In 1692, the regiment was sent to Flanders. On 3 August , it was presumably present at the Battle of Steenkerque, but no further details are known. On 4 July 1693, it took part in the Battle of Boussu-lez-Walcourt, where it lost 7 men killed and 8 wounded and 11 horses. On 29 July, it fought in the Battle of Neerwinden, where it lost 4 officers and 203 troopers and where its colonel commander, the Count of St. Bonifacio, was captured together with 5 other officers and a cornet. The regiment took up its winter-quarters in the Netherlands at Roermond and Venlo. In 1694, it returned to Lower Bavaria. From 2 July to 27 August 1695, it participated in the siege of Namur.

By 1696, the regiment had six companies of 101 men each.

Since its creation, the successive owners of the regiment were:

  • from 29 June 1682 : General of Cavalry Karl Marquis of Haraucourt and Falkenberg
  • from 14 July 1683 to 15 April 1715: Johann Baptist Count von Arco

During the War of the Spanish Succession, the successive colonel commanders of the regiment were:

  • from 29 June 1682: Ludwig Count von St. Bonifacio
  • from 1688: Franz Marquis Taquenac de Spinchal
  • from 1691: Ludwig Count von St. Bonifacio
  • from 17??: Ahasverus de Focani
  • from 1706: Berthold Count von Törring-Seefeld
  • from 1707: Felix Joseph August Ignaz Count von Törring-Jettenbach
  • from 1709: Ahasverus de Focani

On 15 April 1715, Colonel Ignaz Count von Törring was appointed owner of the regiment, which at the same time received the designation "Graf Törring Cuirassiers".

Service during the War

In 1702, the regiment was increased from 8 companies totalling 600 men to 12 companies with 780 men and 859 horses. It took up its winter-quarters in Lower Bavaria.

On 11 March 1703, the regiment took part in the Battle of Schärding-Eisenbirn, where it captured 4 officers and 299 men of the Imperial Forces as well as 13 standards, seven guns and about 2,000 horses. On 27 March, it participated in the Battle of Schmidtmühlen-Emhof. On 31 July, it was at the Combat of Munderkingen. On 20 September, it fought in the Battle of Höchstädt, where two of his officers and one man were killed, and two lieutenants and two men wounded.

On 11 January 1704, the regiment was involved in the conquest of Passau. On 13 August, it took part in the disastrous Battle of Blenheim, where it lost 5 officers and 26 men. On 16 September, a it captured 5 officers and 150 men of the Frankish district regiments, two standards and more than 300 horses. From 15 to 28 October, a squadron of the regiment was involved in the defence of Straubing. It suffered no losses.

In 1705, the regiment moved to Bruxelles and was garrisoned there. On 18 July, at the Battle of Heylissem-Wanghe, Colonel Ahasverus de Focani was taken prisoner with a lieutenant and a cornet, and three lieutenants were killed. The trooper Joseph Filser succeeded in recovering a lost standard of the Carabinier Regiment from the enemy. On 6 November, it transferred 40 men to the "Prince Philipp Carabiniers".

In 1706, Berthold Count von Törring-Seefeld was appointed colonel commander. On 23 May, the Bavarian cavalry regiments which took part in the Battle of Ramillies lost a total of over 150 men.

In 1707 Felix Joseph August Ignaz Graf von Törring-Jettenbach was given command of the regiment, which was stationed in Arlon and Thionville. On 8 August, 50 men of the regiment were engaged in a skirmish near Nivelles. On 24 September, at the Battle of Offenburg, one squadron of the Arco and Weickel cuirassiers was placed under the command of General Vivans, who led a cavalry brigade of 13 squadrons. At the end of the fighting, the combined force had lost about 750 men and 3,000 horses, 3 kettle-drums and 3 standards. Nothing is known about the losses of the regiment.

In August 1708, the regiment was deployed at Germersheim and Pleisweiler. During summer, it lost about 800 horses.

In 1709, de Focani took command of the regiment.

On 27 October 1710, the regiment incorporated the officers and troopers of the disbanded "Prinz Philipp Carabiniers".

In 1711, the regiment was stationed in Alsace.

By mid-May 1712, the regiment was attached to the French army operating in the Low Countries. It formed part of Tauffkirchen's Brigade in the first line of the cavalry left wing.

From 9 June to 22 August 1713, the regiment was part of the Observation Army near Landau in Palatinate.

In 1714, the regiment returned to Bavaria and went to into garrison in Landsberg, Friedberg, Rain and Weilheim, and in 1715 also to Tölz and Wolfratshausen.

Uniform

Troopers

Uniform circa 1702 - Copyright: Kronoskaf
Uniform Details circa 1702 as per Hoffmann
Headgear the polished matt helmet was worn in 1695 and perhaps until 1702 when the cuirassiers serving on the Rhine disposed of it and replaced it with the tricorne
Neck stock probably white
Coat light grey with blue lining
Collar none
Shoulder Straps none
Lapels none
Pockets none
Cuffs blue, each with 2 tin buttons
Turnbacks none
Waistcoat blue
Breeches buff leather
Leather Equipment
Crossbelt natural leather
Waistbelt natural leather, worn above the coat
Cartridge Pouch "no information found"
Scabbard dark brown leather with a white metal tip
Footwear black boots
Horse Furniture
Saddlecloth blue with a white border and a diagonal white braid in the lower rear corner
Housings blue with a white border
Blanket roll light grey and blue (mantel)


Troopers had a polished matt cuirass and were armed with a sword, a pistol and a carbine.

NCOs

no information found yet

Officers

no information found yet

Musicians

Trumpeters coats were of the distinctive colour of the regiment with false sleeves.

Standards

Tentative Reconstruction
Colonel Standard - Copyright: Kronoskaf
Company Standard - Copyright: Kronoskaf

References

Wikipedia German Edition – Königlich Bayerisches 1. Chevaulegers-Regiment „Kaiser Nikolaus von Rußland“

Cantler, D.: Einiges über die Uniformierung der bayrischen Armee, in: Mittheilungen zur Geschichte der militärischen Tracht, No.11, November 1895, p. 44

Münich, Friedrich (1820-1875): Verfasser: Geschichte der Entwicklung der bayerischen Armee seit zwei Jahrhunderten, p. 40-41, 47, 49

Feldzüge des Prinzen Eugen von Savoyen. Einleitung zur Darstellung der Feldzüge, Vienna 1876

N.B.: the section Service during the War is partly derived from our articles depicting the various campaigns, battles and sieges.

Acknowledgement

Jörg Meier for the initial version of the article