Baden Infantry

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Hierarchical Path: War of the Spanish Succession (Main Page) >> Armies >> Austrian Army >> Baden Infantry

Origin and History

On 5 December 1672, Colonel Ferdinand Ludwig von und zu Wopping und Karpfhaimb received a patent to raise an infantry regiment of 2.040 men organized in 10 companies. The recruits raised in the “Reich” were concentrated near Pilsen (present-day Plzeň/CZ). In September 1673, 5 companies marched to Austria, and the 5 others, under OWM von Büring, to Auspitz (present-day Hustopeče/CZ) in Moravia.

In 1675, the regiment formed part of FM Count Kopps’ Corps supporting the Saxons in the war against Sweden in Pomerania. It took part in sieges of Wolgast (November 1675), Demmin and Anclam and in the storming of Demmin in 1676.

In 1679, the regiment participated in the attack of Tolna in Hungary.

In 1683, during the Great Turkish War, the regiment took part in the relief of Vienna and in the capture of Parkány (present-day Štúrovo/SK); in 1684, in the siege of Ofen; in 1685, in the Battle of Gran (present-day Esztregom/HU). In 1686, the regiment was at the second siege of Ofen and took part in the expedition in Lower-Hungary. In November, 3 companies garrisoned Kaposvár. In 1687, the regiment fought in the Battle of Mohacs. In August 1688, it was at the capture of Kostajnica in Transylvania. In 1689, it took part in an engagement near Patacin (present-day Batočina/Serbia) on the Morawa River where one of its battalion, along with 1 battalion of Guido Starhemberg Infantry and 300 horse, occupied an outpost. In 1691, the regiment fought in the Battle of Szlankamen and took part in the siege of Grosswardein. In 1693, it was at the siege of Belgrade. In 1697, it fought in the Battle of Zenta.

By the time of the War of the Spanish Succession, the regiment counted three battalions with 1,800 men.

During the War of the Spanish Succession, the proprietors of the regiment were:

Colonel-commanders during the War of the Spanish Succession:

  • from 1691: Wenzel Hroznata Count Guttenstein
  • from 25 September 1694: Georg Ehrenreich Baron Eckh von Hungersbach (lost his charge in connection with the surrender of Breisach)
  • from 28 February 1704: Johann Friedrich Hartmann Baron von der Hauben
  • from November 1709 until 7 December 1728: Johann Wilhelm Baron Unruhe auf Wendstadt

Service during the War

In 1701, the regiment was organized in 4 battalions with 16 fusilier companies and, since July, garrisoned the Fortress of Alt-Breisach.

In 1702, the regiment (4 bns for a total of 1,651 men as of July) served on the Rhine. Three battalions remained at Breisach, while one battalion and one grenadier company took part in the Siege of Landau from June to September. On 14 October, two battalions fought in the Battle of Friedlingen, where they lost 3 officers and 27 men killed, and 1 officer and 39 men wounded. The fourth battalion was still garrisoning Breisach.

In 1703, 16 companies (without the grenadiers) counting 1,185 men formed part of the garrison of the Fortress of Alt-Breisach. On 21 July, the French Maréchal de Tallard undertook the Siege of Alt-Breisach. The siege was under the direct supervision of the General Marquis de Vauban. FML Philipp Count Arco was the Imperial commander of Alt-Breisach, while the garrison was under the command of GFWM Luigi Ferdinando Conte di Marsigli. Beside the present regiment, the garrison also comprised 11 companies of Brandenburg-Bayreuth Infantry, 16 companies of Marsigli Infantry and some men from Kratze Infantry, a total 3, 458 men. On 6 September, Count Arco signed the articles of capitulation. On 8 September, the garrison marched “with military honour” to Rheinfelden. FML count Arco was immediately imprisoned at Freiburg. In September, the regiment (now only 765 men fit for service) came to Lauffenburg, sending small detachments to various places at Swabia. It took up its winter-quarters at Bregenz, Lindau and Constanz.

In 1704, the Margrave von Baden assembled a court martial led by FM Johann Karl Baron von Thüngen, which, on 4 February, sentenced Count Arco to death, GFWM Marsigli and Colonel Baron Eckh lost their ranks and function, and 6 other officers were also punished. On 18 February, Count Arco was beheaded at Bregenz (a shocking detail: the widow of Count Arco, married FM count Thüngen after Arco’s death!)

In the spring of 1704, the regiment still quartered in Swabia, in the corps of FM Thüngen. At the beginning of May, 2 battalions were sent to the so-called “Stokach Lines”, the other battalions garrisoned Constanz, Bregenz, Lindau and Villingen. At the end of May, the whole regiment joined the main army at Munderkingen. On 2 July, it took part in the Battle of Schellenberg, where it lost 4 officers and 20 men killed, 12 officers and 134 men wounded. From 15 to 18 August, when the Margrave von Baden laid siege to Ingolstadt, the regiment, along with Salm Infantry was posted on the left wing between Ingolstadt and Öttingen. From 12 September to 22 November, 2 battalions of the regiment took part in the second siege of Landau. At the end of November, when the army took up its winter quarters, the regiment, along with Thüngen Infantry was placed in the Lines of Stollhofen.

At the beginning of May 1705, FM Thüngen concentrated the Imperial and “Reichs” armies near Lauterburg. There regiment (organized in only 2 battalions) was part of this army. Only detachments took part in some minor actions. At the end of the year, 2 battalions went to Pfaffenhofen, and one to Freiburg.

In 1706, the regiment was allocated to the Reichsarmee under command of the Margrave von Baden. It then counted only 1,000 men in very bad condition. Between 3 and 11 May, Lieutenant-Colonel Rubia defended the Fortress of Haguenau with some 100 men from the regiment and 4 Saxon battalions. On 11 May, Rubia capitulated and the garrison was imprisoned at Strasbourg. The regiment (now reduced to a single battalion) was under FM Neipperg on the Rhine River near Leopoldshafen. After the severe defeat of the French army at Ramillies (23 May), the Maréchal de Villars had to send part of his troops as reinforcements for the Army of Flanders. He then retired from Philippsburg to the Lauter River. By September, the regiment counted 1,343 men. From that figure, 395 men had been detached to various places. On 17 September, FM Thüngen (now commander of the “Reichsarmee”) concentrated the army (including the present regiment) in a camp at Hagenbach. At the end of October, the army took up its winter-quarters, the regiment went to Baden in the County of Eberstein.

In March 1707, the regiment was sent to Freiburg. It was in a very poor condition, with soldiers in rags and unpaid since several months. In September, the regiment took part in the expulsion of the French from Homberg and then returned to Freiburg. At the beginning of November, there were 1 battalion (600 men) at Freiburg, while 50 men were detached to Constanz and 150 men to Lauffenburg. The rest of the regiment went to Vorarlberg.

By February 1708, the regiment counted 1,131 men again, but had not yet received the 147.000 fl necessary for its equipment from the military administration. By the end of April, the regiment was complete and concentrated at Freiburg. In May, two battalions marched by way of Philippsburg and reached Kastellaun on the Moselle River on 10 June. Five companies, led by Lieutenant-Colonel Unruhe, had been left behind at Freiburg. These two battalions, along with Thüngen Infantry and the two regiments of Würzburg, were attached to the 1st Corps, under FM count von Fels. From August, the regiment was present at the siege of Lille. In the night of 7 September, it took part in the storming of the counterscarp. On 11 September, it also took part in another attack. On 22 October, the city of Lille surrendered. On 25 October, Maréchal Boufflers evacuated the city, taking refuge in the citadel with 4,500 men. Prince Eugène and his troops immediately besieged the citadel. On 12 December, Boufflers surrendered. The losses of the regiment during the siege of Lille are not known, but must have been severe. At the end of December, the regiment received 200 recruits originally destined to Brandenburg-Bayreuth Infantry and 166 recruits from Bohemia.

Since 4 January 1709, the regiment took up its winter-quarters at Mechelen. It now consisted of 14 companies for a total of 1,065 men. In February, during the absence of G.d.C Prince Alexander von Württemberg, Colonel von Hauben was interim commander of the army at Brussels. In mid-June, the regiment went with the 1st Corps to a camp between Kerkhove and Waermerde, where it was allocated to the brigade of GFWM Fechenbach. On 23 June, it marched towards Lille. From 28 June to 29 July, during the siege of Tournai, the regiment formed part of the “Observation- army” of Prince Eugène, which was posted between Pont-à-Tressin, Saint-Amand and Mortagne. On 29 July, Tournai surrendered, but the citadel remained in French hands until 31 August. It is not known whether the regiment took part in the siege. On 11 September, the regiment took part in the Battle of Malplaquet. Its losses in the battle are not known. Between 26 September and 21 October, the regiment took part in the siege of Mons, which was occupied by a total of 4,000 French, Bavarian and Spanish troops under the command of the Spanish General Grimaldi. On 3 October, during a review, the regiment (2 battalions) had 710 men fit for service; an additional 405 men, unfit; and 208 men detached. On 20 October, Mons surrendered. On 23 October, the garrison left Mons. The losses of this regiment during siege are not known. On 26 October, the army took up its winter-quarters and the regiment went to Brussels. One battalion (5 companies with 509 men under Lieutenant-Colonel Unruhe) had remained the whole year at Freiburg.

For the campaign of 1710, the regiment was organized in 2 field battalions, one garrison battalion (5 companies at Freiburg) and one grenadier company, for a total of 17 companies. In mid-April, the field battalions marched towards Tournai. According to the order of battle of the army of Prince Eugène, the regiment had 11 fusilier and 1 grenadier companies in 2 field battalions. They were part of the first line under GFWM Fechenbach. From 24 April to 25 June, the regiment took part in siege of Douai. During this siege, the regiment lost 2 officers and 35 men killed, 3 officers and 97 men wounded. One battalion was then allocated to the troops of the Saxon Lieutenant-General Schulemburg. From 15 July to 29 August, this corps besieged Béthune. Meanwhile, the other battalion remained with Prince Eugène’s Army in Fechenbach’s Brigade. During the siege of Béthune, the battalion lost 7 men dead and 64 wounded. On 5 September, when troops concentrated on the right bank of Lys River, the regiment was reunited. In November, when the regiment was reviewed, it counted 1,161 men. It took up its winter-quarters between Lap and the Scheldt River. For most of the year, the third battalion (5 coys) garrisoned Freiburg but, in September, it was moved to new positions between Hornberg and the “Waldstätten.”

By 24 April 1711, the regiment had joined other troops at Ath. On 1 May, the army marched to Lewarde. The regiment (2 battalions) was in the first line, again in GM Fechenbach’s Brigade. On 14 June, the army proceeded in two columns to Tournai. From there, G.d.C Fels marched with the second column (including the present regiment) to Bruxelles, where he arrived on 22 June. On 5 July, Fels marched by way of Löwen towards Bonn. On 17 July, Fels crossed the Rhine. In May, the third battalion (498 men) joined the troops of G.d.C. Eberhard Ludwig Duke Württemberg around Karlsruhe. In mid-July, the Duke Württemberg retired to the so-called “Ettlinger Lines,” the battalion was deployed on the right wing, under FZM Baron Neipperg, near Daelanden. On 14 August, the third battalion joined the two other battalions, which were arriving from the Netherlands, at Mühlberg. The reunited regiment counted 2,180 men. According to an order of battle dated 26 August, the regiment formed part of GFWM Bonneval’s Brigade, in the first line, under FZM Neipperg. On 27 August, the army of Prince Eugène crossed the Rhine and camped near Philippsburg. Two battalions of the regiment, along with 8 other battalions and 16 squadrons remained in the “Ettlinger Lines,” under G.d.C Count Vehlen, to defend these entrenchments. Prince Eugène marched with his army to Dudenhofen and Speyer to cover the coronation ceremony of Emperor Charles VI at Frankfurt. Between 7 and 10 November, the army returned behind Rhine and encamped at Rheinhausen, east of Philippsburg. According to Prince Eugène’s decision, the regiment took up its winter-quarters at Ingolstadt in Bavaria.

On 30 January 1712, the regiment received the order to return with 2 battalions and 2 grenadier companies again to the Netherlands. The third battalion (5 coys) remained at Ingolstadt. The whole regiment, including new recruits from Silesia, still wore the blue uniforms. On 5 March, the field battalions and the grenadiers left Ingolstadt. On 2 May, they crossed the Rhine. On 17 May, they reached Tournai. At the beginning of June, the regiment (10 fusilier and 2 grenadier coys) counted 1,146 men. One battalion was allocated to Bonneval’s Brigade and took part in the siege of Landrecies, while the other battalion was with the troops securing communication between the right wing of the army and Denain. On 24 July, 1 battalion fought in the Battle of Denain, where it formed part of the troops that Price Eugène led to support the Dutch Lieutenant-General Count Albemarle, who was defending the bridgehead at Denain. The Allies lost the ensuing battle,and the battalion lost 3 captains, 1 SCO and 318 men killed; Lieutenant-Colonel Baron O’Gilvy, 1 SCO and 20 men were wounded; and 11 men were taken prisoners. These were the highest losses from all battalions involved in the battle. Prince Eugène retreated with the defeated army to Bavay and Poix. The siege of Landrecies was raised and the siege corps rejoined the army at Poix. On 3 August, the army marched to Cambron. On 7 August, it crossed the Scheldt River and encamped near Seclin until 11 August. When the regiment was reviewed on August 10, it counted 853 men fit for service; 145 unfit (ill and wounded) at Bruxelles and 102 at Mons. On 22 October, the army of Prince Eugène took up its winter-quarters. The regiment went to Bruxelles. During the entire year, the third battalion had remained in Ingolstadt.

At the beginning of 1713, the two field battalions in Bruxelles had a total of 1,252 men, from this total, 60 men were in Bohemia, finding new recruits and 44 were ill. On 31 March, 416 recruits arrived from Bohemia in Bruxelles. The two field battalions now counted 1,614 men while the third battalion in Ingolstadt had 699 men. On 26 April, the troops of G.d.C. Count Fels marched by way of Roermonde, Colonia, Siegburg, Mainz and Philippsburg. On 27 May, they arrived at the camp at Graben. The third battalion from Ingolstadt was already at Graben. The regiment was now complete at three battalions. According to the order of battle, the first and second battalions were allocated to FML Baron Sickingen’s Corps, while the third battalion formed part of FZM Baron Neipperg’s Corps.

On 26 June, the French General Albergotti captured Mannheim and the Castle of Kaiserslautern. On 20 August Landau surrendered. The Imperial army was too powerless to avoid these losses. In September, the Maréchal de Villars planned to occupy Freiburg, but Prince Eugène took measures to prevent this. On 24 August, FML d’Arnant marched by way of Itterbach and Rotheburg with 14 battalions (including 2 battalions of the regiment), 3 grenadier companies, and 16 squadrons to Homberg where he made a junction with the corps of G.d.C Joseph Paul Marquis de Vaubonne. The third battalion was also sent to Freiburg. On 20 September, Maréchal Villars started his attack on the “Schwarzwald entrenchments.” The Imperial troops retired at night after heavy fighting. The French then blockaded Freiburg. Prince Eugène immediately sent 32 squadrons and 10 battalions (including two of the regiment) to Rottweil to support G.d.C Vaubonne.

From 21 September to 20 November, Freiburg was besieged by the French. Between 21 September and 6 October, the third battalion of the regiment lost a total of 293 men. On 1 November, FML Harsch evacuate Freiburg, the defenders retired in the two castles of Freiburg: 1,864 men in the upper castle; and 3,185 men in the lower castle. Only 2,482 wounded and ill men remained in the city and were very badly treated by Villars. On 20 November, the garrison surrendered, left Freiburg “with military honour” and marched to Rottweil. For his heroic defence, FML Harsch was promoted to FZM and raised count.

The army then went into winter-quarters. One field battalion went to Koblenz and the other with the grenadiers in the surrounding villages. The third battalion returned to Ingolstadt. On that year, the new recruits received the new uniform: grey coats with blue cuffs, and blue waistcoats.

In 1714, after the signature of the Treaty of Rastatt, the three battalions of the regiment first concentrated at Colonia. In December, they went to Luxembourg.

Uniform

Privates

Uniform in 1708 - Copyright: Richard Couture
Uniform Details as per
Donath
Headgear
Fusilier black tricorne laced white; as field sign, green foliage was attached to the tricorne in summer and a wisp of straw in winter

N.B.: to distinguish soldiers (from corporal down to privates) of each company, a button or rosette at the colour of the company was attached to the tricorne.

Grenadier bearskin edged with a white braid; blue hanging bag edged with a white braid in a zig-zag pattern
Neck stock white
Coat blue with white lining; white buttons on the right side and 1 white button on each side in the small of the back
Collar none
Shoulder Straps none
Lapels none
Pockets horizontal pockets, each with 3 white buttons
Cuffs white, each with 3 white buttons
Turnbacks none
Waistcoat white with white buttons
Breeches white
Stockings white fastened under the knee with a natural leather strap
Gaiters made of canvas and used only when the soldier wore linen breeches; in this case, the stockings were replaced by linen socks; the use of gaiters generalized much later
Leather Equipment
Crossbelt natural leather
Waistbelt a yellow deer or buffalo leather waist-belt worn above the waistcoat
Cartridge Pouch red or black leather pouch containing 24 cartridges, a pewter oil flask, two needles attached to a small chain (to clean the touch-hole of the lock), a tube that held the match for lighting the fuse of grenades, with a wooden peg on a small chain and a roll of fuse. The cartridge box had two cover flaps. The top one was sometimes decorated with a metal badge bearing the cipher or the arms of the Inhaber.

Grenadiers carried two cartridge pouches. The first one, slightly larger than that of fusiliers, was worn on wide cross-belt and contained grenades and a pewter tube that held the match for lighting the fuse of grenades; the smaller second pouch was attached to the waist-belt and contained cartridges for the musket.

Bayonet Scabbard black leather
Scabbard none
Footwear Russia leather shoes


Armaments consisted of a musket and a bayonet. Grenadiers were also armed with hand grenades.

Note: in 1712, new recruits received a new uniform: grey coat with blue lining, blue cuffs, blue waistcoat and blue breeches. This is confirmed by Czegka from a report dating from 1714.

NCOs

NCOs carried a spontoon (half-pike). They were also armed with a Stossdegen (a long two-edged estoc or rapier) carried in a black leather scabbard attached to the waist-belt.

NCOs of grenadier companies carried a flintlock musket instead of the spontoon.

NCOs also carried a cane whose characteristics indicated their precise rank. This cane had the length of a walking stick and was carried in and out of service. In action, to free hands, the cane was hanged to a button of the coat. Grenadier sergeants and fouriers were distinguished from privates by three silver braids on the bag of their bearskin.

Officers

Uniforms of officers were always of finer cloth than those of the privates.

Officers wore a black and yellow silk sash across the chest or around the waist.

Lieutenants of the grenadier companies were distinguished from privates and NCOs by four golden braids on the bag of their bearskin; captains by five golden braids on their bearskin.

Officers carried a partisan. The partisan was decorated with a tassel: gold for the colonel, gold with silver fringe for the lieutenant-colonel, gold and silken fringe for captains and silken fringe for lieutenants. In some regiments, the captains' tassel was entirely of silk; in this case the lieutenants' partisan had no tassel. The partisans of staff officers had gilt butt caps.

Officers were also armed with a Stossdegen (a long two-edged estoc or rapier) carried in a black leather scabbard attached to the waist-belt.

Officers carried a cane whose characteristics indicated their precise rank. This cane had the length of a walking stick and was carried in and out of service. In action, to free hands, the cane was hanged to a button of the coat.

Officers of grenadier companies carried a flintlock musket instead of the partisan. Captains, lieutenants and sergeants of these companies always had their bayonet affixed to their musket.

In the field, officers carried a pair of pistols.

Musicians

In the Austrian Army of the time, musicians often wore uniforms in reverse colours with the distinctive colour of the regiment used for the coat.

The drum belt was usually brown and worn on the right shoulder.

Colours

Colonel colour (Leibfahne): white field bordered with two rows of alternating black, white and red triangles (the outer row pointing inwards, the inner row, outwards); centre device consisting of the crowned arms of the Margraviate of Baden

Leibfahne – Copyright: Kronoskaf

Battalion colours (Bataillonsfahne): yellow field bordered with two rows of alternating black, white and red triangles (the outer row pointing inwards, the inner row, outwards); centre device consisting of a crowned and armed Imperial double-eagle with the the initials of Emperor Leopold I LI (Leopold Imperator) on its breast; the centre device was surmounted by a white scroll

Bataillonsfahne – Copyright: Kronoskaf

References

Abtheilung für Kriegsgeschichte des k. k. Kriegs-Archives: Feldzüge des Prinzen Eugen von Savoyen, Series 1, Vol. 1, Vienna 1875, pp. 212-218, 222-227

Anon.: Geschichte des K. und K. Infanterieregiments Markgraf von Baden No. 23, file I, Budapest 1911

Czegka, Eduard: Uniformen der kaiserlichen Infanterie unter Prinz Eugen. in: Zeitschrift für Heereskunde 49-51, 1933, pp. 459-473

Donath, Rudolf; Die Kaiserliche und Kaiserlich-Königliche Österreichische Armee 1618-1918, 2. Aufl., Simbach/Inn 1979

Gräffer, August: Geschichte der kaiserl. Königl. Regimenter, Corps, Bataillons und anderer Militär-Branchen seit ihrer Errichtung biz zu Ende des Feldzuges 1799, Vol. 1, Vienna, 1804, pp. 98-102

Seyfart, Kurzgefaßte Geschichte aller kaiserlich-königlichen Regimenter zu Pferde und zu Fuß, Frankfurth and Leipzig, 1762, p. 6

Wappen Wiki

N.B.: the section Service during the War is partly derived from our articles depicting the various campaigns, battles and sieges.

Acknowledgement

Harald Skala for the translation and integration of info from the book “Geschichte des K. und K. Infanterieregiments Markgraf von Baden No. 23.”