Bentheim Dragoons

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Hierarchical Path: War of the Spanish Succession (Main Page) >> Armies >> Palatine Army >> Bentheim Dragoons

Origin and History

This dragoon regiment existed since 1693, his first proprietor was Baron Sandratzky. In 1698, Colonel Count Bentheim was appointed proprietor of the regiment numbered 459 men and horses.

In 1701, the regiment contributed 1 squadron of 5 companies for the creation of the new regiment Leiningen-Rixingen Dragoons.

In 1702, the Count of Leiningen-Westerburg-Rixingen became proprietor of the present regiment.

During the War of the Spanish Succession, the successive regimental Chefs were:

  • from 1698: Friedrich Moritz (?) Count von Bentheim-Tecklenburg
  • from 1702: Johann Ludwig Count Leiningen-Westerburg-Rixingen
  • from 1705: Colonel Hahn
  • from 1714: Count von Bentheim

Service during the War

1701

In 1701, the regiment was quartered in the countryside in Palatine lands.

1702

In 1702, the regiment was assigned to the Army of Upper Rhine. At the beginning of March, the regiment, under Lieutenant-General Johann Ludwig von Leiningen-Westerburg-Rixingen, was in Germersheim and reconnoitred towards the Lauter River.

On 22 April, Colonel Frankenberg occupied Lauterbourg and the Saint-Rémy Castle with the regiment. He then marched to Kron-Weißenburg.

On 10 June, in the order of battle of that day, the regiment was in the first line of the left wing. From June to September, the regiment took part in the Siege of Landau.

On 21 October, the regiment was assigned to the Palatine Contingent led by FML Count Leiningen-Westerburg.

At the end of November, the regiment took up its winter-quarters near Mannheim and Heidelberg.

1703

In 1703, the regiment was assigned to the army of Count Nassau-Weilburg.

On 13 October, Count Nassau-Weilburg marched with his army along the Rhine to secure Palatine lands.

On 8 November, Count Nassau-Weilburg set off from Mühlburg and marched to Mannheim, the regiment formed part of the first column. On 13 November, Nassau-Weilburg's troops made a junction with the army of Prince Frederick von Hesse-Kassel near Mechtersheim. On 15 November, the regiment (2 squadrons) took part in the Combat of Speyerbach where it was deployed in the second line of the left wing under G.d.C. Count Nassau-Weilburg.

The regiment probably spent winter in Bretten.

1704

In 1704, according to a contract signed on 15 April between the Elector of Palatinate and Emperor Leopold I, the regiment (410 men) was taken in Imperial pay.

On 30 July, the regiment was in the Lines of Stollhofen, in the "Sternschanze" (star fort).

On 8 September, the regiment crossed Rhine. On 9 September, it marched with the whole army against the French positions. From September to November, the regiment took part in the third siege of Landau, where it encamped on hills between the Birn and Schleid rivers, east of Wollmesheim.

On 23 November, the regiment took its winter-quarters at Klingenmünster.

1705

For the campaign of 1705, the regiment (in Dutch/British pay) was assigned to corps of Count Nassau-Weilburg on the Upper Rhine. Until end of July, the regiment remained near Mainz.

On 12 August, the regiment arrived at the camp at Lauterbourg where the corps of Count Nassau-Weilburg was assigned to the army of the Margrave of Baden. On 26 August, the regiment marched with Nassau-Weilburg's Corps by way of Sulz and Wörth to Pfaffenhofen with the intention to attack the French lines, but the enemies had already retreated. The army then encamped near Mörschweiler.

On 20 September, the regiment formed part of the troops led by FZM Friesen who advanced to capture the fortified town of Drusenheim. On 24 September, the French garrison capitulated as prisoners and was escorted to Heilbronn.

On 9 November, the regiment, still part of Nassau-Weilburg's Corps, marched by way of Niederbronn to recapture Homburg from the French. Since the Prussians under General Arnheim did not want to take part in this action, Count Nassau-Weilburg marched back to his initial position.

At the beginning of December, the regiment took up its winter-quarters in Alzey and Oppenheim.

1706

For the campaign of 1706, the regiment, as part of the corps of the Count Nassau-Weilburg, was once more assigned to the army of the Margrave von Baden on the Upper Rhine.

By 21 May, Nassau-Weilburg's Corps was between Mannheim and Schwetzingen and then remained near Philippsburg until the end of August.

On 10 September, the regiment (439 men and horses) crossed the Rhine with the army and marched to Langenkandel. On 17 September, it retreated to Hagenbach.

On 16 November, Nassau-Weilburg's Corps was sent to the County of Mainz and Hessen-Darmstadt.

1707

In 1707, the regiment was assigned to the Reichsarmee on the Upper Rhine, bit it joined the army very late, at the end of June.

On 28 July, the regiment was with the Reichsarmee near Philippsburg. On 13 August, the regiment marched to Bruchsal and Durlach. On 28 August, the Maréchal de Villars withdrew behind the Murg with his French army. On 30 August, the regiment marched to Ettlingen with the Reichsarmee.

On 16September, Georg Ludwig Elector of Hanover assumed command of the Reichsarmee. The regiment saw no action until the end of the year.

At the beginning of November, the regiment encamped near Mannheim.

1708

Did you know that...
According to Bezzel, the regiment was already with Marlborough's Army at the camp of Sainte-Renelde on 30 may, and later took part to the Battle of Oudenarde. However, we found no trace of this regiment in the order of battle of this famous battle, but the Hanoverian Hahn Dragoons were present at this battle...

On 3 February 1708, negotiations finally took place in Vienna about the transfer of some estates from the Electorate of Bavaria to the Electorate of Palatinate, according to the claims of Elector Johann Wilhelm of Palatinate. These negotiations would last until May. As a result of these ongoing negotiations, on 19 February 1708, Lieutenant-General Baron von Bettendorf was instructed to place, if necessary, a Palatine Contingent (including the present regiment) under the command of Field Marshal Thüngen.

On 25 May, the Palatine Contingent was assembled at Nastetten. Prince Eugène wanted these troops to join the Moselle Army, but because of the disagreements about the the estates of Cham, the Elector of Palatinate kept them at Kostheim.

On 23 June, the restitution of the County of Cham and of Upper Palatinate to the Elector of Palatinate was officially concluded in Vienna. After the signature of this agreement, Palatine troops (including the present regiment) led by Johann Ernst Count Nassau-Weilburg arrived at the camp of Prince Eugène at the end of June. Shortly afterwards, Eugène's Army crossed the Moselle River and marched towards the Low Countries to make a junction with Marlborough's Army. Meanwhile, the Reichsarmee, which also included some Palatine troops remained idle near Mühlberg for the next few months.

1709

For the campaign of 1709, the regiment was assigned to the army of Prince Eugène operating in Flanders. On 25 May, the regiment marched from Düsseldorf towards Bruxelles.

On 17 June, the regiment encamped with the Palatine cavalry between Kerkhove and Waermerde. On 22 June, the regiment (3 squadrons) was in the camp of Prince Eugène's Army north-west of Lille, where it was deployed in the second line of the right wing under G.d.C. Duke of Württemberg. During the Siege of Tournai by the troops of the Duke of Marlborough, the regiment was with the army of Prince Eugène, which was posted between Pont à Tressin and Saint-Amand to cover the siege corps.

On 3 September, the regiment was assigned to the cavalry corps of Prince Heinrich von Hesse and, on 11 September, took part in the Battle of Malplaquet.

The winter-quarters of the regiment are not known.

1710

For the campaign of 1710, the regiment was once more assigned to Prince Eugène's Army in Flanders. By May it was deployed in the second line of the right wing in Count Vehlen's Corps.

In July, the regiment (3 squadrons) was in the camp of Prince Eugène's Army at Rebreuve-Villers-Brulin and was posted in the second line of the right wing under G.d.C. Count Fels.

On 24 August, the regiment was attacked by a larger cavalry detachment under the Comte de Broglie and the Marquis de Nangis, near Saint-Pol while foraging. The fight lasted from 7:00 a.m. to 5:00 p.m. The Allies lost 3 officers and 40 men, the French many killed and wounded, 8 officers and 100 men taken prisoners.

The regiment was not involved in the sieges of Béthune, Saint-Venant and Aire-sur-la-Lys.

On 15 November, the regiment took up its winter-quarters in Herenthals.

1711

For the campaign of 1711, the regiment (3 squadrons) was assigned to the Reichsarmee.

On 9 June, the regiment probably took part in the surprise attack on the French camp at Söllingen by the cavalry of the Reichsarmee. The infantry that was supposed to support the attack arrived too late, so the surprise did not succeed. The French had only some losses. The cavalry then returned to Muggensturm. When the supply of the Reichsarmee in the vicinity of Muggensturm were exhausted, the Duke von Württemberg decided to withdraw behind the Lines of Ettlingen.

On 10 July, the regiment (3 squadrons), which formed part of the corps of FML Schellard, encamped at Knautenheim and Lussheim.

In August, the regiment was deployed in the Lines of Ettlingen, and later in the main camp of Muggensturm.

On 27 August: when the army had used up all supplies in the vicinity of the new camp, Prince Eugène moved the Reichsarmee across the Rhine to Oberhausen. The regiment remained with G.d.C. Count Vehlen in the Lines of Ettlingen.

On 10 November, the Reichsarmee went back across the Rhine and encamped at Waghäusel. Subsequently, the Palatine troops posted near Frankfurt.

1712

For the campaign of 1712, the regiment was assigned to the army operating in Flanders. In May, it was at Ghent.

In July and August, the regiment took part in the Siege of Landrecies.

By November, the regiment was in Erpel.

1713

In 1713, the regiment was in Imperial pay (2 squadrons @ 150 men).

By the end of May, the regiment was in the main camp of Prince Eugène, on right bank of Neckar.

In mid-June, when the French attacked the Rheinschanze, the regiment, the regiment was still posted on the right bank of the Neckar.

In August, the regiment was assigned to the corps of G.d.C. Count Vehlen. It crossed the Neckar River and reached Gernsheim and Hofheim on 26 August.

In September, when Count Vehlen took position near the Lines of Ettlingen, the regiment was posted at Lorsch.

During the winter of 1713/1714, the regiment was posted near Mannheim, Ladenburg and Boxberg.

1714

In 1714, after the signing of peace, all Palatine regiments were reduced. The regiment now numbered only 210 men in two squadrons. The rest of the former regiment was integrated into the Leibregiment.

Uniform

Troopers

Uniform in 1705 - Copyright: Kronoskaf
Uniform Details
as per Hall

Headgear black tricorne laced yellow
Neck stock black
Coat yellow with red lining; copper buttons along the right side
Collar none
Shoulder strap no information found
Lapels none
Pockets horizontal pockets, each with 3 copper buttons
Cuffs red, each with 3 copper buttons
Turnbacks none
Waistcoat red
Breeches white
Leather Equipment
Cross-belt buff leather
Waist-belt buff leather
Cartridge Box black
Scabbard 'no information found
Footgear low riding boots
Horse Furniture
Saddle-cloth red edged with a yellow braid
Housings red edged with a yellow braid
Blanket roll yellow cloak with red lining and a red collar


Troopers were armed with a sword, a musket and a pair of pistols.

The riding mantle was yellow with red lining and a red collar.

NCOs

NCOs wore the same uniform as the troopers but were distinguished by a yellow braid bordering the cuffs.

Officers

no information found yet

Musicians

no information found

Standards

no information found

References

Bezzel, O.: Geschichte des Kurpfälzischen Heeres, Bayrisches Kriegsarchiv, IV. File, part 1 and 2, Munich 1925

Feldzüge des Prinzen Eugen von Savoyen, Spanischer Successions-Krieg I. ser. IV. file, Viena 1877

Goldberg, Claus-Peter and Robert Hall: War of the Spanish Succession 1701-1714 – Electorate Palatine under Elector Johann Wilhelm 1690-1716, s.l., 2003

N.B.: the section Service during the War is also partly derived from our articles depicting the various campaigns, battles and sieges.

Acknowledgement

Harald Skala the initial version of this article