Condé Infanterie

From Project WSS
Revision as of 21:03, 5 January 2024 by RCouture (talk | contribs) (Revised uniform and colours)
(diff) ← Older revision | Latest revision (diff) | Newer revision → (diff)
Jump to navigationJump to search

Hierarchical Path: War of the Spanish Succession (Main Page) >> Armies >> French Army >> Condé Infanterie

Origin and History

The regiment was created on 11 June 1644 for the Prince de Condé and took its winter-quarters on the borders of Champagne. In 1645, it served under the Duc d'Enghien, in Germany, taking part in the siege of Rothemburg, in the Battle of Nordlingen and in the capture of Dunkespiel and Heilbronn. In 1646, it campaigned in Flanders, taking part in the capture of Courtrai, Berghes, Mardyck, Furnes and Dunkerque. On 26 December, the Prince de Condé died and his son, Louis II de Bourbon (the famous “Grand Condé”) became proprietor of the regiment. In 1647, the regiment campaigned in Catalonia and took part in the unsuccessful siege of Lérida, in the capture of Ager and in the relief of Constantin. In 1648, it campaigned in Flanders where it took part in the siege of Ypres, in the Battle of Lens and in the siege of Furnes. In 1649, it participated in the siege of Condé. At the end of the year, the Prince de Condé having a quarrel with the Cardinal de Mazarin, the regiment left the army and entered into the town of Seurre in Bourgogne.

On 20 January 1650, during the troubles of the Fronde (1648-1653), the regiment was officially stricken off from the French Army, thus losing its seniority. It was besieged in Seurre, capitulated and was disbanded on 21 April. Its remnants, along with those of Enghien Infanterie, rejoined the Vicomte de Turenne at Stenay, and took part in the Battle of Rhétel. On 26 February 1651, the regiment was re-established but soon disbanded again on 13 September. Now excluded from the French Army, the regiment served Spain under the Prince de Condé until the Treaty of the Pyrenees (1659). As such, in 1652, it took part in the Combat of Bléneau, in the defence of Étampes, in the Battle of Saint-Denis, in the Combat of Faubourg Saint-Antoine, in the capture of Sainte-Ménehould. In 1653, the regiment defended Sainte-Ménehould. In 1654, it defended Clermont en Argonne and virtually disintegrated after the capitulation of the place. A kernel of faithful soldiers continued to serve under the Prince de Condé during the four following campaigns, taking part in the reliefs of Valenciennes and Cambrai.

On 7 November 1659, after the Treaty of the Pyrenees, the regiment was finally reintegrated into the French Army and ranked according to this date, passing from its original rank (35th) to the 47th.

In 1667, at the beginning of the War of Devolution (1667–68), the regiment took part in the capture of Charleroi. In 1668, it campaigned in Franche-Comté before being reduced from 12 to 4 companies.

In 1672, at the outbreak of the Franco-Dutch War (1672–78), the regiment was increased to 16 companies. One of its companies took part in the defence of the Fort of Warth. In 1673, it garrisoned various places in Holland. In 1674, it took part in the Battle of Seneffe; in 1675, in the capture of Dinant, Huy and Limbourg; in 1676, in the reliefs of Haguenau and Saverne, and in the Combat of Kokersberg; in 1677, in the siege of Freiburg; in 1678, in the attack on the bridge of Seckingen and in the sieges of Kehl and Lichtenberg; and in 1679, in the Combat of Minden.

In 1684, the regiment served at the siege of Luxembourg.

On 28 December 1686, after the death of the “Grand Condé”, the regiment became the property of his son, Henri-Jules de Bourbon, Prince de Condé.

In 1688, at the beginning of the Nine Years' War (1688–97), the regiment took part in the siege of Philisbourg. In 1689, it campaigned in Flanders and took part in the Combat of Walcourt. In 1690, it fought in the Battle of Fleurus. In 1691, it was transferred to the Alps where it contributed to the conquest of the County of Nice. In 1692, it garrisoned Pinerolo and Susa. In 1694, it took part in the victorious Battle of the Marsaglia; in 1696, in the siege of Valencia before returning to Flanders where it served in 1697.

By the time of the War of the Spanish Succession, the regiment counted one battalion but was soon (1 February 1701) increased to two battalions.

During the War of the Spanish Succession, the regiment was under the nominal command of its successive colonels-proprietors:

  • from 28 December 1686: Henri-Jules de Bourbon, Prince de Condé
  • from 15 September 1709: Louis-Henri de Bourbon-Condé, Duc de Bourbon
  • from 1 April 1710: Louis-Henri de Bourbon-Condé, Duc de Bourbon (son of the former proprietor)

During the War of the Spanish Succession, the regiment was under the effective command of its successive colonels-lieutenants:

  • from 15 July 1696: Marc, Chevalier de Montmorency.
  • from 18 April 1710: Philippe-Claude de Beaufort, Marquis de Montboissier
  • from 29 March 1712: Pierre-Charles Regnault, Comte d'Angennes
  • from 9 February 1713 to 28 September 1719: N. d'Hautefort, Comte de Surville

On 1 January 1714, the regiment incorporated the remnants of the disbanded Montereau Infanterie.

Service during the War

On 1 February 1701, the regiment was increased to two battalions. In mid-February, the first battalion occupied Diest. By 19 March, the first battalion of the regiment was stationed in Upper Guelderland. By 20 July, one battalion of the regiment formed part of Villeroy's field army. By 3 October, one battalion was attached to Coigny's Corps in Upper Guelderland. In December, one battalion took its winter-quarters in Thionville in Lorraine. During this first campaign of the war, the second battalion is not mentioned in any order of battle.

On 21 January 1702, the second battalion of the regiment is mentioned for the first time when it had to detach 300 men to reinforce the Army of Italy. By the end of April, the first battalion had been transferred to the Army of the Rhine. By 3 June, it was deployed in Montroux's Brigade in the centre of the first line of infantry of the Army of the Rhine. In September, it set off from Strasbourg under Villars and marched to Huningue. On 14 October, it took part in the Battle of Friedlingen. By November, the second battalion was garrisoning Ostend.

In 1703, the first battalion of the regiment served once more under Villars. From 20 February to 10 March, it took part in the Siege of Kehl, in the attack on the Lines of Stollhofen and in the passage of the defiles of Hornberg. It remained for a time at Ulm to assist the Elector of Bavaria. By 4 May, the second battalion was still garrisoning Ostend. At the end of May, the first battalion accompanied the Elector to Munich and took part in his expedition in Tyrol. This battalion distinguished itself at the capture of Kufstein which was stormed with its castle in less than two hours. It also took part in the attack of Rotenberg and in the capture of Innsbruck. It then returned to Bavaria where it contributed to the capture of Kempten and Augsburg. By mid-October, the second battalion was attached to Pracontal's Corps on the Moselle. The first battalion took its winter-quarters in Augsburg, its lieutenant-colonel, M. de Salère, being appointed governor of the place.

In 1704, the depot of the regiment was formed into a third battalion and sent to the Comte de Coigny, posted on the Moselle with his corps. Upon arrival, this third battalion was in such a poor state that it was sent to join the garrison of Strasbourg. The two other battalions were separated: the first was attached to Marsin's Army; the second placed under the command of Tallard. In June, the second battalion took part in the siege of Villingen. On 13 August, the first and second battalions fought in the disastrous Battle of Blenheim. The remnants of these two battalions rallied on the Rhine and formed part of the garrison of Fort-Louis.

In 1705, the regiment served in Alsace, spending most of the campaign in Schweighausen.

In 1706, the regiment served under Villars and took part in the blockade of Fort-Louis, in the capture of Drusenheim, at the submission of Lauterbourg and Haguenau, and in the conquest of the Marquisat Island.

In 1707, the regiment was transferred to Flanders.

On 11 July 1708, the regiment took part in the Battle of Oudenarde and its grenadiers participated in the attack and capture of Leffinghem. In this affair, its colonel-lieutenant, the Chevalier de Montmorency was taken prisoner but managed to escape. During the siege of Lille, the regiment served on the Lys under the command of the Comte de La Mothe.

In 1709, the regiment was sent back to the Rhine where it was posted at Scherbach on the Lauter. A detachment of the regiment took part in the combat de Rumersheim.

In 1710 and 1711, the regiment remained in the Lines of the Lauter or in Lauterbourg.

In 1712, the regiment served in Alsace.

In 1713, the regiment took part in the sieges of Laudau and Freiburg.

Uniform

Privates

Uniform in 1710 – Copyright Kronoskaf
Uniform Details as per
Susane, Marbot, Lienhart & Humbert, Funcken
Headgear
Musketeer black tricorne laced gold with a white or black cockade
Grenadier black tricorne laced gold with a white or black cockade
Neck stock white
Coat grey-white with yellow buttons on the right side and 1 yellow button on each side in the small of the back
Collar none
Shoulder Straps grey-white fastened with a yellow button
Lapels none
Pockets horizontal pockets, each with 5 yellow buttons (only 4 buttons as per Marbot)
Cuffs red, each with 5 yellow buttons (only 3 buttons as per Marbot, Lienhart & Humbert, and Funcken)
Turnbacks none
Waistcoat red with yellow buttons
Breeches grey-white (red as per Marbot)
Stockings red fastened under the knee with a natural leather strap
Gaiters none at the beginning of the war, white later
Leather Equipment
Crossbelt natural leather (often whitened with pipe-clay) with a brass buckle
Waistbelt natural leather (often whitened with pipe-clay) with a brass buckle
Cartridge Box natural leather
Bayonet Scabbard n/a
Scabbard black with white metal fittings
Footwear black shoes with a brass buckle


Armaments consisted of a musket and a bayonet. Fusiliers carried a sword (brass hilt) while the grenadiers had a sabre.

NCOs

n/a

Officers

n/a

Musicians

Arms of the House of Bourbon Condé - Source: WikiMedia Commons

Drummers wore the livery of the House of Bourbon Condé: chamois yellow laced and lined red. The arms on the drums had an azure field with three golden fleurs de lys couped by a small red baston (de France au bâton péri en bande de gueules).

Colours

Colonel Colour: white field with a white cross.

Ordonnance Colour: blue and ventre de biche (reddish white) opposed cantons and a white cross. These ordonnance colours remained unchanged from 1659 to 1740.

Colonel Colour - Copyright: Kronoskaf
Ordonnance Colour - Copyright: Kronoskaf

References

This article incorporates texts from the following books which are now in the public domain:

  • Susane, Louis: Histoire de l'ancienne infanterie française, J. Corréard, Paris, 1849-1856, Tome 6, pp. 1-12, 19

Other sources

Funcken, Liliane and Fred: Les uniformes de la guerre en dentelle, p. 55

Lemau de la Jaisse, P.: Abregé de la Carte Générale du Militaire de France, Paris, 1734, p. 112

Lienhart, Constant; Humbert, René: Les Uniformes de l'Armée Française de 1690 à 1894, Vol. III, Leipzig 1899 – 1902

Marbot, Alfred de and E. Dunoyer de Noirmont: ‎Les uniformes de l'armée française, T1 "1439 à 1789"‎

N.B.: the section Service during the War is partly derived from our articles depicting the various campaigns, battles and sieges.