Coronela de Barcelona

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Hierarchical Path: War of the Spanish Succession (Main Page) >> Armies >> Catalan Army >> Coronela de Barcelona

Introduction

The Coronela was the armed force of the municipality of Barcelona. Largely made up of artists and craftsmen from the city's guilds, it was organized into companies, under the command of the chief councillor of the city's council (Consell del Cent, Council of the Hundred), in charge of the defence of the city with the military privilege of guarding the gates and walls.

Origin and History

In August 1542, the deputies of the Generalitat and the councillors decided to arm the guilds of Barcelona. In 1544, this militia came under the orders of the chief minister of Barcelona, who was conferred the captaincy of the unit with the rank of Coronell. In 1554, the organisation of the guilds was systematized through the quartos, the urban areas into which the city of Barcelona was divided. Since the structuring of 1544, the brotherhoods of the Barcelona guilds were in a state of latent mobilisation, deactivated but armed and organised to be summoned quickly under the orders of the Chief Minister of Barcelona.

By 1626 the guilds of the city had constituted 31 companies. In October 1640, the Barcelona militia was reorganised into four Tercios.

In 1641, Pau Claris, president of the Generalitat de Catalunya, proclaimed Louis XIII of France as Count of Barcelona and placed the Principality of Catalonia under French sovereignty. In 1649 there were 49 guilds and 18 religious companies that made up the four Tercios of Barcelona. Each company consisted of between 100 and 120 soldiers, commanded by a captain, an ensign, a sergeant and one or two squad leaders.

The loss of the military autonomy of the municipality in 1652 as a result of the Guerra dels Segadors (War of the Reapers or War of Secession, 1640-1652) put the guild militia in crisis, when it was replaced by the Royal Army to guard the gates and walls, and as the unique force responsible for the defence of Barcelona.

In 1684, during the War of the Reunions (1683-84), Viceroy Alexandre de Bournonville had to leave Barcelona with the army for the defence of Girona and requested the councillors to arm some companies to defend the city in his absence. Taking advantage of the absence of the viceroy, the Consell de Cent and the Military Arm of Catalonia raised a militia of 46 companies under the command of captains selected from among the members of the Military Arm of Catalonia, the corps totalled 4,500 armed men, who assumed de-facto guard of walls and gates. On his return de Bournonville immediately ordered the disarmament of the militia and the handing over of the command symbols.

During the Nine Years' War (1688-97), Barcelona obtained a royal authorization to raise its militia again. On 20 May 1697, faced with the imminent siege of the city by the French, King Charles II of Spain requested by letter to Viceroy Francisco Antonio Fernández de Velasco to authorize the city to raise, arm and pay the Barcelona militia following the old traditional forms, and on 28 May 1697 the Tercio of the Guilds was formed under the command of the Chief Minister Francesc Taverner i Montornès.

During the siege of Barcelona in 1713 and 1714, the successive colonels of the unit were:

  • in 1713: Conseller en Cap Manuel Flix
  • in 1714: Conseller en Cap Rafael Casanova

In 1714, the regiment was disarmed and abolished after the last siege of the War of the Spanish Succession. From then on the city was guarded by the Spanish Royal Amy.

Service during the War

1704

On 27 May 1704, there was a first attempt at an Allied landing in Barcelona. It had the support of conspirators but Viceroy Velasco mobilized the new guild militia and the Chief Minister awarded him the new rank of Coronel (colonel). Due to the fact that the guild militia was under his command it was called Coronela de Barcelona. When the British landing failed, Velasco, upon discovering the Catalans' complicity with the Allies, demobilised the militia, asking for urgent assistance from the Madrid Court and requesting military reinforcements to control the city. Velasco initiated an indiscriminate policy of arrests of all those whom he considered opponents of King Philip V. Arbitrary arrests in Barcelona, which seriously violated the Catalan Constitutions, caused the majority of the inhabitants, hitherto indifferent to the dynastic question to radicalize against Philip V, wishing for the return of the House of Austria to the rule of the Spanish monarchy in the person of Archduke Charles of Austria.

1705

On 23 August 1705, a British naval squadron landed troops again and made ready to begin the siege of Barcelona. In September, with the city encircled, the councillors of Barcelona presented themselves to Viceroy Velasco, offering to mobilise the Coronela de Barcelona, but the viceroy, despite not having received any reinforcements, refused to hand over the keys to the Armory of Barcelona and to arm the Coronela, fearing a military coup.

On 9 October, after the capitulation, Barcelona rose up against Velasco and, to calm the revolt, on October 22, Archduke Charles entered Barcelona.

On November 7, Archduke Charles vowed to respect the Catalan constitutions and was crowned Charles III of Spain. He agreed to the request of the Councillors of Barcelona to fully restore the privilege of military autonomy of the city, which it had lost after the end of the Reapers' War, fifty years earlier, and which was restored by Royal Decree of 29 November.

In order to expel the House of Bourbon from the Iberian Peninsula, the Exèrcit Regular Austriacista (Regular Pro-Austrian Army) was raised, the Consell de Cent raised the Regiment de la Ciutat de Barcelona; and the Generalitat, the Regiment de la Generalitat de Catalunya, of 500 men each.

1706

In February 1706 the final establishment of the Coronela de Barcelona was completed. As before the Coronela was not destined to take the field. Its task was rather to guard the whole city, controlling the entrances and exits through the gates, and patrolling the walls, thereby it freed the Regular Pro-Austrian Army from this task, leaving all its operational personnel as a field army. As a special combat unit suitable for operations in the field in front of Barcelona, the Coronela also had a company of grenadiers made up of the 200 most physically outstanding men, selected from among all the companies present at the gala ceremonies, which presided over the traditional acts of the guilds forming the Coronela.

As of 23 February the Coronela de Barcelona consisted of the following companies:

1 Mercaders dits magistrats de la Llotja de Mar (merchants known as magistrates of the Llotja de Mar)
2 Notaris públics, pintors (public notaries and painters)
3 Notaris reials, candelers de cera (royal notaries and wax candle makers) Note: Wax candle makers worked the bee wax that was imported from North Africa or the Baltic. This type of wax was thicker and was used for religious ceremonies and for wealthy families. In order to work it, it had to be bleached, melted into the fire and dropped into a stream of cold water until lumps formed. Once done, they were spread on rooftops and the sun dried and whitened it. Carrer de la Cera, in the heart of the Raval district, received its name due to the large number of rooftops dedicated to this function.
4 Notaris causídics (solicitors)
5 Adroguers (apothecaries) Note: during the 14th and 15th centuries, the name adroguer meant "drug dealer", perhaps because they were engaged in the sale of products "so sinful that they bring to vice all who try them". Chocolate could only be made and sold if one was a member of the guild. Its preparation, called "la cuita" was made both in the store and in private homes. For this reason, it was common to find adroguers and confectioners on the same streets of the city.
6 Argenters-mestres i fadrins (master-silversmiths and grooms
7 Esteves Note: The Confraternity of Esteves was one of the biggest in the 13th century. It was formed from the union of many small trades (saddlers, basters, canners, gunsmiths and copper makers) which did not have enough organisation to generate an independant guild. It was originally made up of trades related to riding and among them, especially, those who made the moldings, called brakes, that were applied to the horses' mouths in order to lead them and the shield of the Esteves Guild featured a riding saddle and a brake. The confraternity was also known by the name of freners and the street where they were located was called (and still is today) the Freneria. This guild held festival on St. Stephen's Day and shared a common chapel in the Cathedral of Barcelona
8 Ferrers, calderers (blacksmiths, coppersmiths) Note: The blacsmiths' guild was one of several guilds of trades related to the art of fire, such as boilermakers, daguers, swordsmen, harpsichords, locksmiths, knives and needlemen. However, there were towns that grouped them all together under the guild of blacksmiths.
9 Manyans (locksmiths)
10 Sastres (tailors)
11 Esparters, boters, capsers, torners (basket makers, wineskin makers, hatters, turners)
12 Flassaders, llibreters, vidriers (blanket makers, booksellers, glaziers)
13 Cotoners, pellers, calceters, assaonadors, candelers de sèu (cotton dealers, furriers, stocking makers, seasoners, tallow candle makers)
14 Paraires, tintorers de drap (wool carders, cloth dyers)
15 Teixidors, retorcedors de llana (wool weavers, wool spinners)
16 Sabaters-mestres i fadrins (master-shoemakers and grooms) Note: The shoemaking trade was one of the most essential in a city. There is already evidence of its presence as a guild in Barcelona since 1203, under the name of Brotherhood of Sant Marc of the Guild of Master Shoemakers. It was so important that they even financed altar pieces and other decorations for religious buildings, such as the San Marcos Chapel in the Barcelona Cathedral.
17 Hortolans del Portal Nou (horticulturists of the Nou Gate) Note: In Barcelona there were two guilds of horticulturalists: those of Nou Gate and of the Sant Antoni Gate. The horticulturalists owned the land growig crops irrigated by water supplied through the waterwheels of the Rec Comtal. For celebrations, they decorated their patrons with lettuce, tomatoes and also peppers and they carried green candles.
18 Hortolans del Portal de Sant Antoni (horticulturists of the Sant Antoni Gate)
19 Fusters-mestres i fadrins (master-carpenters and grooms) Note: The carpenter's guild was a guild from which several branches emerged and tasks were branched out taking into account specialities. In Barcelona, the Fuster de la Cort was periodically chosen, he was in charge of advising the government on the issues of works and infrastructure and even the decoration of the Church of Santa Maria del Mar. The carpenters' guild was, in a way, at odds with the sculptors' guild, as they often competed for similar tasks. At the end of the 17th century, it was decided that the sculptors' guild would be in charge of the contracting and manufacture of altarpieces.
20 Matalassers, perxes, gerrers (mattress makers, ribbon weavers, jar makers) Note: The mattress makers guild was one of the strongest in the city. Its task was making and undoing mattresses. At that time there were many types: those of wool – for those who could afford it –, those of cork shavings and those made of a compost of straw and dry leaves. Apart from that, they also rented mattresses, beds, sheets, pillows and pillowcases to people briefly sojourning in the city.
21 Teixidors de lli (linen weavers)
22 Mestre de cases (master masons)
23 Tintorers, retorcedors de seda (silk dyers, silk spinners)
24 Barreters de agulla, carders (silk hat makers, carders)
25 Mercers (botiguers de teles) (haberdashers and cloth sellers)
26 Julians vells (confraternity of Sant Julià) Note: Sant Julià was the patron saint of one of the most important guild confraternities in the city of Barcelona. It gathered numerous small trades that, alone, could not to constitute its own guild; they were known by the name "Julians"; the confraternity was made up of mercers, pursers, brokers, glovers, belters, shoemakers, mattress makers, gunsmiths, eyeglass makers, rosary makers or paternosters, card makers, hatters and barbers, hemp lambs, blacksmiths, perchers, handrails, the bonnet makers, who made caps and stockinette nets, the painters and a few others. This guild had its centre in the parish of Sant Cugat del Rec.
27 Daguers, beiners, escudellers (cutlers, sheath makers, dishware makers)
28 Passamaners (passementrie makers)
29 Velluters (velvet makers)
30 Corders de cànem, corders de viola (hemp and viola makers)
31 Mariners (sailors) Note: The main task of the trade of sailor was port traffic, fishing and navigation. This made it a very poor guild, in general. For this reason, many sailors, once the city was lost, would have to dedicate themselves to the construction of the new citadel. Even so, solidarity prevailed over the collective and colleagues were in charge of the funeral of their colleagues and also of their widows.
32 Velers (sail makers) Note: The Velers de seda guild was one of the most important guilds in Barcelona, as it was one of the initiators of commercial roads on the peninsula. The sail makers trade was diverse, since they were engaged in weaving different types of material, although later they specialized and, in this case, worked on silk. Unlike the sailors' guild, the guild did not take care of the widows and many had ended up in absolute misery, until in 1663 three widows started the "Women's Lawsuit" which four years later allowed them to continue the business and sell the fabrics they had manufactured. The guild built a building near Via Laietana which now houses the College of High Silk Art.
33 Garbelladors, macips de ribera (bastaixos) (???, porters)
34 Espardenyers (espadrille makers)
35 Revenedors (resellers)
36 Llogaters de mules (mule hirers)
37 Taverners, hostalers (taverners, innkeepers)
38 Tapiners (sandal makers) Note: sandals of fine fabric with a large cork sole placed between two leather ones, mainly for women.
39 Blanquers (tanners)
40 Descarregadors, pescadors (dockers, fishermen)
41 Fadrins sastres (tailor grooms)
42 Sabaters de vell (shoemenders)
43 Forners (bakers) Note: bread and pastry bakers were part of the same guild, although their work was different. The baker's trade was dedicated to kneading, baking and selling bread; On the other hand, the pastry baker's job was to bake the bread and cakes that individuals brought to their ovens.
44 Carnissers (butchers) Note: The butcher's trade was not considered a noble profession, as they were responsible for killing and slaughtering cattle, and sometimes, if there was no executioner, were also responsible for hanging convicts. Thus, in the early 18th century, this trade did not enjoy a high reputation. In fact, many butchers were removed from the government and the church. This situation would change in the last third of the same century. The butchers were, together with the municipality, responsible for the provision of meat.

Composition and distribution of the companies varied constantly to adapt to the needs of the moment and due to the struggles and disagreements between various guilds for the place they occupied within the hierarchy of the Coronela.

On 3 April, the Bourbon Army undertook the siege of Barcelona and Philip V arrived from Madrid. Archduke Charles, although he could easily flee by sea, decided to wait for relief. On April 26, Montjuic Castle fell into Bourbon hands and a large breach was made in the walls of Barcelona in the area of San Antonio. On 27 April, Allied troops, who had landed aboard fishing boats, managed to enter the city and the Franco-Spanish fleet fled upon learning of the approach of the superior Allied navy. The Bourbons fled in disorder and, harassed by the Migueletes, abandoned artillery and ammunition. During the siege, the British had been impressed by the high degree of preparation, discipline and bravery of the Coronela de Barcelona.

On 22 August, a new step was taken towards the militarisation of the civilians who served in the Coronela, when Archduke Charles, with the approval of the Three Commons of Catalonia, declared that as long as civilians were on duty they were under military jurisdiction.

In order to maintain direct control of the militia, the Consell de Cent published a memorial on 30 November declaring that, although civilians were under military jurisdiction, it would be the councillors who would decide who assumed guard duty, and who would apply the sanctions provided for in the military code.

The process of militarisation culminated between October 1706 and March 1707, when the Coronela received full uniform, and the old muskets were replaced by the new fusils, being for all intents and purposes equated with an infantry regiment of the Austrian Regular Army. Likewise, the guilds saw the colours of their companies blessed. The expenses were paid for by the Barcelona guilds, except for the armament, which was paid for by the Austrian Crown.

The appointment of the officers (captain, lieutenant and ensign) who were to command the companies of the Coronela, was at the choice of the guilds themselves. The captains had to be chosen from among the Catalan aristocracy affiliated with the Military Arm of Catalonia, and once the proposal was made they presented it to the king (Archduke Charles), who handed over the patent. From then on, the new appointments of captain had to have the approval of the existing ones, the old captains, and from 1713, with the personal approval of the Protector of the Military Arm of Catalonia. According to the patents, the king paid the salary of the senior officers and captains of the Coronela, and from 1711, those of the lieutenants and ensigns, when they also received the king's patent.

In 1706, 44 hierarchically ranked companies were formed, based on the seniority of each guild, with precedence being a matter of prestige. After the siege of 1706, several guilds contested the initial ranking, pretending that their company did not occupy a rank corresponding to its seniority.

In September, a new ranking was proposed but it did not gain consensus. A new proposal was negotiated, and in December it was finally ratified. Given the relative importance of each guild, some of them had to join forces to defray the expenses of a company.

Nevertheless, several proposals for reorganizations and modifications continued until August 1708, always due to the disputes over the position of each guild within the hierarchy, since a better position was very important to gain prestige and influence.

1708

The rivalry and competition between the guilds of Barcelona produced tensions, and in 1708 the ranking was rearranged, adding a 45th company.. These arrangements reflected the industrial world of the guilds, since despite the total militarisation, the Coronela was still a body made up of teachers, craftsmen, and apprentices of the Catalan guilds, with their own traditional customs and way of working.

The official status of the Coronela de Barcelona was equivalent to that of a regiment of regular infantry: the Chief Councillor was its colonel, and as this position changed annually, the continuity in the line of command was assured through the lieutenant-colonel, a rank with a specifically military profile. The sergeant-major, who usually had direct command over the unit in terms of its deployment on the ground and tactical training, was subordinated to the lieutenant-colonel. These colonel, lieutenant-colonel and sergeant-major had an official patent from the king, being therefore paid by the Crown like the rest of the regiments of the regular army. The orders were always given by the colonel – the chief counselor –, then lectured with the lieutenant-colonel, and transmitted by the sergeant-major through his assistants, who communicated them to the captains of each company.

1710

In 1710, the Coronela was tasked with the guard of the Royal Palace. The contest around the seniority of each guild became even more relevant, since the place and days of guard were determined according to this seniority.

1713-1714

In August 1713 the Coronela was divided into 6 battalions and 47 companies with some 3,800 combatants. These six battalions were:

  • 1st Battalion "Santíssima Trinitat", under Jaume Pagès with its headquarters in Santa Maria del Mar
  • 2nd Battalion "Immaculada Concepció", under Jaume Otser with its headquarters in the Santa Clara Convent.
  • 3rd Battalion "Santa Eulàlia", under Pau Agell with its headquarters in Sant Pere de les Puelles
  • 4th Battalion "Santa Madrona", under Josep Orri with its headquarters in the Santa Anna Convent
  • 5th Battalion "Sant Sever", under Josep Sisó, with its headquarters in the Sant Francesc Convent
  • 6th Battalion "Mare de Déu de la Mercè", under Antoni Calvaria, with its headquarters in the Santa Mònica Convent

In 1713 and 1714, the Coronela played an especially important role in the defence of Barcelona against the Bourbon troops. The 4,500 civilians in the Coronela defended the city during this last siege. At that time, it was organised into 48 companies, each formed by about 80 men who were grouped in battalions, each of approximately 700 soldiers.

Given its size, the Coronela de Barcelona had three dragoon aides-de-camp who ensured the rapid and effective transmission of orders through the chain of command in a combat area as wide as the city of Barcelona. For these functions, these officers were required to have an excellent level of understanding of military orders, as well as combat experience and had to be quick and accurate in transmitting the orders of the Chief Counselor.

In 1714, during the siege of Barcelona, the 5th Company " Mariners, mestres d’aixa" and 6th Company "Flequers, forners" of the 2nd Battalion were assigned to the defence of the positions on the Travessara of the bastions.

On 12 August, after the death of its captain, the Professor of Law Marià Bassons, the 8th Company "Estudiants de lleis" of the 1st Battalion was engaged in a bloody hand-to-hand combat for the defence of the Santa Clara Bastion.

On 13 August, the 2nd Company "Fusters" and the 5th Company "Escudellers" of the 6th Battalion defended the Santa Clara Bastion. The 2nd Company was almost annihilated during this combat.

On August 14, the 1st Company "Notaris públics" of the 2nd Battalion and the 2nd Company "Sabaters" of the 3rd Battalion took part in the counterattack at the Santa Clara Bastion. On the same day, the 1st Company " Notaris públics reials" of the 3rd Battalion was annihilated.

During the general assault of the Bourbons on 11 September, the 5th Company "Flassaders, llibreters, vidriers, escultors, dauradors" of the 3rd Battalion and the 2nd Company "Ferrers, calderers" of the 5th Battalion were assigned to the defence of the Portal Nou Bastion. Similarly, the 1st Company "Candelers de cera, pintors" and 2nd Company "Argenters" of the 4th Battalion along with the survivors of the 2nd Company "Fusters" of the 6th Battalion defended the Levant Bastion; the 4th Company " Teixidors de lli" and the 5th Company "Corders de cànem, corders de viola" of the 4th Battalion along with the 1st Company "Esteves o Freners" of the 6th Battalion defended the Santa Clara Bastion; the 7th Company " Velers" of the 4th Battalion defended the breach near the Molins de Vent Gate and the Santa Clara Bastion; the 3rd Company "Hortolans del Portal Nou" and the 6th Company "Carnissers" of the 5th Battalion defended the wall between the Santa Clara Bastion and the Portal Nou; the 4th Company "Gerrers, ollers, matalassers, perxers" of the 5th Battalion defended the left breach of the Santa Clara Bastion and the breach of Sant Daniel; the 1st "Notaris causídics i pintors", and 5th to 9th companies of the 5th Battalion all defended the Travessara; the 4th Company "Blanquers" of the 6th Battalion defended the breach of Carnalatge; and the 6th Company "Taverners i hostalers" of the 6th Battalion defended the Sant Pere Bastion.

The Santa Clara Bastion was located almost in the centre of what is now Ciutadella Park. It was the scene of one of the toughest combats during the siege. The 1st Company "Esteves o Freners" of the 6th Battalion was annihilated while defending this bastion and the 6th Company "Carnissers" of the 5th Battalion lost many men, but so did the attackers and since the section could not be stormed, it was not attacked again until the end of the final assault.

Uniform

Until the publication in 2007 of Prof. F. X. Hernàndez & F. Riart's book “Els Exèrcits de Catalunya 1713-1714”, it was generally accepted that the whole Coronela Regiment shared a common uniform for all of its battalions. However, thanks to their research, we now know that the Coronela de Barcelona had a more complex history, with different uniforms for each battalion in 1706, and a progressive evolution towards the traditionally known blue uniform in 1710-1712, when the companies were allowed to decide their own. This might seem quite an odd decision, but it should be noted that the Coronela was structured around the various guilds of the city, each company corresponding to a guild, or a group of guilds, which was responsible for maintaining it and filling its ranks.

The Coronela was armed with rifles instead of muskets (Cases Ibanez, Adrià: Guerra i quotidianitat miltar a la Catalunya del canvi dinastic (1705-1714), Barcelona 2012, p. 312)

As mentioned before, in August 1713, the Coronela was divided into 6 battalions and 47 companies with some 3,800 combatants.

1st Battalion "Santíssima Trinitat"

Company Uniform
1. Confiters, adroguers

(Confectioners and apothecaries)
guarding Montjuïc Castle, a place of paramount strategic military importance.

1706-1710: dark blue coat, magenta red facings, stockings and breeches, white neckcloth, brass buttons, black hat bordered yellow, magenta red cartridge pouch

1710-1714: dark blue coat, magenta red facings, stockings and breeches, white neckcloth, brass buttons, black hat bordered yellow, scarlet? cartridge pouch

2. Mercaders, banquers

(merchants and bankers)

1706-1710: iron-grey coat, red facings, stockings and breeches, brass buttons, black hat bordered yellow, white neckcloth, red cartridge pouch'br.

1710-1714: as above, metal buttons

3. Mestres sastres

(master tailors)

1706-1710: deep yellow coat, red facings, stockings and breeches?, white neckcloth, yellow buttons?, black hat bordered yellow, yellow cartridge pouch

1710-1714: as above

4. Manyans, clavetaires, agullers

(locksmiths, nailsmiths and needle makers)

1706-1710: iron grey coat, red facings, stockings and breeches?, white neckcloth, tin buttons?, black hat without border, grey cartridge pouch?

1710-1714: blue coat, red facings, stockings and breeches?, white neckcloth, tin buttons?, black hat bordered white, light blue? cartridge pouch

5. Mestres de cases, molers

(master masons, millstone makers)

1706-1710: unknown, perhaps as 1710-1714

1710-1714: blue coat, blue cuffs, red collar, stockings and breeches?, white neckcloth, brass buttons, black hat bordered white, blue cartridge pouch

6. Esparters, capsers, torners

(basket makers,hatters, turners)

1706-1710: unknown, perhaps as 1710-1714

1710-1714: 1710-1714: blue coat, red facings, stockings and breeches, white neckcloth, metal bittons, black hat, blue cartridge pouch

7. Espasers, tapiners, oripellers, guadamassilers

(swordsmiths, sandal makers, brass ornament makers)
Note: oripellers made various ornaments of thin and polished brass leaf shining like gold. Guadamassilers made pieces of leather adorned with drawings stamped in paint or embossed.

1706-1710: unknown, perhaps as 1710-1714

1710-1714: mid blue coat, magenta magenta red facings, stockings and breeches, white neckcloth, brass buttons, black hat bordered yellow, blue cartridge pouch

8. Estudiants de lleis

(law students)
Note: this company was formed only in times of siege.

1706-1710: unknown, perhaps as 1710-1714

1710-1714: dark grey coat, facings, buttons, white stockings? and breeches, black hat, leather cartridge pouch?

2nd Battalion "Immaculada Concepció"

Company Uniform
1. Notaris públics

(public notaries and lawyers clerks)

1706-1710: blue coat, red facings, stockings and breeches, white neckcloth, metal buttons, black hat bordered yellow?, blue cartridge pouch

1710-1714: blue coat, red facings, stockings and breeches, white neckcloth, brass buttons, black hat bordered yellow, blue cartridge pouch

2. Paraires, tintorers de drap i pellissers

(wool carders, cloth dyers, skinners)

1706-1710: dark blue coat, dark red facings, red stockings and breeches, white neckcloth, brass buttons, black hat bordered yellow, blue cartridge pouch, green cockade

1710-1714: dark blue coat, dark red facings, red stockings and breeches, white neckcloth, brass buttons, black hat bordered yellow, blue cartridge pouch, red cockade

3. Calceters, cotoners, pallers, assaonadors, candelers de seu

(stocking makers, cotton dealers, furriers, hide tanners, tallow candle makers)

1706-1710: pale blue coat?, magenta red facings, red stockings and breeches, white neckcloth, pale blue? buttons, black hat bordered white, leather cartridge pouch

1710-1714: blue coat, magenta red facings, red stockings and breeches, white neckcloth, black hat bordered white, blue? cartridge pouch

4. Julians et. al

(Confraternity of Sant Julià, made up of numerous small trades)

1706-1710: unknown perhaps as in 1710-1714

1710-1714: blue coat, dark red facings, red stockings and breeches, white neckcloth, red? cartridge pouch, black hat bordered yellow, brass buttons

5. Mariners, mestres d’aixa

(sailors and shipwrights)

1706-1710: unknown perhaps as in 1710-1714

1710-1714: blue coat, red distinctions, stockings and breeches, white neckcloth, black hat (bordered white?), blue buttons, blue cartridge pouch

6. Flequers, forners

(bread and pastry bakers)

1706-1710: unknown perhaps as in 1710-1714

1710-1714: white coat, dark red facings, stockings and breeches, white neckcloth, brass buttons?, black hat bordered white, red cartridge pouch

7. Velluters i Espoliners

(velvet makers and silk weavers)

1706-1710: unknown perhaps as in 1710-1714

1710-1714: dark blue coat, magenta red facings, stockings and breeches, white neckcloth, brass buttons, black hat bordered white

8. Espardenyers

(espadrille makers)

1706-1710: unknown perhaps as in 1710-1714

1710-1714: blue coat, red facings, stockings and breeches, white neckcloth, black hat bordered white, brass buttons, light blue cartridge pouch?

3rd Battalion "Santa Eulàlia"

Company Uniform
1. Notaris públics reials

(Royal notaries)

1706-1710: dark blue coat, dark red facings, light blue stockings, red breeches?, brass buttons, black hat bordered yellow?, black cockade, blue cartridge pouch

1710-1714: dark blue coat, dark red facings, red stockings, red breeches?, brass buttons, black hat bordered yellow, dark blue? cartridge pouch

2. Sabaters

(shoemakers)

1706-1710: blue coat, red facings, stockings and breeches?, white neckcloth, blue buttons, black hat without border, leather cartridge pouch

1710-1714: blue coat, red facings, stockings and breeches?, white neckcloth, blue buttons?, black hat bordered yellow?, red cartridge pouch

3. Boters

(wineskin makers)

1706-1710: white coat, red distinctions, stockings and breeches?, white neckcloth, white buttons?, black hat without border, leather cartridge pouch?

1710-1714: blue coat, red distinctions, stockings and breeches?, white neckcloth, blue buttons?, black hat bordered white?, blue cartridge pouch?

4. Teixidors, retorcedors de llana, carders, garbelladors

(wool weavers. wool spinners, wool carders, ???)

1706-1710: (mid) blue coat ("peu cubell"?), red facings, stockings and breeches?, white neckcloth, blue buttons, black hat without border, blue cartridge pouch

1710-1714: (mid) blue coat ("peu cubell"?), red facings, stockings and breeches?, white neckcloth, blue buttons?, black hat bordered white?, blue cartridge pouch?

5. Flassaders, llibreters, vidriers, escultors, dauradors

(blanket makers, booksellers, glass makers,sculptors, gilders)

1706-1710: sky blue coat, dark red facings, red stockings, red breeches?, white neckcloth, sky blue? buttons, black hat without border, sky blue? cartridge pouch

1710-1714: blue coat, dark red facings, red stockings, red breeches?, white neckcloth, brass buttons, black hat bordered yellow, blue cartridge pouch

6. Barreters d’agulla, passamaners

(silk hat makers and passementrie makers)

1706-1710: pale blue coat?, red facings, stockings and breeches?, blueish buttons, white neckcloth, black hat bordered yellow?, pale blue cartridge pouch?

1710-1714: pale blue coat?, red facings, stockings and breeches?, tin buttons, white neckcloth, black hat bordered yellow, pale blue cartridge pouch?

7. Macips de ribera, bastaixos

(two kinds of porters)

1706-1710: unknown

1710-1714: blue coat, red facings, stockings and breeches?, white neckcloth, blue buttons, black hat bordered white, red cartridge pouch, blue buttons?

4th Battalion "Santa Madrona"

Company Uniform
1. Candelers de cera, pintors

(wax candle makers and painters)

1706-1710: unknown

1710-1714: light? blue coat, red facings, stockings and breeches?, white neckcloth, light? blue buttons, black? hat bordered white?, light? blue cartridge pouch

2. Argenters

(silversmiths)

1706-1710: unknown

1710-1714: dark blue coat, dark red facings, red stockings and breeches?, black? hat bordered yellow, brass buttons, white loopholes, dark red? cartridge pouch.

3. Hortolans del Portal de Sant Antoni


(horticulturist of St. Anthony Gate)

1706-1710: green coat, dark red facings, red stockings and breeches?, white neckcloth, green buttons, black? hat without border, green? cartridge pouch

1710-1714: green coat, dark red facings, red stockings and breeches?, white neckcloth, green buttons, black? hat bordered white?, green? cartridge pouch

4. Teixidors de lli

(linen weavers)

1706-1710: unknown

1710-1714: blue coat, magenta red facings, red stockings and breeches, white neckcloth, metal buttons, black? hat bordered white, white cartridge pouch

5. Corders de cànem, corders de viola

(hemp and viola makers)

1706-1710: unknown

1710-1714: blue coat, red facings, stockings? and breeches?, white neckcloth, metal buttons, black? hat bordered yellow? red? cartridge pouch

6. Descarregadors, pescadors

(dockers and fishermen)

1706-1710: unknown

1710-1714: blue coat, red facings, stockings and breeches?, white neckcloth, blue buttons, black? hat bordered white?, leather cartridge pouch

7. Velers

(sail makers)

1706-1710: unknown

1710-1714: blue coat, red facings, stockings? and breeches?, white neckcloth, metal? buttons, black? hat bordered white?, red? cartridge pouch

5th Battalion "Sant Sever"

Company Uniform
1. Notaris causídics i pintors

(solicitors and painters)

1706-1710: blue coat, red? facings, red stocking and breeches?, white neckcloth, brass? buttons, black? hat bordered yellow, blue cartridge pouch

1710-1714: blue coat, medium red? facings, red stocking and breeches?, white neckcloth, brass buttons, black? hat bordered yellow?, blue cartridge pouch

2. Ferrers, calderers

(blacksmiths and coppersmiths)

1706-1710: blue coat, red facings, stocking and breeches?, white neckcloth, blue buttons, black? hat without border, blue cartridge pouch

1710-1714: blue coat, red facings, stocking and breeches?, white neckcloth, metal? buttons, black? hat bordered yellow, blue? cartridge pouch

3. Hortolans del Portal Nou

(horticulturists of the Portal Nou aka Nou Gate)

1706-1710: green coat, red facings, stockings and breeches?, white neckcloth, green buttons, black? hat without border, green? cartridge pouch, lleonada? cockade

1710-1714: green coat, red? facings, stockings and breeches?, white neckcloth, brass buttons, black? hat bordered white?, green? cartridge pouch

4. Gerrers, ollers, matalassers, perxers

(jar makers, potters, mattress makers and ribbon weavers)

1706-1710: blue coat, scarlet red facings, red stocking and breeches?, white buttons, black? hat without border, white neckcloth, white cartridge pouch

1710-1714: blue coat, red facings, stocking and breeches?, brass buttons, black? hat bordered white, white neckcloth, blue cartridge pouch

5. Daguers, beïners

(cutlers and sheath makers)

1706-1710: unknown

1710-1714: yellow coat, red facings, stocking and breeches?, white neckcloth, tin buttons, red? cartridge pouch, black? hat bordered white

6. Carnissers

(butchers)

1706-1710: unknown

1710-1714: blue coat, red facings, stocking and breeches, white neckcloth, brass buttons, black? hat bordered yellow, blue? cartridge pouch.

7. Sabaters de vell

(shoemenders)

1706-1710: unknown

1710-1714: white? coat, dark? red facings, red? stockings and breeches?, white neckcloth, white? buttons, black? hat bordered white?, white? cartridge pouch

8. Tintorers, retorcedors de seda, hostalers

(silk dyers and twisters, hoteliers)

1706-1710: unknown

1710-1714: blue? coat, red? facings, stocking and breeches?, white neckcloth, blue? buttons, dark? hat bordered white?, blue? cartridge pouch

9. Estudiants de medicina, filosofia i teologia

(students of medicine, philosophy and theology)
Note: this company was formed only in times of siege

1706-1710: unknown

1710-1714: all dark grey, dark hat bordered white?, leather? cartridge pouch

6th Battalion "Mare de Déu de la Mercè"

Company Uniform
1. Esteves o Freners

(saddlers)

1706-1710: yellow coat, bright red? facings, red stockings and breeches?, white neckcloth, red buttons, black? hat bordered white, red cartridge pouch, black cockade

1710-1714: yellow coat, bright red? facings, red stockings and breeches?, white neckcloth, brass buttons, black? hat bordered white, red cartridge pouch

2. Fusters

(carpenters)

1706-1710: green coat, red facings, stockings and breeches?, white neckcloth, green buttons, black? hat bordered white?, blue? cartridge pouch

1710-1714: blue coat, red facings, stockings and breeches?, white neckcloth, blue? buttons, black? hat without border, leather cartridge pouch

3. Mercers, botiguers de tela

(haberdashers and cloth sellers)

1706-1710: unknown

1710-1714: off-white coat, red facings, stocking and breeches?, white neckcloth, metal? buttons, black? hat bordered white?, red cartridge pouch

4. Blanquers

(tanners)

1706-1710: unknown

1710-1714: yellow coat, red facings, red stockings and breeches?, white neckcloth neckcloth, yellow? buttons, black? hat bordered yellow, yellow? cartridge pouch

5. Escudellers

(dishware makers)

1706-1710: unknown

1710-1714: white coat, red? facings, red stockings and breeches?, white neckcloth, white? buttons, black? hat bordered white?, white cartridge pouch

6. Taverners i hostalers

(taverners and innkeepers)

1706-1710: unknown

1710-1714: blue coat, red facings, stockings and breeches?, white neckcloth, brass buttons, black? hat bordered yellow, blue? cartridge pouch

7. Fadrins sastres

(bachelor tailors)

1706-1710: blue coat, dark red facingss, red stockings and breeches?, white neckcloth, blue buttons, black? hat without border, blue cartridge pouch

1710-1714: blue coat, dark red facings, red stockings and breeches?, white neckcloth, metal? buttons, black? hat bordered white?, blue? cartridge pouch

8. Revenedors

(resellers)

1706-1710: unknown

1710-1714: blue coat, red facings, stockings and breeches?, white neckcloth, tin buttons, , black? hat bordered white, blue? cartridge pouch

Companies of unknown affiliation

Company Uniform
Ciurgians

(surgeons)

1706-1710: unknown

1710-1714: dark blue? coat, medium red? facings, red stockings and breeches?, white neckcloth, brass buttons, black? hat bordered yellow?, blue? cartridge pouch

Traginers i llogaters de mules

(haulers and mule hirers)

1706-1710: unknown

1710-1714: white coat, red? facings, stockings and breeches?, white neckcloth, black? hat, red? cartridge pouch

Assaonadors

(hide tanners)

1706-1710: unknown

1710-1714: blue coat, magenta red facings, red stockings and breeches?, white neckcloth, black? hat, blue cartridge pouch

Colours

After the capture of Barcelona, the Duke of Berwick sent the colours, standards and guidons of the Catalan Army to Philip V at Madrid, as was the custom. However, the king sent them back, saying that he did not recognize any flags of rebellious subjects, and ordering that they were publicly burned by the executioner at Barcelona. Therefore, all the colours illustrated hereafter are tentative reconstructions based on the information we have on the various companies, and the saint patron, coat of arms and uniforms of each guild.

Tentative reconstruction
Coronela Colour - Copyright: Kronoskaf

1st Battalion "Santíssima Trinitat"

Tentative reconstruction
1st Battalion Colour - Copyright: Kronoskaf
Tentative Reconstruction
3rd Company "Mestres sastres" Colour - Copyright: Kronoskaf
5th Company "Mestres de cases, molers" Colour- Copyright: Kronoskaf

2nd Battalion "Immaculada Concepció"

Tentative reconstruction
2nd Battalion Colour - Copyright: Kronoskaf
Tentative Reconstruction
6th Company "Flequers, forners" Colour - Copyright: Kronoskaf

3rd Battalion "Santa Eulàlia"

Tentative reconstruction
3rd Battalion Colour - Copyright: Kronoskaf
To do: company colours

4th Battalion "Santa Madrona"

Tentative reconstruction
4th Battalion Colour - Copyright: Kronoskaf
To do: company colours

5th Battalion "Sant Sever"

Tentative reconstruction
5th Battalion Colour - Copyright: Kronoskaf
Tentative Reconstruction
2nd Company "Ferrers, calderers" Colour - Copyright: Kronoskaf
6th Company "Carnissers" Colour- Copyright: Kronoskaf

6th Battalion "Mare de Déu de la Mercè"

Tentative reconstruction
6th Battalion Colour - Copyright: Kronoskaf
To do: company colours

References

Memorial 1714

Wikipedia - Catalan Edition

Wikipedia - Spanish Edition

Femturisme.ca

Vila i Martin, M. Carmen and Puig i Clos, Antoni: Gremis i Làpides al claustre de la catedral de Barcelona, Barcelona 2003

Francesc Xavier Hernández, Francesc Riart (illustracions): La Coronela de Barcelona 1705-1714 – Rafael Dalmau Editor, 2010

N.B.: the section on the history of the Coronela is mostly an abriged translation of the article in the Catalan edition of Wikipedia Coronela de Barcelona

Acknowledgements

Jörg Meier for the initial version of this article

Lluis Vilalta for improved information on uniforms and for the translation of the guild names.