Crussol Infanterie

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Hierarchical Path: War of the Spanish Succession (Main Page) >> Armies >> French Army >> Crussol Infanterie

Origin and History

The regiment could trace its origin to a band raised by the Duc d'Épernon in 1615. On July 7 1621, this band was formed into a regular regiment under the Baron de Castelbayard and took part in the siege of La Rochelle. In 1622, it was at the siege of Royan. The regiment was disbanded in November 1622 after the Peace of Montpellier.

In 1623, the Duc d'Épernon obtained the authorisation to raise two infantry regiments and a company of gendarme at his own expense. The present regiment then assumed garrison duty in Bergerac.

In 17 January 1625, the regiment was incorporated into the Royal Army and served in the islands of Aunis before being disbanded on 26 May 1626.

On 22 June 1627, the regiment was definitively re-established for the siege of La Rochelle where it assumed garrison duty after the capture of the place.

In 1629, during the War of the Mantuan Succession (1628–31), the regiment joined the “Army of Savoie”. In August, a detachment of 400 men entrenched themselves in Rusignano near Casale. In 1630, it was besieged by the famous Spinola. They resisted for 14 days under a rain of 1,500 cannonballs. On 14 May, this detachment capitulated with the honours of war and returned to France by Finale. Its officers were allowed to join the rest of the regiment in Casale. Spinola then laid siege to Casale which was interrupted by the Treaty of Ratisbon. After the siege, Spinola declared: “Give me 50,000 men as valiant and as disciplined and I'll make myself master of Europe”.

In 1631, the regiment campaigned in Lorraine. In 1632, it was at the capture of Moyenvic, Bar-le-Duc, Saint-Mihiel and Trier and took its winter-quarters on the Moselle. In 1633, it took part in the capture of Nancy where it then assumed garrison duty till November 1634. It then joined the small army assembling at Ramberweiler under the command of the Duc de Rohan.

In 1635, at the outbreak of the Franco-Spanish War (1635–59), the regiment initially operated in Alsace, fighting at Ottmersheim and storming Ruffach. In March of the same year, it was ordered to march to the Valteline by Basel and Zurich, arriving at Chiavenne on 17 April. It was charged to guard the passes of Luvigno, Furno, Alpezel and Pedenos, taking part in the combats of Federia and Mazzo. Its colonel, the Baron de Montaussier, was killed during the assault on Bormio. It then fought in the combats of Ferravalle and Morbegno. In 1636, the regiment took part in the capture of the Francesca and then went to the Duchy of Milan, taking its winter-quarters in the Gex country. In 1637, it campaigned in Franche-Comté, taking part in the capture of Château-Châlons and Saint-Laurent-de-la-Roche, and in the siege of Bletterans. In 1638, it campaigned in Upper-Alsace, taking part in the siege of Breisach and in the combat of Cernay. In 1639, it spent the year in Alsace. In 1640, it campaigned in Germany where it took part in the capture of Engen, In 1641, the regiment joined a Swedish army and fought in the Battle of Weissenfels, in the Battle of Wolfenbüttel and in the relief of Göttingen. In 1642, it contributed to the capture of Ordingen and fought in the Battle of Kampen. In 1643, it was part of the corps covering the siege of Thionville and then participated in the siege of Rothweil and in the Battle of Dutlingen. In 1644, it fought in the Battle of Freiburg. In 1645, it was at the siege of Rothemburg and fought in the Battle of Nordlingen. In 1646 and 1647, it continued to serve on the Rhine. In September 1647, it returned to France and took part in the attack on Montmédy. In 1648, the regiment, counting only 400 men, returned to Germany where it took part in the combat of Zusmarhausen and in the capture of Heidenheim.

In 1649 during the Fronde (1648-1653), when Turenne sided against the Court, the regiment went to Flanders where it took part in the passage of the Scheldt. In 1650, it contributed to the defence of Mouzon. After the capitulation of the place in November the regiment went to Donchéry and then took part in the victorious Battle of Rhétel and in the storming of Bar-le-Duc. In 1651, it continued to serve in Lorraine, distinguishing itself in the siege of Chasté. At the end of the year, it was sent to Angoumois and Saintonge. In 1652, the regiment took part in the siege of the Castle of Ambleville, near Ségonzac, in the siege and capture of Barbesieux, in the siege and capture of Saintes, in the sieges of Talmont and Taillebourg, and in the combat of Montançay. A detachment was then left in Angoulême while the regiment took part in the siege and capture of Marennes. In 1653, the regiment defended Barbesieux and took part in the blockade of Bordeaux, in the siege of Bourg and in the capture of Libourne.

In 1655, the regiment rallied the Grand Army of Flanders and took part in the siege of Condé. In 1656, it was at the siege of Valenciennes; in 1658, at the capture of Gravelines, Menin, Ypres and Oudenarde.

In 1660, after the signature of peace, the regiment garrisoned Menin which it evacuated when the place was retroceded to Spain. The regiment, reduced to four companies, took its quarters in Picardie. In 1662, it contributed two companies to the garrison of Dunkerque. In January 1666, it was at the camp of Croissy near Amiens and, in March of the same year, at the camp of Monchy near Compiègne.

In September 1670, the regiment assisted to the occupation of the places of Lorraine.

At the beginning of the Franco-Dutch War (1672–78), in 1672, the regiment was attached to the Army of the King and took part in the capture of Wesel and Emmerich, in the passage of the Rhine and in the siege of Duisburg. It took its winter-quarters in the Electorate of Brandenburg. In 1673, the regiment took part in the capture of Unna, Kamen, Altena, Soest, Xoëster and Bilfelden and took its winter-quarters in Burgundy. In 1674, it campaigned in Franche-Comté, brigaded with Royal Infanterie, distinguishing itself in the siege of Besançon where it lost 15 officers and more than 200 soldiers, and taking part in the siege of Dôle. The regiment was then redirected to the Army of Roussillon where it took part in the combat of Morillas. In 1675, the regiment went to Toulon where it embarked for Messina, revolted against Spain. Upon arrival, it was thrown into Messina and later occupied Agosta. In 1676, it drove back the enemy near Messina and then took part in the siege of Taormina, repulsing a Spanish relief corps. In April 1678, the regiment returned to France.

By 1683, the regiment garrisoned Saarbrück. In 1687, it became the property of the Duc de Crussol.

In 1688, at the outbreak of the Nine Years' War (1688–97), the regiment joined the Army of the Moselle, entering into Mainz at the end of the campaign. In 1689, the regiment distinguished itself in the defence of Mainz. In 1690 and 1691, it continued to serve with the Army of Germany. In 1692, it was attached to Bouffler's Corps who advanced on the Meuse during the siege of Namur. The regiment then fought in the Battle of Steenkerque. In 1693, it took part in the Battle of Landen, where his colonel was killed, and in the siege of Charleroi. It then became the property of Jean-Charles d'Uzès, Duc de Crussol. From 1694 to 1697, the regiment alternatively served with the Army of Flanders and with the Army of the Moselle, without participating in any major action.

By the time of the War of the Spanish Succession, the regiment counted two battalions.

During the War of the Spanish Succession, the regiment was commanded by:

  • since July 1693: Jean-Charles d'Uzès, Duc de Crussol
  • from 3 December 1702: Antoine-Louis de Pardaillan de Gondrin, Marquis d'Antin
  • from 19 December 1703: Louis de Pardaillan, Marquis de Gondrin
  • from 26 July 1712 to 10 March 1734: Auguste-Nicolas Magon de La Gervasais

After the Treaty of Rastadt, the regiment was completed by the incorporation of soldiers from the disbanded Tavannes Infanterie, Castelet Infanterie and Dampierre Infanterie. These incorporations were made according to orders issued on 21 January and 20 March 1714.

Service during the War

In 1701, the regiment was attached to the corps who occupied the places of the Spanish Netherlands in the name of Philip V.

In 1702, the regiment joined the army assembling on the Rhine under the command of the Maréchal de Cattinat. In September, it was part of the detachment of this army who set off from Strasbourg with Villars and who passed the Rhine and Huningue and won the Battle of Friedlingen. In December, the regiment became the property of the Marquis d'Antin.

In 1703, the regiment returned to Flanders. In December, the regiment became the property of Louis de Pardaillan, Marquis de Gondrin.

In 1704, after the disastrous Battle of Blenheim, the Army of Flanders marched to the Palatinate of Bavaria to rally the remnants of the defeated army. In October, it marched back to Flanders.

In 1705, the regiment served with the Army of Flanders and did not take part in any major action.

On 23 May 1706, the regiment took part in the Battle of Ramillies where it made wonders and saved by its behaviour the Picardie Brigade, suffering heavy losses. After this battle the regiment counted only 620 men (including officers). It took refuge in Menin where it was the most senior regiment of the garrison. It distinguished itself in the defence of Menin who surrendered on 13 August. The regiment then retired to Douai.

In 1707, the regiment served with the Army of Flanders who remained on the defensive.

On 11 July 1708, the Army of Flanders was defeated once more in the Battle of Oudenarde. The demoralized army then assisted powerless to the siege and capture of Lille.

On 11 September 1709, the regiment took part in the Battle of Malplaquet where it was deployed on the left wing, towards the Sart Woods, fighting fiercely and bringing back its colonel wounded.

In 1710 and 1711, the regiment campaigned in Flanders once more.

In 1712, the regiment took part in the sieges of Douai, Le Quesnoy and Bouchain.

In 1713, the regiment served with the Army of the Rhine and took part in the sieges of Landau and Freiburg.

Uniform

Privates

Uniform in 1710 - Copyright Kronoskaf
Uniform Details as per
Rousselot, Marbot, Susane, Funcken
Headgear
Musketeer black tricorne laced silver with a white or black cockade
Grenadier black tricorne laced silver with a white or black cockade
Neck stock white
Coat grey-white with grey-white lining; pewter buttons on the right side and 1 pewter button on each side in the small of the back
Collar none
Shoulder Straps grey-white fastened with a pewter button
Lapels none
Pockets horizontal pockets, each with 3 pewter buttons
Cuffs grey-white, each with 4 pewter buttons
Turnbacks none
Waistcoat red as per Susane and Rousselot, grey-white as per Marbot and Funcken; pewter buttons
Breeches white
Stockings red fastened under the knee with a natural leather strap
Gaiters none at the beginning of the war, white later
Leather Equipment
Crossbelt natural leather (often whitened with pipe-clay) with a brass buckle
Waistbelt natural leather (often whitened with pipe-clay) with a brass buckle
Cartridge Box natural leather
Bayonet Scabbard n/a
Scabbard black with white metal fittings
Footwear black shoes with a brass buckle


Armaments consisted of a musket and a bayonet. Fusiliers carried a sword (brass hilt) while the grenadiers had a sabre.

NCOs

no information found yet

Officers

no information found yet

Musicians

no information found yet

Colours

Colonel Colour: white field with a white cross.

Ordonnance Colour: a white cross with aurore (light orange) and green opposed cantons.

Colonel Colour - Copyright: Kronoskaf
Ordonnance Colour - Copyright: Kronoskaf

References

This article incorporates texts from the following books which are now in the public domain:

  • Susane, Louis: Histoire de l'ancienne infanterie française, J. Corréard, Paris, 1849-1856, Tome 4, pp. 294-317

Other sources

Funcken, Liliane and Fred: Les uniformes de la guerre en dentelle, p. 55

Lemau de la Jaisse, P.: Abregé de la Carte Générale du Militaire de France, Paris, 1734, p. 107

Marbot, Alfred de and E. Dunoyer de Noirmont: ‎Les uniformes de l'armée française, T1 "1439 à 1789"‎

Pajol, Charles P. V.: Les Guerres sous Louis XV, vol. VII, Paris, 1891