De Carles Infantry
Origin and History
The exact date of creation of this regiment is not known. It was formerly the Zellische Leib-Regiment and was one of the four regiments that this principality maintained during the Thirty Years' War (1618-1648). In 1631, the regiment took part in the unsuccessful siege of Calenberg; in 1632, it fought in the Battle of Lütze; in 1633, in the siege and capture of Hameln. In June 1642, when the House of Brunswick-Lüneburg made peace with the Emperor, the regiment was reduced to four companies. The regiment was further reduced after the Treaty of Westphalia in 1648.
In 1665, during the quarrel of Georg Wilhelm and Johann Friedrich for the succession, the regiment was increased to 12 companies. In 1666, the regiment was sent to the Dutch Republic but returned the same year.
In 1668, the regiment was part of the relief force that Duke Georg Wilhelm sent to Candia (present-day Heraklion) in Crete to support the Venetians fighting the Turks. In 1670, only 25% of the regiment returned to the Principality of Zell.
In 1671, the regiment took part in the siege of Braunschweig.
In 1673, during the Franco-Dutch War (1672–78), the regiment was in Dutch pay. In 1674, it fought in the Battle of Entzheim near Strasbourg. In 1675, it took part in the siege and capture of Trier on the Moselle and in the blockade of Stade; in 1676, in the capture of Demmin and Anklam; in 1677, in the siege of Stettin; and in 1678, in the Battle of Saint-Denis near Mons.
In 1679, the regiment took part to the relief of Hamburg, blockaded by a Danish force.
In 1685, eight companies of the regiment were sent to Hungary to serve with the Imperial Army. They took part in the Battle of Gran and in the storming of the Fortress of Neuheusel.
In 1686, the regiment was sent to garrison Hamburg, threatened once more by the Danes.
In 1688, at the outbreak of the Nine Years' War (1688–97), the regiment received two additional companies. It was once more in the Dutch service for that year and accompanied William of Orange in his expedition in England. In 1689, it returned to Hanover and took part in the sieges of Mainz and Bonn. In 1690, it fought in the Battle of Fleurus; in 1691, in the Battle of Leuze. In 1692, the regiment was subdivided into two separate battalions. It took part in the Battle of Steenkerque. In 1693, it served in Flanders. In 1694, it was placed in Dutch pay and took part in the siege of Namur. In 1697, the regiment returned to Hanover.
In 1700, a dispute arose between Denamrk and Holstein-Gottorp. The king of Denmark seized Gottorp, Schleswig, Friedrichsburg and besieged the Fortress of Tönning. Duke Georg Wilhelm came to the rescue of Holstein-Gottorp with his army.
During the War of the Spanish Succession, the regimental inhabers were:
- from 1692: Brigadier Jean Mally de Carles (died in 1706)
- from 1706 to 1725: Major-General Johann Rudolph von Hitzfeld
Service during the War
In 1701, at the outbreak of the War of the Spanish Succession, each battalion of the regiment was increased from six to seven companies and they were placed in Dutch pay. In 1702, the regiment was sent to the Netherlands and took part in the siege of Kaiserwerth. On 9 June, it suffered heavy casualties (Major Maulevrier, 2 NCOs and 53 men killed; Colonel Carles, Lieutenant-Colonel Fridag von Goedens, Captains Dicedom and von der Lühe, 5 officers, 5 NCOs and 116 men wounded) during the storming of the counterscarp. It then remained in Kaiserwerth.
On 15 November 1703, the regiment fought in the Combat of Speyerbach where the Hereditary Prince of Hessen was defeated by Maréchal Tallard. The battalion lost Lieutenant-Colonel von Goedens, Major von der Lühe, Captains von Bülow and du Buisson and Lieutenant Hertel killed; Captain Marrin, Lieutenants von Bothmer and Carlot, von Tournay and Aschen, Adjutant Klough and Ensigns Robbertson, Jonquieres and le Bande wounded.
In 1704, the battalion returned to Zell.
In 1705, the Principality of Zell was incorporated into the Electorate of Hanover.
In 1708, the battalion was sent to Hamburg as part of an Imperial contingent to settle an internal dispute. It remained in that city until a peace agreement had been reached.
In November 1712, the battalion was sent to Hamburg one more time.
As per Wissel, during the War of the Spanish Succession, the regiment had an entirely red uniform. In 1714, the red coat got blue cuffs and the waistcoat changed from red to blue.
no information found for this period
This article incorporates texts from the following books which are now in the public domain:
- Wissel, Friedrich v. and Georg von Wissel: Geschichte der Errichtung sämmtlicher Chur-Braunschweig-Lüneburgischen Truppen, sammt ihren Fahnen, Standarten und Pauken-Devisen ...], Zelle, 1786, pp. 329-353