Edward Fox's Marines

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Hierarchical Path: War of the Spanish Succession (Main Page) >> Armies >> British Army >> Edward Fox's Marines

Origin and History

The military soon realised the advantage of having troops trained to the use of arms on board of ships, as well as on land.

In November 1664, on the eve of the Second Anglo-Dutch War (1665-67), King Charles II created a corps specifically for sea-service. This corps was commanded by the Duke of York (the future King James II), then Lord High Admiral of Great Britain, and was designated “The Admiral’s Maritime Regiment.” This was followed in June 1665 by the formation of The Holland Regiment, Both regiments were on the Navy Establishment, and served with the fleet during the Second Anglo-Dutch War. In May 1667, both regiments were transferred to the establishment of the Guards and Garrisons. Detachments from the existing regiments of foot guards were detailed for sea service as well.

In 1672, at the outbreak of the Third Anglo-Dutch War (1672-74), a number of regiments were raised for service with the fleet. Furthermore, battalions for sea-service were also formed by drafts from the land-forces. Several companies of the Foot Guards were employed on the Marine duty. On 7 June, these companies took part in the Battle of Solebay against the Dutch fleet. They were also engaged in several other actions during the war. Nevertheless, all these regiments, battalions and companies remained part of the land forces.

In 1689, King William III incorporated “the Admiral’s Regiment” (which was then considered the third regiment of infantry) in the 2nd Coldstream Regiment of Foot Guards. In January 1690, two Marine regiments were added to the Navy Establishment for service on board the fleet.

In July 1698, a new establishment of the marine forces was ordered. There were four regiments in this new establishment: one was formed from the original two regiments raised in 1690, and three regiments were formed by the reassignment of three regiments of foot. In May 1699, these four regiments were all disbanded.

In February 1702, during the War of the Spanish Succession (1701-13), the British Parliament enabled Queen Anne to increase the efficiency of her navy, by forming Corps of Marines, which could act at sea as well as on land. On 1 June, six regiments, including the present regiment, were accordingly added to the regular Army as a Marine Corps. Each of these regiments comprised twelve companies of 59 men each. In addition, six regular regiments of infantry were appointed for Sea-service. Colonel William Seymour was nominated to superintend the Marine forces and promoted to brigadier-general.

The present regiment was raised on 12 February 1702 in Sussex and the adjacent counties. It was known as the "Edward Fox's Regiment" and was ranked as 3rd marines. It consisted of 40 officers and 793 other ranks, organised in twelve companies, more precisely:

  • staff
    • Colonel Edward Fox
    • 1 lieutenant-colonel
    • 1 major
    • 1 surgeon
    • 1 surgeon’s mate
  • 12 companies, each of:
    • 1 captain
    • 1 first lieutenant
    • 1 second lieutenant
    • 2 sergeants (an additional sergeant for the grenadier company)
    • 3 corporals
    • 2 drummers
    • 59 private soldiers

On 25 December 1703, each company of marines was increased to 100 men. Thus, the six marine regiments numbered a total of 8,166 officers and men.

After its capture at Denia in 1708, the regiment was not immediately reinstated.

During the War of the Spanish Succession, the successive proprietors of the regiment were:

  • from 12 February 1702: Edward Fox
  • from 5 December 1704 to 28 June 1723: Jacob Borr

The regiment was disbanded in England in September 1713. However, on 15 March 1715, the regiment was reinstated on the Irish Establishment, without loss of precedence as the "Jacob Borr’s Regiment of Foot". It was immediately sent to Ireland where it remained for several years. This regiment later became the 32nd Regiment of Foot, afterwards the Duke of Cornwall’s Light Infantry.

Service during the War

N. B.: throughout the war, marines served on board the fleet in detachments regardless of the regimental structure. For example, the naval force under Admiral Sir George Rooke that took Gibraltar in August 1704 carried about 2,200 marines from all six regiments. Likewise, the battalions of marines part of the expeditions to Port Royal in 1710 and Quebec in 1711 were formed from all six regiments as well.

In May 1702, the regiment was initially sent to the Isle of Wight via Portsmouth. In July, the entire regiment (658 men) was part of the Anglo-Dutch expedition against Cádiz. The expeditionary force rapidly made itself master of Rota (July 27) and Fort Santa Catalina (August 2). However, it was soon forced to re-embark (August 25-28), the regiment acting as a rearguard during the operation. On its way back to England, the fleet surprised a French fleet at the the Battle of Vigo Bay on October 23 and an amphibious operation allowed the British to capture the entire French fleet. In November, the regiment was landed at Portsmouth and marched to Arundel, Horsham and Crickfield.

In January 1703, the regiment was sent to Portsmouth. During this campaign, 7 companies of the regiment served on board the fleet in the Mediterranean, under Admiral Sir Cloudesley Shovel.

In 1704, a detachment of the regiment embarked aboard the Anglo-Dutch fleet which operated against the Mediterranean coast of Spain, occupying Barcelona in May and seizing Gibraltar in August.

In 1705 and 1706, detachments of the regiment continued to serve in Spain, at Gibraltar, Lerida and Barcelona.

On 25 April 1707, part of the regiment fought in the Battle of Almansa.

In November 1708, 200 men of the regiment took part in the defence of Denia which surrendered, the defenders being taken as prisoners of war. The remaining detachments operating in Spain were then drafted in other British regiments.

In 1710, a detachment of the regiment formed part of the Marine Battalion of 400 men, which took part in the capture of Port Royal in Acadia.

In 1711, a detachment of the regiment formed part of the Marine Battalion of 600 men, which took part in the unsuccessful expedition against Québec.

Uniform

There were still no regulation concerning uniforms and colonels were responsible for the clothing of their soldiers. Therefore, there were wide variations from one regiment to another.

Hairs were worn long in a “long bob”. They were sometimes tied at the back of the neck. The hair bag was also already in use.

Men as well as officers were clean-shaven. Officers sometimes wore small moustaches.

Privates

Uniform in 1707 - Copyright Kronoskaf
'Uniform Details' in 1707 as per Vilalta and Lawson
Headgear
Musketeer black tricorne laced white

For the uniform of 1702, Lawson and Cannon mention a high crowned leather cap covered with cloth of the facing colour and ornamented with devices, the same as the caps worn by the grenadiers

Grenadier cloth cap with a raised and stiffened front decorated with the embroidered crowned Royal cypher or the colonel's crest; and with an embroidered grenade at the back of the cap
Neck stock knotted white linen neck-cloth with ends hanging or tucked into the top of the coat
Coat scarlet frock-coat lined light green with pewter buttons along the full length of the right side and 1 pewter button on each side in the small of the back

N.B.: the coats of grenadiers had white tufted laced loops ornamenting the buttonholes down to the waist

For the uniform of 1702, Lawson mentions a red watermen’s coat

Collar none
Shoulder Straps none
Lapels none
Pockets horizontal pockets placed low on the coat, each with 3 pewter buttons
Cuffs light green, each with 3 pewter buttons

N.B.: the cuffs of grenadiers had white tufted laced loops ornamenting the buttonholes

Turnbacks none
Waistcoat long red waistcoat with pewter buttons
Breeches white
Stockings during campaigns, a first pair of finer stockings was pulled up under the breeches at the knees while a coarser pair of white stockings was worn over them, pulled over the knees and fastened with a leather strap and buckle
Gaiters buff
Leather Equipment
Crossbelt natural leather strap with a brass buckle
Waist-belt buff waistbelt with a brass buckle worn above the coat
Cartridge Box black pouch carried in front, with bayonet belt attached

Grenadiers had a pouch on a shoulder belt to carry grenades

Bayonet Scabbard black leather with a brass tip
Scabbard black leather with a brass tip
Footwear shoes fastened with a strap and buckle


Musketeers were armed with a musket without sling, a bayonet and a sword. Grenadiers were armed with a firelock with a sling, a hatchet, a bayonet and grenades.

NCOs

NCOs wore uniforms almost identical to those of privates with the following differences:

  • tricorne laced silver
  • silver braids on the seams of the coat

Sergeants initially carried a halberd and corporals a musket. Gradually, all NCOs were equipped with musket.

Officers

Officers wore beaver tricornes laced gold (probably reserved to superior officers) or silver (probably reserved to subaltern officers). They also wore the fashionable full flowing curled wigs. On service they usually plaited their wig.

A large gorget was worn around the neck tied with ribbons. The gorget was gilt for captains, black studded with gold for lieutenants and silver for ensigns.

Officers usually wore uniforms somewhat similar to those of privates (even though there were not yet any regulation compelling them to do so), made of finer material. Their coats were decorated with gold or silver braids down the seams and on the sleeves; and with gold or silver embroidered buttonholes. Cuffs were usually of the same colour as the coat instead of the distinctive colour of the regiment.

The waistcoats of officers were often decorated with gold or silver fringes.

A crimson sash (often interwoven with gold or silver and fringed similarly) was worn around the waist.

Breeches were tied with rosettes below the knee.

Officers wore gloves, often decorated with gold or silver fringes.

Officers carried a sword and a half pike or a spontoon.

The cartouche box of officers were often covered in velvet and decorated with gold or silver embroideries.

Musicians

Drummers and hautboys usually wore coat of the facing colour of the regiment, decorated with lace on the seams of sleeves and back and on the buttonholes. Their coat was decorated with the crowned King's cypher or the Colonel's crest embroidered on the breast and back. Sometimes their coat had hanging sleeves.

Colours

no information found

References

The history of the regiment is an abridged version of a text extracted from the following book which is in the public domain:

  • Swiney, George Clayton; Historical Records of the 32nd (Cornwall) Light Infantry...; Simpkin, Marshall , Hamilton, Kent, 1893
  • Cannon, Richard: Historical Record of the Marine Corps

Other sources

Farmer, John S.: The Regimental Records of the British Army, London: Grant Richards, 1901

Fortescue, J. W.: A History of the British Army, Vol. I, MacMillan, London, 1899, p. 400

Lawson, Cecil C. P.: A History of the Uniforms of the British Army, Vol. 1 From the beginning to 1760, London: Kaye & Ward, pp. 55-56

Linney-Drouet, C.A.: 1692-1799: Extracts from the Notebook of the Late Revd Percy Sumner, In: Journal of the the Society for Army Research, Vol. 78, No. 314 (Summer 2000), p. 93

Mills, T.F.: Land Forces of Britain the Empire and Commonwealth through the Way Back Machine

Sumner, Percy: 18th Century Notices of Uniform, In:. Journal of the Society for Army Historical Research, Vol. 1, No. 5 (September 1922), p. 216

Vilalta, Lluís: “Catalonia Stands Alone - 1713-1714: The Catalans' War”

Acknowledgement

Wienand Drenth for additional information on the lineage and history of the regiment

Jörg Meier for additional info on the uniform of the regiment