Great Britain

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Hierarchical Path: War of the Spanish Succession (Main Page) >> States >> Great Britain

Map of Europe in 1700 showing the kingdom of Great Britain published in Wikimedia Commons by user Rebel Redcoat under the Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 3.0 license
Capital London (England) and Edinburgh (Scotland) until the official formation of Great Britain in 1707
Language(s) English, Scots, Gaelic, Welsh, Manx, Cornish, Jerriais, Guernésiais, Sercquiais, Auregnais
Religion Protestant (Anglican)
Population about 9,500,000 (including 2,500,000 in Ireland alone)
Annual Revenues about £5,500,000
Government Constitutional monarchy

N.B.: at the beginning of the war, the country was known as the "Kingdoms of England, Scotland and Ireland". In 1707, these kingdoms became known as the "Kingdom of Great Britain"

Dependencies New-England, which stretched between the Atlantic Coast of the actual United States and the Appalachian Mountains. To avoid encirclement by the French colonies, the British established commercial counters in the Hudson Bay. During this period, the English colonies counted some 400,000 inhabitants against some 20,000 French in Nouvelle-France.

West Indies:

  • Barbadoes
  • Jamaica
  • St. Christopher's (present-day Saint Kitts) disputed with France

South America

  • Surinam (British Guyana)

Asia

  • Bombay (present-day Mumbai)
Rulers 1689-1702: King William III

1702-1714: Queen Anne

Army see the article British Army
Navy Since 1690, the Royal Navy of Great Britain had demonstrated a constant superiority over its European rivals.

For a comprehensive list of the warships of the Royal Navy see the article British Navy

International
relations
To do
Trade Like most colonial power, Great Britain had imposed a monopoly of trade to its colonies. Thus:
  • all exportations of tobacco from Virginia and Maryland could be done exclusively to Great Britain;
  • all importations in the colonies had to come from Great Britain and local manufacturing severely limited.

By 1700, Great Britain imported 10 million kg of sugar, a quantity that had already increased to 14 million kg by 1710 when imports of cotton reached 530,000 kg; and of tea 775,000 kg.

British merchants were selling wool cloths in every European country. Great Britain was also the main reseller of tobacco on this market.

Commerce with the 13 colonies of continental North America was regulated by the Navigation Acts of 1651 and 1660 which reserved all trade to British vessels. Furthermore most exports (tobacco, sugar, molasses, indigo, furs, wood, naval furniture) from these colonies had to be exclusively destined to Great Britain while exports of grains, flour, rice, vegetables, fruits and salted fish could be sent to any country. Imports had to be transported by ships coming British ports. The only other imports tolerated were wines (from Madeira, Azores and Canary Islands) and salt destined to fisheries. Furthermore, the 13 colonies were not allowed to establish heavy industry (for ex: foundries).

References

Abtheilung für Kriegsgeschichte des k. k. Kriegs-Archives: Feldzüge des Prinzen Eugen von Savoyen, Series 1, Vol. 1, Vienna 1876, pp. 100-101

Anon.: The History of Modern Europe, Part II, London: 1784, pp. 298-315

McEvedy, Colin: The Penguin Atlas of Modern History (to 1815), Harmondsorth: Penguin Books, 1972, pp. 54-61

Scherer, Herman: Histoire du commerce de toutes les nations depuis les temps ancies jusqu'à nos jours, Vol. 2 – Temps Modernes; Paris: Capelle, 1857, pp. 13, 72