Hanoverian Leibregiment zu Fuß
Origin and History
In 1631, when the Duke of Hanover signed a treaty with Gustavus Adolphus of Sweden, he raised a Guard unit. In 1648, at the end of the Thirty Years’ War, this unit was reduced to two “Palace Companies.”
In 1662, Duke August von Braunschweig-Wolfenbüttel, Duke Ernst August von Braunschweig-Lüneburg and the Bishop of Osnabrück contributed three companies and a battalion was established at Osnabrück.
In 1665, the regiment formed part of the Hanoverian contingent taken in Dutch pay. In 1666, the regiment was stationed in Brabant where it remained until 1669.
In 1671, the regiment took part in the siege of the city of Braunschweig.
In 1673, during the Franco-Dutch War (1672-78), the regiment was encamped near Leese. In 1674, it served on the Rhine and fought in the Battle of Entzheim. At the beginning of 1675, it took up its winter-quarters in Swabia. In August of the same year, it took part in the Battle of Konzer Brücke and in the capture of Saarbrücken and Trier. In 1676, the regiment was at the siege of Maastricht. In 1677, it took part in the siege of Charleroi; and in 1678, in the Battle of Saint-Denis.
In 1679, after the death of Duke Johann Friederich, Duke Ernst August replaced him as Duke of Hanover. He brought his Guard battalion with him. In October of the same year, the regiment marched to Hamburg which was threatened by the Danes.
In 1685, during the Great Turkish War (1683-99), the regiment was sent to Hungary where it took part in the siege of Neuhäusel (present-day Nové Zámky/SK) and in the Battle of Gran. In 1686, it took part in the siege and storming of Ofen (present-day part of Budapest). In 1687, it fought in the Battle of Mohács
In 1690, the three companies of the former “Osnabrück Battalion” and the two “Palace Companies” were amalgamated and formed the kernel of a new regiment counting two battalions.
In 1689, during the Nine Years' War (1688-97), the regiment it took part in the sieges and capture of Mainz and Bonn. In 1690, it was sent to the Netherlands where it fought in the Battle of Fleurus. It returned to Hanover at the end of the year because the contract with Spain had come to an end. In 1693, when a new subsidy was granted by England, the regiment was sent back to the Netherlands where it fought in the Battle of Landen. In 1694, it took part in the relief of Huy; and in 1695, in the siege of Namur.
In 1700, the regiment took part in the campaign in Holstein against the Danes.
In May 1706, at Dendermond, the new regiment was designated as the “Gardes Regiment.”
During the War of the Spanish Succession, the regimental Chefs were:
- from 1693: von Sommerfeld
- from 1712 to 1733: Field Marshal Cuno Josua Baron von Bülow (died on 27 July 1733)
Service during the War
In 1702, the regiment was sent to the Netherlands. On 23 October, the citadel of Liège was stormed.
On 30 June 1703, the regiment took part in the Battle of Ekeren (please note that the regiment is not mentioned in the Allied order of battle).
On 2 July 1704, the regiment took part in the Battle of the Schellenberg. On 13 August, it fought in the decisive Battle of Blenheim where it lost Lieutenant-Colonel von Rochow, Major von Sance, 4 officers and 106 men killed; and 9 officers and 158 men wounded.
On 23 May 1706, the regiment took part in the capture of Dendermond. On 23 May, it fought in the Battle of Ramillies.
On 11 July 1708, the regiment fought in the Battle of Oudenarde and in the siege and capture of Lille.
On 11 September 1709, the regiment fought in the Battle of Malplaquet. It also took part in the capture of Mons and Tournai.
On 21 April 1710, the regiment took part in the attack of the enemy lines at Pont-à-Vendin.
In 1711, the regiment took part in the capture of Bouchain.
This regiment initially had a red uniform with red distinctives. It received blue distinctive (cuffs and waistcoat) only in 1714.
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This article incorporates texts from the following books which are now in the public domain:
- Wissel, Friedrich v. and Georg von Wissel: Geschichte der Errichtung sämmtlicher Chur-Braunschweig-Lüneburgischen Truppen, sammt ihren Fahnen, Standarten und Pauken-Devisen ...], Zelle, 1786, pp. 305-317