Hessian Grenadier-Regiment

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Hierarchical Path: Seven Years War (Main Page) >> Armies >> Hesse-Kassel Army >> Hessian Grenadier-Regiment

Origin and History

In May 1697, a grenadier battalion was formed, which consisted of individual grenadier companies of all Hessian regiments. The newly formed Grenadier Battalion was assigned to the Leibregiment zu Fuß as its third battalion in 1698, but was always used as an independent unit. As early as 1702, at the outbreak of the War of the Spanish Succession, it received a reinforcement of five companies from the aforementioned Leibregiment zu Fuß, so that it was now increased to 10 companies in two battalions, and was referred to as the "Grenadier Regiment". It used this designation until 1760, when it was appointed 2nd Guard. From 1702 until the end of the War of the Spanish Succession, it was in imperial service.

During the War of the Spanish Succession, the regiment had no chief, and it was not until 1727 that Prince Wilhelm, later Landgrave Wilhelm VIII of Hesse-Kassel, took up this position.

During the War of the Spanish Succession, the successive effective commanders of the regiment were:

  • from 1701: Major-General Albrecht von Tettau (killed in action in 1703)
  • from 1703 to 1714: Colonel de La Roche

In 1789, the regiment was amalgamated with Infanterie Regiment Nr. 14.

Service during the War

In June 1702, a battalion of the regiment joined the corps which had undertaken the Siege of Kaiserswerth. The place capitulated on 15 June. By 7 July, one of its battalion formed part of the Allied Army encamped at Nijmegen. Later, it took part in the capture of Rheinfels. Then, from 27 September to 2 October, it was present at the Siege of Stevensweert. In the winter of 1702-1703 it took up quarters in Rheinfels and Neuwied. By the end of the year, it numbered 846 men,

The year 1703 began with the capture of Trabach. By March, the regiment numbered 830 men. Between 3 and 19 May it took part in the Siege of Bonn, and from 19 to 25 September the Siege of Limburg, On 15 November, it fought at the Combat of Speyerbach, where it formed the right wing of the Allied army with Hanoverian troops. In doing so, it suffered heavy losses, including the commander Colonel Albrecht von Tettau and all his staff officers.

By mid-February 1704, the regiment formed part of the army of the Prince of Hesse, posted on the Rhine. On 2 July, one battalion of the regiment took part in the Battle of Schellenberg, where it formed part of the Reserve in Wilken’s Brigade. On 13 August, one battalion of the regiment fought in the Battle of Blenheim, where it was deployed in the second line of the extreme left wing. Later, it also took part in the renewed Siege of Trabach.

In 1705, the regiment campaigned in Flanders at the Siege of Tirlemont (Tienen). It took up its winter-quarters on the Lower Moselle and on the Rhine, and in December in the Schwarzfelder Land (Bavarian Swabia).

On 8 September 1706, the regiment took part in the Battle of Castiglione (Mondovia) in northern Italy, as well as in the sieges of Pizzighettone and Cremona. By that time, its numbered 639 men.

The year 1707 began for the regiment in February with the storming of the Citadel of Milan. In July and August, it took part in the Siege of Toulon. In September, it was at the Siege of Susa.

From August 12 to December 10, 1708, the regiment was at the siege and capture of Lille, the last great fortress of France in the north of Flanders.

The Allied Army continued its campaign in Flanders in 1709. From June to August, the Grenadier Regiment was deployed at the Siege of Tournai. Then, in September and October, it took part in the Siege of Mons. On 11 September, it distinguished itself at the Battle of Malplaquet. This battle is considered one of the bloodiest of the War of the Spanish Succession.

In the winter of 1709-1710, the regiment moved into domestic quarters in the Landgraviate of Hesse-Kassel.

In 1710, the regiment reappeared on the battlefield. In April and May, it was at the Siege of Douai, and, in September and October, at the Siege of Aire-sur-Lys.

From 9 August to 12 September 1711, under Marlborough, the Grenadier Regiment took part in the Siege of Bouchain.

From 8 June to 4 July 1712, the regiment's last deployment in the War of the Spanish Succession was at the Siege of Le Quesnoy.

Uniform

Privates

Uniform - Copyright Kronoskaf
Uniform Details
Headgear
Grenadier mitre cap of red cloth laced white; front decorated by the Lion of Hesse-Kassel on a blue field, surrounded by silver rays; front flap decorated by the crowned cipher of the Landgrave of Hesse-Kassel with a flaming grenade on each side; rear flap decorated with a flaming grenade on top of trophies

Source: Museum of Hessian Military and Hunting, in the Friedrichstein Castle in Bad Wildungen

Neck stock white
Coat blue with red lining and with tin buttons from top to bottom on the right side, white laced buttonholes from top to bottom on both sides, and one tin button on each side in the small of the back
Collar none
Shoulder Straps none
Lapels none
Pockets horizontal pockets, each with 3 tin white buttons and 3 white laced buttonholes
Cuffs red, each with 3 tin buttons and 3 white laced buttonholes
Turnbacks none (it seems that the basques of the coat could be turned back if needed but this was a rare practice during this period)
Waistcoat blue with small white buttons
Breeches no information found
Stockings grey or red
Leather Equipment
Crossbelt natural leather
Waistbelt natural leather worn above the coat
Cartridge Pouch black
Bayonet Scabbard black with a brass tip
Scabbard black with a brass tip
Footwear black shoes fastened with a strap


Armaments consisted of a musket and a bayonet; and a sword.

Officers

The uniform of officers was similar to that of the grenadier with a more elaborate mitre cap and a silver braid bordering the cuffs. Officers also wore a red and white sash around the waist.

Musicians

Musicians wore a uniform similar to that of the grenadiers, heavily decorated with white and silver braids.

Colours

At the Combat of Speyerbach, the regiment's colour was captured by the French and had long been on display at Notre Dame de Paris and reproduced in "Les Triomphes de Louis XIV", a collection of five books now kept at the Cabinet des Estampes of the Bibliothèque Nationale de Paris.

Leibfahne: white field; centre device consisting of the god Mars enthroned on trophies and holding a sword in his left hand and a palm branches in his right hand.; within the palm branches, the crowned arms of the Landgraviate of Hesse-Kassel; above the centre device, a light blue scroll with the motto "HASSORVM GLORIA".

Leibfahne in 1703 - Copyright: Kronoskaf

References

Army Hesse-Kassel: Grundlage zur Militär-Geschichte des Landgräflich Hessischen Corps. Cassel 1798, pp. 250-251

Böhm, Uwe Peter: Hessisches Militär: Die Truppen der Landgrafschaft Hessen-Kassel 1672-1806, Herausgegeben im Auftrag der Deutschen Gesellschaft für Heereskunde e.V., Beckum 1986

Goldberg, Claus-Peter und Jean Belaubre: Hessen-Kassel 1701-1714. Kaltenkirchen 1995, pp. 10-11

Witzel, Rudolf: Hessen Kassels Regimenter in der Allierten Armee 1762, bearb. u. hrsg. von Ingo Kroll, Norderstedt 2007, pp. 97-99

N.B.: the section Service during the War is partly derived from our articles depicting the various campaigns, battles and sieges.

Acknowledgements"

Björn Wiegand for a major overhaul of the article